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there ENOR DON TURKEY played a brilliant part'in history even before tho Spaniards discovered him, along with Mexico, In 1518. Long before that he had been worshiped by Aztecs. ~Later, .when his religious vogue was past, he was given honorable men tion as a bird of honor at the marriage banquet of a king. So superior a viand was he considered when first introduced to Europe that in a "constitution" set forth by Cranmer in 1541 turkey is named as one of the greater fowls, of which an ecclesi astic was to "have but one in a d/she." But he speedily multiplied to such an extent that no later than 1555 two turkeys and four turkey chicks were served at a feast of the sergeants at arms in London. Turkeys at that period were mentioned in connection with cranes and swans as important and rich items of a banquet. A little later, in lo76, turkeys were used on the tables of English husbandmen for the Christmas feast. ,In the meantime they were more than plentiful In their home land, where turkeys continued to sell for about six'cents apiece as late as the nineteenth century. For six cents in those good old days a turkey weighing about twelve pounds could be bought by a good shopper. If the family needed a turkey weighing twenty-five or thirty pounds It was necessary to pay as much as a quarter. But it.must be remembered that six cents in ihose days counted a good deal more than it does in this. The turkey that the Aztecs worshiped was probably either the Mexican wild turkey, which is known by the white touches on Its tall covers and quills, or more appropriately, the ocellated turkey of Honduras and other parts of South America, whose brilliant plumage, spotted almost as gloriously with vivid colors as a peacock, somehow allies it particularly with that vivid early people. The turkey which strolled out of the forests of New England and "furnished so marvellous a banquet for our Puritan forefathers was a handsomer bird than that of Mexico, In the opinion of some lovers of beauty, but not so brilliant a one as the Honduras turkey. The American wild turkey, which really belongs to Thanksgiving, was the North American wild turkey found throughout the eastern United States and Canada. Scientifically It Is known as the Meleagris Americana. Its plumage is black, shaded with bronze. In the rays of the sun the bird gleams in a beautifur harmony of black, copper, gold and bronze. And the turkey 3ikes the rays of the sun. He hates damp weather, not alone because it is bad for his health, but because It obscures his beauty. It 1 generallv believed at present that all the turkeys of the world have descended from the three forms known as the North American bird, which has iust been described the Mexican bird and the ocellated bird. The turkey which was first introduced into Europe may have been car- ried there by the- Spaniards from Mexico or the Jesuits may have taken it fnck across the waters from one of their scattered stations in the great woods of Canada. In any event, one of its representatives figured at the marriage banouet of Charles IX and was regarded as of sufficient Importance to be mentioned in the reports of that festivity. The Mexican turkev is the wild bird of Mexico, which also came over the line into the southern part of the United States Meleagris Gallofiava is the nme that is generally employed to describe this turkey. It is somewhat Stor in the shank than the northern species. Its body color is a metallic block shaded with bronze. This is thought to be the species that the early it'tn flrtt bore back to Spain and England. The white tips of its Jp Lchave suggested that it is to this bird rather than to the wild ri"v of North America that most of the domestic fowls owe their origin. ThP ocellated turkey, Meleagris Ocellata, which ds smaller than the others. hns a bare head and neck. Its body plumage Is bronze and green banded with gold bronze and varied with spots or eyes of brilliant colors-blue, red whv the turkey is called the turkey when Its origin is admittedly purely i lentil is a subject that has puzzled many persons. There are several 'Jlntnns 'civen bv those who have delved deeply into this problem, and one ^Hvlle^ed to take his choice. In the first place, It is stated that the turkey lS., nr cinallv supposed to have come from Asia. Thus at a time when a Viretci of territorv on the Asiatic continent was called "Turkey" the P^ i j-*toLl its name from its supposed origin. Another speculative chron- i lords'that the Indians called the bird "firkee" and that from this its icier loce' createc stii wate Turks ove ni frnir,MT.,inir sho "l giving, wild furnished theewmainstay Vin 8 wer W Then, again, it is somewhat generally believed SS*X l'rd named itself by its peculiar utterances, which are translated as natinc u Aga i subtler Certainly no philosophers have "turk-turw-i kinshii imoree th matte of polygamou habits wit the naming oi i turbanearticle harems were considered an of th true religion was privileges in thisone ever rooit Turkeys were also at time supposedturkey to have comfe barnyard or rthiConfused ere due 1oe confusion t.fic: naming are ..,n!r thei i davs ihere should ..,__, kev a i re ady i thmainstav of the feast. Th old_pioneers weren'^j so badl off furnished h^e bee tracedh subject the ofethe sultan, even' in regard than the cock with guineas. The errors in their sclen- naming making their first harvest, the pilgrims decreed that i festivalfi which was really the first Thanks hadbecome ..yA,, known as a 'deliciou food and they Imag|ne is seems, in tinned meats and vegetablesf coludg storage 2Sein tttfceyi were so plentiful that it is recorded it was nndc similar roe* brea Anotne TTTlVe^t the when^cboked inebutter esteemed by. thP entcureofamonwildeturkey th explorers. But in spit of theiwas abundance tur S were redded with favor even by the red men, if one is to Judge by the reu-injr rraver which they uttered: S Le nt Being, I thank thee that I have obtained the use of my legs Tfiwt I am able to walk about and kill turkeys." ^?t wa not a^ne in early New England that the bird was regarded with ch favor as an edible. Isaac De Rasieries in 1627 writes a desenption of oanadl tho the chronicler sets forth the fact THE TOMAHAWK. WHITE EARTH. MINN. How! Redeem asFooi None Should Blame Thanks2^ .giving Bird for Mental Incapacity for All of His Efforts Go Toward the Development of Flavor the trukey and details the method of hunting them In the New Netherlands: "There are also very large turkeys running wild. They have very long legs and run so extraordinarily fast that generally we take savages when we go to hunt them, for when one has deprived them of the power of flying they yet run so fast that we cannot catch them unless their legs are hurt also." Turkeys have been called the greatest game bird of this country, and the methods of taking them have been many. John Hunter, who was captured by the Indians and spent some time in captivity, in his memoirs, written in 1824, tells how the Indians made a decoy bird from the skin of a turkey, fol- lowed the turkey tracks until they came upon a flock and then partially displaying their decoy and imitating fhe gobbling noise made by the cock, drew off first one and then another of the flock, who being socially inclined, came along to investigate the newcomers. Among the Indians the children were expect*, to kill turkeys with their blow guns'. These were hollow reeds, in which arrows were placed and blown out with such force that, being directed at the eye of the creature, they often brought Tiiin down. Children as young as eight years were successful at this sort of shooting. Adrian Van der Donck says that turkeys were sometimes caught by dogs in the snow during the seventeenth century, but generally they were shot at night from trees. They slept in the trees In large flocks and often selected the same spot many nights in succession. At other times the Indians would lay roots of which the turkeys were fond in small streams and take the birds as they were in the act of getting these roots. In Virginia the trap or pen was much used. This trap was built in the forest and leading to it was a long train of corn. The trap was a simple affair built of logs laid one upon another and having rough rails laid across the top. There was a trench dug under the lowest logs which fenced In the pen.- In this trench corn was scattered and the turkey following the trail of this delicacy for some distance off would Anally come to the trench, which seemed to be quite providentially strewn with an unusually rich supply. He followed the great bright path of rich food to his destruction. The turkey's lack of intelligence, when it comes to penning him up, is one of the reasons why a great many Americans have not been in accord with Benjamin Frank- lin's idea that the turkey and not the eagle should be the bird of our country. A writer, describing the shooting of turkeys In the latter half of the nine- teenth century in Michigan, speaks of the use of the hollow bone of the turkey's wing, which in the mouth of an expert can be made to reproduce per- fectly the piping sound of the turkey hen. Sometimes also turkeys were hunted on horseback. 'In Virginia, according to an old writer, this was not uncommon. He says: "Though we galloped our horses we could not overtake tnem [the turkeys], although they run nearly two hundred and twenty yards before they took flight." The constant practice of our forefathers in shooting game developed a great many fine turkey shots, and it is recorded that In the latter half of the seventeenth century "a man was thought a bad shot if he missed the very head of a wild turkey on top of the highest tree with a single ball." To "pot hunting" and to the practice of luring the turkeys by' Imitating the call of the hen In the spring, Sylvester D. Judd of the biological survey of the United States department of agriculture largely attributes the ex- termination of the wild turkey in many parts of the United States where formerly It was especially abundant. Trapping the turkeys In pens also helped along the extermination. Although the turkey is, generally speaking, not a particularly hardy bird, being subject to various forms of indigestion, etc., he Is varied In his diet and usually has a good appetite. Some of the things which the wild turkey likes best and which the domesticated bird will by no means scorn are grass- hoppers, crickets, locusts, tadpoles, small lizards, garden seeds nnd snails. One turkey which was examined by a scientist was found to have partaken of a meal Including the following viands: One harvest spider, one centipede, one thousand-legs, one Ichneuman fly, two yellowjackets, one grasshopper, three katydids, wild cherries, grapes, berries of dogwood and the sorghum, two chestnuts, twenty-flve whole acorns, a few alder calkins and five hundred seeds of tick trefoil. The domestic tur- key's habit of hunting grasshoppers and worming tobacco shows that his delight In the primitive pleasures of the table has not altered in his more carefully provided for existence. The chicks both of the wild and the domestic turkey are delicate and especially must they be protected during the damp weather. Audubon says that the mother bird among the wild turkeys thoroughly understands the delicacy of her offspring and that when it Is wet she feeds the chicks buds from the spice bush with medicinal intent exactly as the mother of a brood of youngsters prescribes doses of quinine when Influenza has taken the family in Its clutches. As soon as the young birds can fly well enough to take thojr place on the roost with their mothers the most delicate period of childhood, what might be called the teething stage, Is thought to be over. But, according to a successful turkey farmer, the poults are three months old before they can be taught anything. They are then taught that, they should roost high so as to keep out of the way of night prowlers. Turkeys retain so much of their wild nature that they do not like roosting inside a house, and, indeed, they do not caro even for. artificial perches. When pos- sible they greatly prefer tall trees as a roosting place to any roost that has been especially constructed for them. This characteristic renders them espe- cially easy victims for night raiders. In addition to the human desperadoes of this description there are the coyotes and hawks always to be guarded against in some parts of the country. In addition to Illnesses which come from digestive disorders, colds, the terrible scourge of blackheads, etc., and the depredations of the night raider, the turkey farmer always has to consider also the feuds among the members of his flock, which frequently rage high. Nevertheless, the careful turkey rancher has found it possible to conserve his birds and make a large profit from them. A woman turkey ranrlior, who has had good experience in the business, lost in one season only twelve Jbirds out of flock of 1,500. At first the young turkeys are fed on bread and milk, hard-boiled yolk of egg and perhaps some chopped alfalfa. Later they are fed cracked grain, but as soon, as they are able to take to the range It is no longer necessary to feed them. The range supplies all that they need, both green and dry, nnd happy is the householder who is able to purchase for his table turkeys whose habitat has been an oak forest. Nothing is more delicious than a turkey which has fed freely on acorns. Although there are many great turkey ranches and whole communities which live principally^ upon the raising of turkeys for market, such ns Cuera, Tex., whose annual turkey trade preceding Thanksgiving includes thousands of turkeys bound for the New York markets, as a rule turkeys are raised in small groups on farms which are interested In other commodities. They are often the sole dependence of the farmer's wife for pocket money throughout the year, and many a farmer's daughter also has been able to make a shining appearance in her world of fashion principally through the successful market- ine of the turkey brood. On the 5,000,000 farms of the United States there were, according to careful statistics taken some years ago, only 6,500,000 turkeys. Texas led amon" the states, producing 650,000. The other states which were large pro- ducers were Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, Ohio and Indiana. The state of Rhode Island, noted as it is for its turkeys, produced only 5,000. But the quality of the Rhode Island turkeys always has been excellent and they usually bring prices vastly In excess of those from other parts of the country. And that ought to be enough alou turkeys to get up a pretty good ap- petite for Thursday's dinner! "M, Nojt Valid. "Gadspur is a disappointed man." "Why so?" "He "wanted to get into the army, but made a mistake in his question naire." "How was that?". "He waived exemption on'tbe ground of domestic Infelicity and the exemp tion board couldn't see It that way." Birmingham Age-Herald. Of Course. "The fate of this enterprise hangs on a hair." "That Is a bald sort of statement." 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Canadian Governnlent Agent I Mistaken Kindliness. "Cyrus, all the hired man I had left, he's down to the hospital In Paterson," says Uncle Abimelech Bogardus of Preakness, N. J. "Cyrus, he had a tus sle with our bull yearling. Had a pole In the critter's nose ring and was calm In' him down, when he tuck the pole out Says the yearlln' was snortin' like It hurt him. "Guess he thought he'd grant a armstlce or somethin'." About all you can say for some men after they are dead Is that they made money. Yankee prisoners of war are intro ducing baseball in Germany. WTrcnYoor Eves Need Cart Try Marioe Eye isasrtlne Jest Bye Com Write"for SYee Bye Booh. OOs, CHICAGO-.