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The Tomahawk. [volume] (White Earth, Becker County, Minn.) 1903-192?, November 28, 1918, Image 3

Image and text provided by Minnesota Historical Society; Saint Paul, MN

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89064695/1918-11-28/ed-1/seq-3/

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Battles That Have Marked the
greatest Struggle in the
World's History.
Four Years of Bitter Warfare Before
the Defeat of Autocratic Attempts to
Rule the World'Could Be Assured
Progress of the Titanic Contest
Practically as It Went On From Day
to Day.
From June 28, 1914, when the assas
sination of Archduke Ferdinand of
Austria, and his wife, at Sarajevo,
Bosnia, gave Emperor William of Ger
many his excuse for beginning war
which he believed would result in his
gaining practical control of the world
through military domination, the main
events of the struggie^are told in the
following chronicle:
June 28Archduke Ferdinand and
wife assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
July 28Austria-Hungary declares
war on Serbia.
Aug. 1Germany declares war on
Bussla and general mobilization is un
der way in France and Austria-Hun
Aug. 2German troops enter France
at Oirey Russian troops enter ,Ger
many at Schwldden German army en
ters Luxemburg over protest and Ger
many asks Belgium for free passage
of her troops.
Aug. 3British fleet mobilizes Bel
glum appeals to Great Britain for dip
lomatic aid and German ambassador
quits Paris.
Aug. 4France declares war on Ger
many Germany declares war oh Bel
gium Great Britain sends Belgium
neutrality ultimatum to Germany
British army mobilizes and state of
war between Great Britain*and Ger
many is declared. President Wilson
issues neutrality proclamation.
Aug. 5Germans begin fighting on
Belgian frontier Germany asks for
Italy's help.
Aug. 6Austria declares war ou Rus
Aug. 7Germans defeated by French
at Altkirch.
Aug. -8Germans capture Liege.
Portugal announces it will support
Great Britain British land troops in
Aug. 10rr-France declares war on
Aag. 12Great Britain declares war
on Austria-Hungary Montenegro de
clares war on Germany.
Aug. 15Japan sends ultimatum to
Germany to withdraw from Japanese
and Chinese waters and evacuate Kiao
diow Russia oifers autonomy to Po
Aug. 20German army enters Brus
Aug. 23Japan declares war on Ger
many Russia victorious In battles in
East Prussia.
Aug. 25Japanese warships bom
bard Tsingtao.
Aug.-25Japan and Austrin break
off diplomatic relations.
Aug. 28English win naval battle
over German fleet near Helgoland.
Aug. 29Germans defeat Russians
at Allenstein occupy Amiens ad
vance to La Fere, 65 miles from Paris.
Sept. 1Germans cross Marne
bombs dropped on Paris Turkish army
mobilizes Zeppelins drop bombs on
Sept. 2Government of France
transferred to Bordeaux Russians cap
ture Lemberg.
Sept. 4Germans cross the Marne.
Sept. 5England, France and Rus
sia sign pact to make no separate
Sept. 6French win battle of
Marne British cruiser Pathfinder
sunk in North sea by a German sub
Sept. 7.Germans retreat from the
Sept. 14Battle of Aisne starts
German retreat halted.
Sept. 15First battle of Soissons
Sept. 20 Russians capture Ja
roisau and begin siege of Praemysl.
Oct. 9-10Germans capture Ant
Oct. 12German take Ghent.
Oct. 20Fighting along Yser river
Oct. 29Turkey begins war on Rus
Nov. 7Tsingtao falls before Jap
anese troops.
Nov. 9German cruiser Emden de
Dec. 11German advance on War
saw checked.
Dec. 14Belgrade recaptured by
Dec. 16German cruisers bombard
Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby.
on English coast, killing 50 or more
persons Austrians said to have lost
upward of 100.000 men in Serbian de
Dec. 25Italy occupies Aviona. Alba
Jan. 1British battleship Formida
ble sunk.
Jan. 8Roumanis mobilizes 750,000
violent fighting la the Argonne.
Jan. IIGermans cross the Rawka,
30 miles from Warsaw.
Jan. 24British win naval battle in
North sea.
Jan. 29Russian army invades Hun
gary German efforts to cross Aisne re
Feb. 1British repel strong German
attack near La Bassee.
Feb. 2Turks are defeated in at
tack on Suez canal.
Feb. 4Russians capture Tarnow
in Galicia.
Feb. 8Turks along Suez canal in
full retreat 'Burklsh land defenses at
the Dardanelles shelled by British tor
pedo boats.
Feb. 11Germans evacuate Lodz.
Feb. 12Germans drive Russians
from positions hi East Prussia, taking
26,000 prisoners.
Feb. 14fiassians report capture of
fortifications at Smolnlk.
Feb. 16Germans capture Plock
and Bielsk in Poland French capture
two miles of German trenches in Cham
pagne district.
Feb. 17Germans report they have
taken 50,000 Russian prisoners in Ma
zurian lake district.
Feb. 18German blockade of Euglish
and French coasts put into effect.
Feb. 19-20British and French fleets
bombard Dardanelles forts.
Feb. 21American steamer Evelyn
sunk by mine In North sea.
Feb. 22German was office announ
ces capture of 100,000 Russian prison
ers in engagements in Mazurlan lake
region American steamer Carib sunk
by mine in North sea.
Feb. 28Dardanelles entrance forts
capitulate to English and French.
March 4Landing of allied troops on
both sides of Dardanelles straits re
ported German U-4 sunk by French
March 10Battle of Neuve Chapelle
March 14German cruiser Dresden
sunk in Pacific by English.
March 18British battleships Irre
sistible and Ocean and French battle
ship Bouvet sunk in Dardanelles strait.
March 22Fort of Przemysl sur
renders to Russians.
March 23Allies land troops on Gal
lipoli peninsula.
March 25Russians victorious over
Austrians in Carpathians.
April 8German auxiliary cruiser,
Prins Eitel Friedrich, Interned at New
port News, Va.
April 16Italy has 1,200,000 men
mobilized under arms Austrians re
port complete defeat of Russians in
Carpathian campaign.
April 23German force way across
Ypres canal and take 1,600 prisoners.
April 25Allies stop German drive
on Ypres line in Belgium.
April 29British report regaining of
two-thirds of lost ground in Ypres bat
May 7Ltner Lusltanla torpedoed
and sunk by German submarine off
the coast of Ireland with the loss of
more than 1,000 lives, 102 Americans.
May 9French advance two and
one-half miles against German forces
north of Arras, taking 2,000 prisoners.
May 23Italy declares war on Aus
June 3Germans recapture Przem
ysl with Austrian help.
June 18British suffer defeat north
of La Bassee Canal.
June 28Italians enter Austrian ter
ritory south of Rlva on western shore
of La'*e Garda.
July 3Tolmlno falls into Italian
iy _Britis make gains north of
Ypres and French retake trenches in
the VosgCs.
July 13Geruians defeated in the
July 29Warsaw evacuated Lub
lin captured by Austrians.
Aug. 4.Germans occupy WaYsaw.
Aug. 14Austrians and Germans
concentrate 400,000 soldiers on Ser
bian frontier.
Aug. 21Italy declares war on Tur
Sept. 1Ambassador BernstorfT an
nounces Germans will sink no more
liners without warning.
Sept. 4German submarine torpe
does liner Hesperian.
Sept. 9German's make air raid on
London, killing 20 persons and
wounding 100 others United States
asks Austria to recall Ambassador
Sept. 20Germans begin drive on
Serbia.to open route to Turkey.
Sept. 22Russian army, retreating
from Vilna, escapes encircling move
Sept. 25-30Battle of Champagne,
resulting in great advance for allied
armies and causing Kaiser Wllhelm to
rush, to the west front German
counter-attacks repulsed.
Opt. 6Russia and Bulgaria sever
diplomatic' relations: Russian, French,
British. Italian and Serbian diplomat
ic representatives ask for passports in
Oct. 10General Mackensen's forces
lake Belgrade.
0 Cf 12Edith Cavell executed by
Oct. 13Bulgaria declares war on
Oct. 15Great Britain declares war
on Bulgaria.
Oct. 1GFrance declares ^rar on Bul
Oct. 19Russia and Italy declare
war on Bulgaria.
Oct. 27Germans Join Bulgarians in
northeastern Serbia and open way
to Constantinople.
Oct. 30Germans defeated at Mitait.
Nov. 9Italian liner Ancona torpe
Dec 1British retreat from near
Pec. 4Ford "peace party" sails for
Dec. 8-9Allies defeated in Mace
Dec 15Sir John Beaflas Half suc-
ceeds Sir John French as chief of
English armies on west front.
Jan. 8British troops at Kut-el
Amara surrounded.
Jan. 9British evacuate Galllpoll
Jan. 13Austrians capture Cetinje,
capital of Montenegro.
Jan. 23Scutari, capital of Albania,
captured by Austrians.
Feb. 22Crown prince's army begins
attack on Verdun.
March 8Germany declares war on
March 15Austria-Hungary declares
war on Portugal.
March 24Steamer Sussex torpedoed
and sunk.
April 18President Wilson sends
note to Germany.
April 19President Wilson speaks to
congress, explaining diplomatic situa
April 24Insurrection in Dublin.
April 29British troops at Kut-el
Amara surrender to Turks.
April 30Irish revolution sup
May 3Irish leaders of insurrection
May 4Germany makes promise to
change methods of submarine warfare.
May 13Austrians begin great offen
sive against Italians'In Trentino.
May 31Great naval battle off Dan
ish coast.
June '5Lord Kitchener lost with
cruiser Hampshire.
June 11Russians capture Dubno.
June 29Sir Roger. Casement sen
tenced to be hanged forlreason.
July 1British and French begin
great offensive on the Somme.
July 6David Lloyd George appoint
ed secretary of war.
July 9German merchant submarine
Deutschland arrives at Baltimore.
July 23General Kuropatkln's army
wins battle near. Riga.
July 27English take Delville wood
Serbian forces begin attack on Bul
gars in Macedonia.
Aug. 2French tike Fleury.
Aug. 3Sir Roger Casement execut
ed for treason.
Aug. 4French recapture Thlau
mont for fourth time British repulse
Turkish attack on Suez canal.
Aug. 7Italians on Isonzo front cap
ture Monte Sabotino and Monte San
Aug. .8Turks force Russian evacu
ation of Bitlls and Mush.
Aug. 9Italians cross'Isonzo river
and occupy Austrian city of Goeritz.
Aug.* 10Austrians evacuate Stanls
lau allies take Doiran, near Salonlki,
from Bulgarians.
Aug. 19German submarines sink
British light cruisers Nottingham and
Aug. 24French occupy Maurepas,
north of the Somme Russians recap
ture Mush in Armenia.
Aug. 27Italy declares war on Ger
mnny Roumania enters war on side
of allies.
Aug. 29.Field Marshal von Hlnden
burg made chief of staff of German
armies, succeeding Gen. von Falken
Aug. 30Russian armies seize all
five passes in Carpathians into Hun
Sept. 3Allies renew offensive north
of Somme Bulgarian and German
troops invade Dobrudja, in Roumania.
Sept. 7Germans and Bulgarians
capture Roumanian fortress of Tutra
kan Roumanians take Orsova, Bul
garian city.
Sept. 10German-Bulgarian army
captures Roumanian fortress of Sill
Sept. 14British for first time use
Sept. 15Italians begin new offen
sive on Cars*.
Oct. 2Roumanian army of inva
sion in Bulgaria defeated by Germans
and Bulgarians under Von Mackensen.
Oct. 4German submarines sink
French cruiser Gallia and Cunard liner
Oct. 8German submarines sink six
merchant steamships off Nantucket,
Oct. 11Greek seacoast forts dis
mantled and turned over to allies on
demand of England and France.
Oct. 23.German-Bulgar armies cap
ture Constanza, Roumania.
Jan. 1Submarine sinks British
transport Ivernin.
Jan. 9Russian premier, Trepoff, re
signs. Golitzin succeeds him.
Jan. 31Germany announces unre
stricted submarine warfare.
Feb. 3President Wilson reviews
submarine controversy before con
gress United States severs diplomatic
relations with Germany American
steamer Housatonic sunk without
Feb. 7Senate Indorses president's
act of breaking off diplomatic rela-
Feb. 12United States refuses Ger
man re*niest to discuss matters of dif
ference unless Germany withdraws un
restricted submarine warfare order.
Feb. 14Von Bernstorff sails for
Feb. 25British under General
Maude capture Kut-el-Amara subma
rine sinks liner Laconia without warn
ing many lost, including two Ameri
Feb. 26President Wilson asks con
gress for anthorlty to arm American
Feb. 28Secretary Lansing makes
public Zttmnerroann note to Mexico,
proposing Mexican-Japanese-German
March 9President Wilson calls ex
tra session of congress for April 16.
March 11British under General
Mauds capture Bagdad revolution
starts In Petrograd*
March 15Czar Nicholas of Russia
March 17French and British cap
ture Bapaume.
March 18New French ministry
formed by Alexander Ribot.
March 21Russian forces cross
Persian border into Turkish territory
American oil steamer Healdton torpe
doed without warning.
March 22United States recognizes
new-government of Russia.
March 27General Murray's British
expedition into the Holy Land defeats
Turkish army near Gaza.
April 2President Wilson asks con
gress to declare that acts of Germany
constitute a state of war submarine
sinks American steamer Aztec without
April 4United States senate passes
resolution declaring a state of war ex
ists with Germany.
April 6House passes war resolution
and President Wilson signs Joint reso
lution of congress.
April 8Austria declares severance
of diplomatic relations with United
April 9British defeat Germans at
Vimy Ridge and take 6,000 prisoners
United States.seizes 14 Austrian in
terned ships.
Oct. 24French win back Douau
mont, Thlanmont field work, Haudro
mont quarries, and ChlUette wood near
Verdun, In smash of two miles.
Nov. 1Italians, in new offensive on
the Carso plateau, capture 5,000 Aus
Nov. 2Germans evacuate Fort
Vaux at Verdun.
Nov. 5Germans and Austrians pro
claim new kingdom of Poland of ter
ritory captured from Russia.
Nov. 6Submarilne sinks British
passenger steamer Arabia.
Nov. 7Cardinal Mercier protests
against German deportntion of Bel
gians submarine sinks American
steamer Columbian.
Nov. 8Russian army Invades
Transylvania, Hungary.
Nov. 9Austro-German armies de
feat Russians in Volhynla and take
4,000 prisoners.
Nov. 13British launch new offen
sive In Somme region on both sides of
Nov. 14British capture fortified vil
lage of Beaucourt, near the Ancre.
Nov. 19Serbian, French and Rus
sian troops recapture Monastlr Ger
mans cross Transylvania Alps and en
ter western Roumania.
Nov. 21British hospital ship Brit
annic sunk by mine in Aegean sea.
Nov. 23-:-Roumanian
army retreats
90 miles from Bucharest.
Nov. 24German-Bulgarian armies
take Orsova and Turnu-Severln from
Nov. 25Greek provisional govern
ment declares war on Germany and
Nov. 28Roumanian government
abandons Bucharest and moves capital
to Jassy.
Dec. 5Premier Herbert Asqulth of
England resigns.
Dec. 7David Lloyd George accepts
British premiership.
Dec. 8Gen. von Mackensen cap
tures big Roumanian army in Prohova
Dec. 12Chancellor von Bethmnnn
Hollweg announces In relchstag that
Germany will propose peace new cab
met In France under Arlstlde Brlnnd
as premier, and Gen. Robert Georges
Nivelle given chief of command of
French army.
Dec. 15French at Verdun win two
miles of front and capture 11,000.
Dec. 10Lloyd George declines Ger
man peace proposals.
Dec. 23Baron Burlan succeeded as
minister of foreign affairs in Austrin
by Count Czernln.
Dec. 26Germany proposes to Presi
dent Wilson "an immediate meeting of
delegates of the belligerents."
Dec. 27Russians defeated in five
day battle in eastern Wallachia, Rou
April 20Turkey severs diplomatic
relations with the U. S.
April 28Congress passes selective
service act for raising of army of 500,-
000 Gautemala severs diplomatic re
lations .with Germany.
May 7War department orders rais
ing of nine volunteer regiments of en
gineers to go to France.
May' 14Espionage act becomes law
by passing senate.
May 18President Wilson signs se
lective service act. Also directs ex
peditionary force of regulars under
General Pershing to go to France.
May 19Congress passes war appro
priation bill of $3,000,000,000.
June 5Nearly 10,000,000 men in
S. register for military service.
June 12King Constnntine of Greece
June 13General Pershing and staff
arrive In Paris.
June 15Firsf Liberty loan closes
with large oversubscription.
June 26First contingent American
troops under General Sibert arrives in
June 29Greece severs diplomatic
relations with Teutonic allies.
July 9President Wilson drafts
state militia into federal service. Also
places food and fuel under federal con
July 13War department order
drafts 678,000 men into military ser
July 14Aircraft appropriation bill
of $640,000,000 passes house Chancel
lor von Bethmann-Hollweg's resigna
tion forced by German political crisis.
July 18United States government
orders censorship of telegrams and
cablegrams crossing frontiers.
July 19New German Chancellor
Michaelis declares Germany will not
war for conquest radicals and Catho
lic party ask peace without forced ac
I quhdttoos of territory.
July 22Slam declares war on Ger
July 23Premier Kerensky given un
limited powers in Russia.
July 28United States war indus
tries board created to supervise ex
Aug. 25Italian Second army breaks
through Austrian line on Isonzo front.
Aug. 28President Wilson rejects
Pope Benedict's peace plea.
Sept. 10General Kornlloff demands
control of Russian government.
Sept. 11Russian deputies vote to
support Kerensky. Korniloffs gener
als ordered arrested.
Sept. 16Russia proclaims new re
public by order of Premier Kerensky.
Sept. 20General Halg advance mile
through German lines at Ypres.
Sept. 21Gen. Tasker H. Bliss
named chief of staff U. S. army.
Oct. 16Germans occupy Islands of
Runo and Adro In the Gulf of Riga.
Oct. 25French under General Pe
taln advance and take 12,000 prison
ers on Aisne front.
Oct. 27Formal announcement made
that American troops In France had
fired their first shots In the war.
Oct. 29Italian Isonzo front col
lapses and Austro-German army
reaches outposts of Udlne.
Nov. 1Secretary Lansing mnkes
public the Luxburg "spurlos versenkt"
Nov. 9Permanent Interallied mili
tary commission created.
Nov. 24Navy 'department an
nounces capture of first German sub
marine by American destroyer.
Nov. 28Bolshevlkl get absolute
control of Russian assembly in Russian
Dec. 6Submarine sinks the Jacob
Jones, first regular warship of Amer
ican navy destroyed.
Dec. 7-^-Congress declares war on
Dec. 8Jerusalem surrenders to
Gen. Allenby's forces.
Jan. 5President Wilson delivers
speech to congress giving "14 points"
necessary to peace.
Jan 20British monitors win sen
fight with cruisers Goeben and Bres
lau, sinking latter.
Jan. 28Russia and Roumania sever
diplomatic relations.
Feb. 2United States troops take
over their first sector, near Toul.
Feb. 6United States troopship Tus
canin sunk by submarine, 126 lost.
Feb. 11President Wilson In address
to congress gives four additional peace
principles, including self-determina
tion of nations bolshevlkl declare war
With Germany over, but refuse to sign
pence treaty.
Feb. 13Bolo Pasha sentenced to
death in France for treason.
Feb. 25Germans take Reval, Rus
sian naval base, and Pskov Chancel
lor von Hertllng agrees "in principle"
with President Wilson's peace princi
ples, in address to relchstag.
March 1Americans repulse Ger
man attack on Toul sector.
Marcli 2Treaty of pence with Ger
many signed by bolshevlkl at Brcst
March 4Germany and Roumania
sign armistice on German terms.
March 13=German troops occupy
March 14All Russian congress of
Soviets ratifies peace treaty.
March 21German spring offensive
starts on 50-mile front.
March 22Germnns take 16,000 Brit
ish prisoners and 200 guns.
March 23German drive gains nine
miles. "Mystery gun" shells Paris.
March 24Germans reach the
Somme, gaining 15 miles. American
engineers rushed to aid British.
March 25Germans take Bapaume.
March 27Germnns take Albert.
March 28British counter-attack
and gain French take three towns
Germnns advance toward Amiens.
March 29"Mystery gun" kills 75
churchgoers In Paris on Good Friday.
April 4Germans start second
phase of their spring drive on the
April 10Germnns take 10,000 Brit
ish prisoners In Flanders.
April 16Germans capture Messlnes
ridge, near Ypres Bolo Pasha exe
April 23British and French navies
"bottle up" Zeebnigge.
April 26Germans capture Mount
Kemmel, tnklng 6,500 prisoners.
Ma 5_Austrla starts drive on
May 10British navy bottles up Os
May 24British ship Moldavia,
carrying American troops torpedoed
50 lost.
May 27Germans begin third phase
of drive on west front gain five miles.
May 28Germans take 15,000 pris
oners In drive.
May 29Germans take Soissons and
menace Reims. American troops cap
ture Cnntlgny.
May 30Germans reach the Marne,
f). miles from Paris.
May 31Germans take 45,000 prison
ers in drive.
June 1Germans advance nine
miles: are 46 miles from Paris.
.Tuns- 8Five German submarines
attack U. S. const and sink 11 ships.
June 5U. S. marines fight on the
Marne near "bateau Thlorry.
June 9Germans start fourth
phase of their drive by advancing to
ward Noyon.
Jun* 10Germans gain two miles.
U. S. n-.nrlnes capture south end of Bel
leau wood.
June 12French and Americans
start counter-attack.
June 15Austrians begin another
dnvt on Italy and take 16,000 prison
June 17Italians check Austrians on
Pisve river.
Jane 19Austrians cross the Plate,
June 22Italians defeat Austrians
on the Plave.
June 23Austrians begin great re
treat across the Plave.
July ISGeneral Foch launches al
lied offensive, with French, American,
British, Italian and Belgian troops.
July 21Americans and French cap
ture Chateau Thierry.
July 30German crown prince
flees from the Marne and withdraws
Aug. 2Soissons recaptured by Foch.
Aug. 4Americans take Fismes.
Aug. 5American troops landed
at Archangel.
Aufe. 7Americans cross the Vesle.
Aug. 1GBapaume recaptured.
Auf. 28French recross the Somme.
Sept. 1Foch retakes Peronne.
Sept. 12Americnns launch success
ful attack In St. Mihlel salient.
Sept. 28Allies win on 250 mile line,
from North Sea to Verdun.
Sept. 29Allies cross Hlndenburg
Sept. 30Bulgaria surrenders, after
successful allied campaign in Balkans.
Oct. 1French take St. Quentln.
Got. 4Austria asks Holland to
mediate with allies for peace.
Oct. 5Germans start abandonment
of Lille and burn Doual.
Oct. 6Germany asks President
Wilson for armistice.
Oct. 7Americans capture hills
rround Argonne.
Oct 8President Wilson refuses
Oct. 9Allies capture Cambral.
Oct. 10Allies capture Le Cateau.
Oct. 11American transport Otranto
torpedoed and sunk 500 lost.
Oct. 13Foch's troops take Laon
and La Fere.
Oct. 14British and Belgians take
Roulers President Wilson demands
surrender by Germany.
Oct. 15British and Belgians cross
Lys river, take 12,000 prisoners and
100 Runs.
Oct. 1GAllies enter Lille outskirts.
Oct. 17Allies capture Lille, Bruges,
Zeebrugge, Ostend and Douni.
Oct. 18Czecho-Slovuks Issue dec
laration of Independence Czechs rebel
nnd seize Prague, capital of Bohemia
French take Thlelt.
Oct. 19President Wilson refuses
Auslr'an peace plea and says Czecho
slovak state must be considered.
Oct. 21Allies cross the Olse and
threaten Valenciennes.
Oct. 22Halg's forces cross tha
Oct. 23President Wilson refuse*
latest German peace plea.
Oct. 27German government nska
President Wilson to state terms.
Oct. 28Austria begs for separata
Oct. 29Austria opens direct nego
tiations with Secretary Lansing.
Oct. 30Italians inflict great defeat
on Austria capture 33,000 Austrians
evacuating Italian territory.
Oct. 31Turkey surrenders Aus
trians utterly routed by Italians lose
50,000 Austrian envoys, under white
flag, enter Italian lines.
Nov. 1Italians pursue beaten Aus
trians across Tagllamento river allied
conference at Versailles fixes peace
terms for Germany.
'3Austria signs armistice
amounting virtually to unconditional
Nov. 4Allied terms are sent to Ger
Nov. 7Germany's envoys enter al
lied lines by arrangement.
Nov. 9Kaiser Wllhelm abdicates
and crown prince renounces throne.
Nov. 10Former Kaiser Wllhelm
and his eldest son, Friedrich Wllhelm
flee to Holland to escape widespread
revolution throughout Germany.
Nov. 11German authorities sign
armistice ending hostilities preceding
arrangement of the peace terms.
Pitcher Plant Known to Scientists as
One of the Wonders of the Vege
table Kingdom.
The pitcher plant is one of the
freaks of plant life. It growls In
swampy lands and Is well known In
Canada. The flowers, touched with
beautiful, delicate tints, are prised
for decorative purposes. But the won
der of the pitcher plant Is Its leaves.
They are green, water-holding pitch
ers, beautifully veined with red and
purple, with considerable variation in
form. During rainfalls they are filled
with water. This largely evaporates,
leaving the receptacle half full. Ex
ternally these cups are smooth, while
Internally they are lined with fine bris
tles pointing downward. There is also
a sticky, sugary sort of semi-fluid sub
stance to be found around the Inner
margin of* the bowl or pitcher. This
arrangement not only attracts a large
number of tiny insects, but they are
so eager to feed on the sugary sub
stance that not a few tumble into the
water below and die there. They can
not fly out. for the lines of flight would
be practically vertical, while hun
dreds of little bristles confronting
them prevent escape over the surface
by walking out. Many believe that
the plant, through Its leaves, absorbs
the digestive parts o? these insects,
and that they thus contribute to Its
nutrition in other words, that the
pitcher plant to tbis extent is one of
the carnivore)* of the vegetable king
"It's a hard sMttef1
to please some uk
those society leaders." said the society
"What's the matter now?" asked the
city editor.
"Mrs. Grabcoin says the writeup of
her party In this morning's PP*r
wasn't punctuated to salt ner."-*!!*
nrtpgham Age-Herald.

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