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Justice and Fair Dealing for every Indian who desires to become a good Citizen. THE TOMAHAWK, Official Organ of the Minnesota Chippewas.. 6US H. BEAUUEU, Founder. Eiitedby THE TOMAHAWK PUB. CO, White Earth Agency. Minnesota. Entered at the Postofflce at White Earth, Minn., as mail matter or the second class. SUBSCRIPTION: S1.50PER TEAR I I MIA MI ROL/. of HONOR. 6,000 SIX THOUSAND 6,000 Native Americans, Indians if you please, in the Military Service of the-United States, and this does not include a large number in the Navy. August 1st, 1918. $493.98 was the amount invested in War Savings and Thrift Stamps at the White Earth postoffice for the month of November. Not so bad for a community of people, a large number of whom have been dubbed "incompetent" by the "incompetent" board. December 1st to 7th, has been set aside by the United States Food Administration as Conserva tion Week for World Relief., The jrar is over but there are millions of people who are actually de pendent on the bounty of the peo ple of this great Republic for their means of subsistence until such time as conditions will again as sume normal pwportions. Don't forget the hungry and starving, a small denial on your part may serve to relieve their suffering, especially during the winter months. THE RESULT. Roll out the car and take a drive some dnywhen the roads get bet ter and the weather, is warmer. Take the road to Winnipeg, It is a good broad highway built under the direction of the state of Min nesota. For miles you will slide past magnificent farms, well fenced, with mommoth barns, and beauti fufhouses, fiuely cultivated and highly productive Wheat went as high and 53 bushels to the acre and oats more than a hundred on some of those farms last summer. The surface is just rolling enough to be well drained. The soil is deep and rich. It is a sight to delight the eye and uplift the soul. But suddenly you will notice a change. Instead of well kept fields end fine homes you will notice great stretches of virgin prairie, with here and there weed-grown patches that have "gone back." The houses are UDpainted shacks usually surrounded by a clutter of broken buggies and farm machin ery. Instead of sleek Percherons you will see a few bony ponies. The towns have the look of having made an ambitious start, long ago suddenly arrested. Big buildings stand unpainted, with broken windows and untenanted or occu pied by a few pool tables or a frowsy "soft drinks parlor." As woo begin to notice the change you will wonder the reason. You will seek it in the soil. But you will find the same deep, rich Hack loam. The climate is no different. You will make up your Bind that this is still in the pioneer Uge, think it the northern bound- Defective Page ary of older settlement. But pretty soon your will pass again into a thickly settled, prosperous terri tory on the other side. Then if you are new to Minne sota you will come back and begin to inquire. You will be told that you were "in the Indian reserva tion." But you have seen other reservations aad the explanation does not solve the problem. Then you will learn of the Clapp amend ment and its application. You will learn that here an im mense territory was occupied by a few Chippewas. That in order to permit of its* being settled and put into cultivation Senator Clapp succeeded in having passed a bill permitting the adult mixed blood Indians to sell their lands or mort gage them. They will tell you that the night before the law went into effect there formed in front of the banks in the reservation towns long lines of Indians anx ious to sell an 80 acres or to bor row money with which to improve or buy stock and machinery. And equally long lines of white men were about the land agents' head quarters, ready to buy what was for sale, Business boomed. Set tlers went in to possess the prom ised land. They broke the sod and started houses and barns and school houses and churches. Towns grew and thrived. Let it. be said that there was dishonesty in isolated cases on both sides. Indians were dispossessed of their lands for slight recom pense. Indians of full blood swore they were of mixed blood and de frauded white men of their money. For the Indian defrauded there was recourse. He was protected by the courts, and proof that he had received for his lands less than they were worth made it necessary for the purchaser to reimburse him. The white man had no re course. Let the Indian but swear he was a full blood and the white purchaser had lost all his money. There were such cases on both sides. But in the main the trans actions were honest on both sides. Then suddenly the Indian bureau stepped in. It was announced through all the papers that titles to these lands were worthless and they were made so. Lis pen dens were tiled on every title by the Indian agents. No more sales could be made by anybody. The purchasers protested, but their plaints were of no avail. So the matter dragged for years. Till at last here just recently the Indian office made up after a long and expensive investigation a list of the Indians who really are of mixed blood and those of pure blood. That was completed only a few months ago. Now business can go on again! On your life it can not. That list is a secret list in the archives of the Indian bureau. The man who bought of an Indian representing himself to be of mixed blood must settle with the Indian without knowing whether the investigation proves him of mixed blood or of full blood. Only after the settle ment is made is the fact made public that the Indian is of mixed blood. A typical instance. A man went into a reservation town. He work ed hard and faithfully in his own business and to build up the town and country surrounding it, Show ing his faith in the country, he in vested his savings .in that land When the crash came he held past sixteen years deeds to several 80 acre tracts, has been waging an unequal fight, which had cost him an average of single handed, against the enemies $5 an acre, all that the land was worth at that time. Lis pendens was filed on every one of them. He had been careful to buy only of Indians whom be knew to be of THE TOMAHAWK OFFICIAL ORGAN O TKESMINNESOTA CHIPPEWAS. Truth before Favor." mixed blood. But he was helpless. He was not permitted to prove that he bad a right to the land. He was ruined. The matter drag ged for years. Finally a few weeks ago he was called before the commission. "Do you want that land!" he wa9 asked. "I certainly do." You can have the first chance at it. You may buy of the Indians to whom it reverted at the ap praised price?" "About what will that be*" 'tAbout $18 or $20 an acre." "Will I be credited with the amount I originally paid him?" "Not a doljar" He has not the money with which to buy again at present prices, the land of which lone ago he was roboed. If he had he could buy equally good land at the same price elsewhere. So that is why this immense territory in a neighboring county is still an unproducing waste, a wilderness in the midst of smiling plenty. But the tribal fund of the In dians has paid during all these years a horde of special agents and investigators and commis sioners and inspectors and the Lord knows, what. Many years ago, your grand father will tell you, a western tribe was given by the government an immense fund to be paid in annuities on consideration of the tribe leaving the war path and behaving themselves. But they broke loose in revoltjustly en ough perhaps for their money WHS stolen by crooked agents and grafters of every sortand laid waste and massacred. And the payment, of annuities was with drawn. Years afterwards there was elected in one of those states a senator whose heart bled for those simple red men. He introduced and was instrumental in having passed a law restoring those an nuitieswith back pay for all that had been withdeld. It amounted to many millions. The bill bore a provision for an attorney fee to be paid out of the fund. It was for 25 per cent. To whom was it to be paid? The man was named. Was he an attorney? He had never seen the inside of law book. He was a druggist. He was the husband of the sister of the philanthropic senator who was the friend of the Indians. The law would not permit the senator to vote on a bill by which a benetit was to accrue to a relative. But a brother-in law is not a relative. The fact is that the administra tion of Indian affairs has held back both the Indian and the white man, has kept fertile territories lying waste, kept the Indian a child in the law and corrupted the white man who had dealings with him. It has established and main tained a horde of petty parasites, who preyed not less upon the In than upon the whites. Immense amounts were appropriated from the white man's money ostensibly for the Indians' benetit, only to be stolen'or squandered by a horde of harpies. Turn the Indian loose. Give him all he has creditrd him on the books, make him a citizen with the duties and powers and respon sibilities of a citizen, and you will benefit both the red man and bis white neighbor Turu the Indian loose,Detroit Herald. A better and more prosperous era is dawning for the people of White Earth and the Chippewas of Minnes"ta generally. For the j# White Earth, Becker Cunty, Minnesota, Thursday, December 5, 9918. THE TOMAHAWK of Indian rights, justice and liber ty, including the streneous opposi tion of the Indian bureau. About 34 years ago its predecessor, the TBOGRESS, entered the arena and Before its initial number was put On the press, the servile henchman of the Indian bureau, the U. S. Indian agent, forcibly took posses sion of the plant, secured orders of eviction against the publisher and editor and "smothered the voice of Justice" for the period of several months and until the auto vratlc^agent was forced to appear 4*for the District Court at St. Paul and show cause for his ar rogant attempt of "muzzleing the press." It took an intelligent jury just fifteen minutes to bring in a verdict in favor of the pugnacious publisher and editor of The Pro gress and the court rendered a judgment for cost of action and damages against the coercive aud contemptible action of the Indian agent. After three years of plucky fighting for the rights and liberty of the Minnesota Chippe was, the Progress suspended pub lication, having established the un deniable fact that the White Earth reservation was'a part and parcel of the United States of American land.that the people thereof were endowed with certain "unalienable rights" which were entitled to re spect before the law and that In dian agents, instead of being im perial in authority weret no more or no less than "the servants of the Indians." The great world war just ended furnished a splendid opportunity for the Indian, as well as the peo ple of all nations, to prove the worth and valor of their manhood. And the 8,000 or more of brave, loyal and patriotic sons of the fore most Americans who took part in the world conflict, in behalf of liberty, humanity and world de- mocracy, is conclusive proof of the "peerless metal that men are made of." And the Indian's lib erality as manifested in the matter of investment in Liberty Loan Bonds, contributions to Red Cross, Y. M. C. A. and other commend able charitable war organizations have won the gratitude of the people of two continents. Concern ing the Indian's interest in the matter of charitable war organiza tions we are pleased to quote, from "editorial comment," pub lished in the American Magazine, which in part is as follows: "One of the really fine things the In dians are doing is the publication of The American Indian Y. M. C. A. Bulletin,' a paper founded by a Shawnee Indian at Haskell In stitute. The Indian boys make good Y. M. C. A. workers and are sending men to the battle line to do work for the Association. One of these men, L. S. Walkingstick, who left his junior year at Dart mouth to enter the service. Per sonally he is one of thefinest|types of the modern Indian of whom I know. He walked into my office in the Educational Building one day and told me that he had been called as secretary of the Y. M. C. A. in Mesopatamia and was to serve the British troops there. Is this not a triumph of Democracy! What finer illustration could one have of the new internationalism? Here we have an American Indian going to Mesopotamia and contributing to the spiritual and mental needs of our aristocratic brother British- ers." Within the past two years or more the sentiment of the people When you want the best In Groceries, Dry Goods, Winter Clothing, Footwear, etc., call on us. We're right here every day in the year (except Sunday) to supply you with any and everything you may need in THE BEST AND PUREST GROCERIES IN THE MARKET. The B. L. Fairbanks Company, White Earth, flinnesota. J**or.4 Published in behalf of, and to secure the welfare of the Indians of the United States. So. 33. likewise the public press have changed materially for the better and greatly in the Indian's favor. The days of "the only good Indian is the dead Indian" are practicrlly a matter of history. The public press generally is unstinted with laudable praise of the "brawery and loyalty of the native American soldiery," likewise the unmeasured liberality of the native American in the matter of subscriptions to the several Liberty Loans and con tributions to the Red Cross and other Icommendable work. Right here we wish to express the ap preciation of the Chippewas gen erally for the many magnanimous expressions of loyalty and devotion tp the cause of justice and fair play for the Indians, especially the Minnesota Chippewas, and as published by Mr. Geo. W. Kelly in the Detroit Herald. THE TOMA HAWK regrets to learn that Mr. Kelly has relinquished the man agement of the Herald but trusts that under the management of the new publishers, especially Mr. Win. M. Wigham, the "silver lining," in favor of the rights of the Chippewas, and which has so liberally developed in the columns of the Herald, will continue to herald the policy of "equality be fore the law," liberty, humanity and world democracy to all classes of people who live within the gracious precinct of the Stars and Stripes, and the speedy abolish ment of all governmental forms favoring "segregation" in any shape or form, especially the de pressing influences of the Indian bureau.