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International Relations Will Be an Impor tant University Study Now By NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER, Pres't Columbia Uamnay Unless all signs fail, among the most important university subjects of study in the immediate future are to be international relations, including international law and public law, both constitutional and adminis trative, particularly in its comparative aspects. The new international movement, so far as it is healthy and sound, is founded upon a common respect, for law and justice, a common interest in the steady improvement of individual nations and the promo tion of their satisfaction and happiness, and upon an earnest purpose to unite the forces of reason and right- eousness for the removal of causes of international war, and for the sup- pression of international war itself. That the universities are to play a powerful part in carrying forward these movements can hardly be doubted. In many lands the universities have already shown themselves to be the active centers of interest in inter- national life and international relations. The danger to be guarded against is lest a shallow and superficial sentimentalism shall usurp the place which belongs to reasonableness and to straight thinking. The world will not be made either wise or happy in a day, nor will its wisdom and happiness be assured by judicial decree, legislative enactment or international agreement, however judicious and well supported these may seem to be. Americanism in United States Must Be to Us a Political Religion" By FRANKLIN K. LANE. Seewury ot bierior That there are today over seven million persons in the United Statei cabove ten years of age unable to read or write English, including those who cannot even speak or understand our language, proclaims an indefen- sible indifference to civic responsibility on the part of the average Amer- The native Americans, those men into whom traditions of liberty ican. have been sunk by experience of generations, are primarily responsible for whatever indifference has been shown by this nation in the education and enlightenment of those whom they have invited to these shores. Upon us is the responsibility ours the responsibility and oura the opportunity. We know now that there is no such thing as Americanism, unless Americanism is in our souls. We have got to feel it firsthand then we have got to put it out among other people. We want now to give a new significance to that word. We want it to mean help we want it to mean sympathy we want it to mean understanding we want it to mean large- ness of view. We want it to mean not patronage but the largest human fellowship. America is an inspiration. America is a spirit. America is some- thing mystical which lives in the heavens. It is the constant and con- tinuous searching of the human heart for the thing that is better. We. are compelled to move on and on by something that we know not of. That is the essence of Americanism. Take out of our hearts the belief that the "Battle Hymn of the Republic" is true, that God's truth is marching on, and you defeat America, but until you#take America cannot be beaten in battle. We are trying a great experiment in the United States. We are fash- ioning a new people. We are doing the unprecedented thing in saying that Slav, Teuton, Celt and the other races that make up the civilized world are capable of being blended here, and we say this upon the theory that blood alone does not control the destiny of man, that out of his environment, his education, the food that he eats, the neighbors that he has, the work that he does, there can be formed and realized a spirit, an ideal which will master his blood. Americanism in the United States must be to us a political religion. And it is our function to be the preachers of this gospel: Now be- cause man has liberty in his handsbecause he has the right to deter- mine his own destinynow the day of freedom is at hand, and he can make this world what he wants it to be. Crippled Soldiers as Inspectors to Help Curb Huge Losses by fire ByJ.H.TBEGCCNtfM efCssasMse Wounded soldiers should be given immediate employment by munici- palities as official inspectors to help curb the huge losses caused by pre- ventable fires. Our heroes are returning to their homes after having extinguished the dangerous flames of autocracy. Changed conditions make it impossible for many of the boys in the khaki to return to their former places of employment. These men, thousands of whom are cripples as a result of their sacrifices, would welcome an opportunity to help make America a fireproof nation. Our boys who have seen service overseas know the frightfulness of waste. They have seen homes, villages and cities destroyed by shell fire and torch. The men returning would be glad to take a job that would mean the prevention of destruction of property and human lives. Bestow upon the overseas soldier who returns minus a limb the proper authority to enforce fire^retention laws. He will help bring about a decided change in conditions that cause high insurance charges. With the decline in insurance ratea there will also be a fall in the price of merchandise. New York, Chicago and other municipalities should co-operate with the government in passing legislation. Figures just made public by the national board of fire underwriters show that in twenty states the yearly fire losses amounted to $71,072,433. Pirea classified as "strictly preventable* aggregated more than $80,000,- 000 in losses, while those termed "partly preventablew than $34,000,000 damages. These figures show an increase ovnr those of the previous year. Now that the world conflict is over the hour has arrived for the people of America to wage an aggressive war against firethat demon which not only destroys millions'of dollars' worth of property annually and ruins thousands of business men but also causes unnecessary loss of life. Let the boys who went abroad and who are earning back crippled the fighters against that from us the real TRENTd resulted in more THE TOMAHAWK, WHITE EARTH, MINN. Old Consiglio Castle In Trent. By LLOYD ALLEN, Special Staff Correspondent. (Copyright, 191. by Western Newspaper Union.) In the upper valley of the Adige, has Just been re store to Italy, and at the peace conference the final pact between the nations that fought Germany will undoubtedly give Trent to the Italian nation for all time. Leaving Padua early In the morn log in one of the powerful automobiles of the Italian supreme command, in the first party of newspaper men to visit these lands reclaimed from Aus tria, I arrived in Trent by way of Verona after a five-hour ride, during which we passed through the wrecked villages that mark the old mountain battle fronts of the Austrian and Ital ian armies. Along the fine rock roadways that run along the Adige river, a swift flowing moutaln stream, a small line of refugees was plodding along, on foot for the most part, returning to home steads deserted during more thun two years of war. Just a few miles north of Verona the first sight of war's destruction was the little wrecked village of Mar co, for two years under shell fire. As we passed through the place the evi dences of battle were still ample. Aus trian trench helmets, clips of car tridges and discarded trench spades were to be seen scattered among the piles of stone and timber of wrecked homes. The beautifully frescoed vil lage church was nothing but a shell of walla, On the roadway leading up to Marco hundreds of Austro-Hungarian prison ers were busy repairing the roadbeds. Some wore their very ornamental dress overcoats lavish in the display of knotted braid and fur. Towns of the Trentino. Trent in Itself Is a rather inconsid erable town. It had a war-time pop ulation of some 25,000 persons, a large majority ef whom were Italians, we were told. In peace times the popula tion Is around 40,000. But in the whole province of Trentino there are more than half a million people, and It Is the province, as well as the town, that Italy fought for at the cost of 400,000 men killed and nearly a million wounded. Back of the Italian demand for the Trentino Is a sentimental reason, and a practical commercial reason. For the sentimental and national side first, Italy points out, through her biggest statesmen, generals and propagandists, that 430,000 of the 000,000 persons liv ing in the Trentino are Italians peak ing the Italian language. Trent as well as the smaller towns in the Trentino, such aa Bovereto, Ala, Arco, Levlco and Pergine, are filled with buildings of Italian design, decorated with Italian art and using the Italian language In the schools and offices. We passed through several of these towns. The people on the streets were as Italian as the street crowds of Padua, Verona and Vlncensa, cities of the Venetian plain through which we passed in the earlier stages of our trip. Signs, decades old, on the buildings of the Trentino were In Italian, adver tising the wares certain Italian mer chants were trying to sell. The practical reasons that Italy has for keeping her tricolor flying from the mounts** cities of the Trentino are numerous and vitaL Every Available Inch Tilled. First of all the Trentino la a very productive region where vineyards and grain fields flourish on both sides of the Adige, producing large quantities st foods. It can be said truthfully hat every available Inch of land In his section is la a state of cultivation. vi an American farmer the intense method of soU suing would prove revelation. Only through centuries of careful work with hoe and plow has it been possible to create the garden that ex tends from Verona, where the Adige river strikes the Venetian plain, to the impassable mountain valleys many miles away where the ubsolute absence of soil forbids any attempt at farm ing. The fields on either side of the riv er arc broken into small lots, thou sands being as small as a city block many are much smaller in order to completely fill a segment of rock-lock ed earth. On these plots, that have been leveled with infinite care, the farmer of the Trentino grows grain, garden truck, grapes, and often other fruit. The grapevines are kept pruned to about four and a half feet high for the main stem, which grows to the thickness of a man's wrist, while the tendrils are trained onto sticks, or In many cases to trees that are kept pruned down to a thick stump six or seven feet high with small branches half an inch in thickness protruding In a sheaf from the stump. Ancient Consiglio Castle. During the middle ages Trent was a typical fortified city crowned with an old feudal castle. Built in 1499, this stronghold, Castle Consiglio, has come down to the present generation In a beautiful state of preservation. While the Austrlans held Trent the place was used as kind of town jail. Ceasare Battlsti, native of Trent, an ardent pro-Italian who had the nerve to enlist in the Italian army against Austria, was shot in the courtyard of the castle, and is today the town ami the Italian nation's martyr. Stored in the wonderful old castle were ^0,000 captured Austrian rifles. Piles of gas masks, trench tools, mur derous trench knives and other odds and ends of fighting man's equipment were stacked in several of the large rooms. In one of the main corridors was a typical Austrian torture machine. It consisted Of two rings, the first about nine Inches from the floor and the second about four feet above ground. The practice was to fasten a prison er's ankles to the lower ring by means of a piece of rope, while the unfortu nate man's hands were tied behind him through the upper ring. This threw all the prisoners' weight on the wrists and ankles. Usually a man fainted after several hours. Inspection of the old Consiglio cas tle revealed how the war machine of the sixteenth centuryfor the castle .Itself was a forthad been made to serve the purposes of the twentieth century war lords. In the highest room of the place, a circular chamber of the tallest tower, was all that remained of a German wireless outfit. The operators bad made themselves comfortable In the damp old place by putting storm win dows la the loopholes that were orig inally cut for the convenience of cross bow men. To get to the tower one has to pass through a frescoed courtyard where men were hanged centuries ago. About Ave or six feet from the old gallows, a double affair, runs a sheltered gal lery from which the dukes and their courtiers, sheltered from the weather, could witness the execution. Some of the public squares In the city of Trent have fine old buildings in Italian architecture, decorated from ground to roof with gorgeous frescoes, the coloring of which still vivid. Cssicrote Piles, Concrete piles have been driven alas feet into coral rock at Honolulu with 3400 Mows of an ordinary drop hess* DENVER.Whenfounderlof NORFOLK, races fraoni GIG ernes Wh an Everyday Lunch Cost Mr. Barnay $7,800 HICAGO.Twenty years ago John M. Barnay, the son of a wealthy Hum garian, left Budapest to try his fortunes in America as a civil and me chanical engineer. Arrived in Chicago, he obtained a position as instructor t Lewis Institute. Soon after he mar ried Miss Florence Wain. In 1904 sie obtained a divorce on grounds of cruel ty and obtained custody of the two childrena daughter, four years old, and a son, six months. Barnay was ordered to pay alimony of $10 a week. He disappeared. She resumed het maiden name and went to work. The other day she brought heT son, now fifteen years old, downtown to buy a suit. They were having luncheon In a restaurant at 64 East Van Buren street. Her veil wns down. A man entered, looked about at the filled tables, and chose the only vacant seatopposite her at her table. She looked up casually and then gasped. It was her former husband. Without raising her veil she arose and got the proprietor of the restaurant to telephone her lawyer. She returned to the table, raised her veil, and said i "Hello, John." "Why, whyFlorence, Is It you?" "Yes, It's me, John." She Introduced John, Jr. "Florence, I want you to come up to the Monadnock building and meet my wife. You know, I married about three years ago. I am representing ths Republic Fireproof company here." She played for time. She was at her wits* end when In walked Detectlvs Sergeants Michael Trant and Max Redlien of the central station. Fifteen times fifty-two times ten equals 7,800the number of dollars In Mr. Barnsy's lunch bill. True Love in Denver Bears Out Poet's Statement Samue Hartsel of 1627 Vine street, a Colorado ploneei cattleman and the town of Hartsel, died recently at the age of eighty-four he left on estate of about $200,000 to his three daughters, Mrs. B. Prewitt, Mrs. George Schoephoes- YOUllflOTCET :er and "Henrietta Hartsel." Inside he quotation marks Is this story: When his two elder daughters had narried, the aged cattleman said to Henrietta: "If you marry now, I will lose my lome, Henrietta, for I will not live in he home of any son-in-law. Two fami ies never could live under one roof ind never can." So Miss Hartsel agreed to stick by ler father till death, and kept her promise. But in keeping this promise she did not break faith with herself either. She went to Greeley about four years ago and married Paul J. Dono ran, son of J. B. Donovan, president of the Colorado Pioneer society. She consulted with her sisters and they agreed that It was all right. Some of these days Mr. and Mrs. Paul Donovan will have a honeymoon, To date they have seen very little of each other since their marriage. It was the custom of Mr. Hartsel to spend his winters In Florida or Hawaii or Coll* fornla, and he always took Henrietta with him. Mr. Donovan is an electrical engineer and his work took him severitl months ago Into a part of Mexico where It Is not safe for an American woman to go. So Mr. Donovan is far away In Mexico and "Henrietta Hartsel" In the old home in Vine street. And the neighbors are still telling how surprised they are. All of which would seem to Indicate that the poet was just about right when he said, "The course of true love never runs smooth." Passengers on Nebraska Train Have Experiences NEB.The eighty passengers on a Northwestern train which was burled In the snow seven miles east of here for four days In the last storm will not soon forget the experience. The train left Norfolk for Sioux City on a Thursday morning. A blizzard bad started and the train was preceded by a snow plow pushed by two locomo tives Seven miles east of Norfolk the plows and locomotives stuck in a drift. The passenger train halted to wait un til the plows battered way through, but soon was snowed In Itself and was unable to back up. Telegraph wires went out of com mission and division headquarters in Norfolk could not be notified of the tieup. It had been thought that the train got through until Friday afternoon, when a wire from Sioux City by way of Omaha asked for Information concerning the lost train. Two trainmen from the mnrooned troln walked through the drifts and reached Norfolk that same afternoon. They reported the lost train os being completely covered with snow In a deep cut. At midnight a snow plow pushed by three locomotives and carrying provisions started from Norfolk. The outfit became stalled on the line and did not reach the Imperiled passengers till Sunday night. In the meantime the passengers on the stalled train were having experi- ences out of the ordinary. The train carried neither dining car nor sleepers.- The coal ran short and the passengers were crowded Into one car. Friday morning revealed snow two or three feet deep, with drifts ten to fifteen feet high. The nearest farmhouse was more than a mile away. The only food was basket lunches and eggs from the baggage car. Friday afternoon fanners came to the rescue with cooked food and took home with them she small children. The passengers played games, read everything on the train and held prayer meetings to kill time. All this took place while Chicago was boasting of the "first robins ef spring, dandelions and one butterfly. Why George Stallings Is Called "Miracle Man? a TLANTA. GA.Ever hear why they named George Stallings the "Miracle f\ Man?" Probably you. Just as thousands of others, thought It was because he dragged the Boston Braves of 1914 from last place to the world's champion- ship between July 1 and about October 10. That isn't the reason at all. Stallings acquired the title down on his Georgia ranch In the presence of several hundred of his colored work ing men!" Joe was foreman. Sam and Jim lived in huts back in the woods. Now Mr. Stallings, as he's called on the ranch, raises pedigreed pigs for which he gets fsney prices. One fall, several years ago, some of the pigs disappeared. Mr. Stallings possessed a big brasa ship's compass. Those "nlggahs" had never seen a ship's compass. He took It out In the yard one Sunday afternoon and ordered Joe to call all the "nlggahs" together. The colored workers formed a half circle In front of the boss. ...,,_. Suspecting Sam because of observations made at other times, Stallings put the compass en the ground directly aouth of him. -Now, this thing I have here." began 8talllngs, "Is a patent Mar and her thief detector. This hand inside the glass will pick out anythlef or liar toe crowd." Mid he kept tapping the Instrument with his toe tokeep the**** blag around. "8ome of my pigs have disappeared, and IWIj thief. Joe. come up here," he said to his foreman^ he pit kicking the cose pass and allowed the needle to come to a atop. "Where to that hand poinds* ?oe looked at the compass, then ran his eye along the ground, owe and replied: "It's pointing right at you. Sanx" "Well I didn't do it alone," answered the guilty Sam. *1 Just knew that 'niggah' couldn't keep his mouth shut, spoke tie On Ms plantation Mr. 8talUngs to a "miracle man."