1,794 U. S. Guns Made in 24 Hours
Total Rifle Production in This Country During the World War
Machine gunsand smalt arms produced by the millions, ammunition lamed
out by the billions of zounds and tanks built by thousands when the armistice
ended hostilities, furnish the subject of chapters made public of the war
department's history of the "material" side of winning the war.
The story of machine gun production, about which such a hot controversy
waged In congress-as a result of the failure of the American army tp adopt
for standard general use the Lewis weapon used successfully abroad, is told
Up to November 11 the production of Browning rifles was 52,238, a ma-
jority of which were in France. In addition 29,000 Chauchat guns had been
purchased, so that enough light automatic rifles were on hand to supply 100
divisions or an army of 3,500,000 men. In the same time 41,804 heavy Brown-
ings and enough Vickers guns had been produced to make with the Hotchkiss
weapons purchased from the French a total of 54,627 of this type, or enough
to equip 200 divisions, or an army of 7,000,000.
"At the peak of our production," the report says, "a total of 1,794 machine
guns and automatic rifles of all types were produced within a period of 24
hours," and the total production of machine guns In the United States between
April 6.1917, and November 11,1918, was 185,039, as against 229,238 produced
by the French and 181,404 by the British in the same period.
Only the loyal co-operation of the manufacturers with whom "competitive
commercial advantages weighed not at all against the national need," made
possible this achievement, the report states.
Other production struggles described in the chapters include items varying
In size from trench knives to the 45-ton Mark VIII tanks of British design of
which 1,500 were feeing constructed in co-operation with the British and 1,450
additionally wholly by American enterprise. Only one of these had been de-
livered up to January 1, 1919, but It is noted that the work on each program
on component parts was 50 per cent complete when the armistice was signed.
Orders for all but 100 of these tanks have been canceled.
On November 11, 64 tanks of the French six-ton type had been delivered
and by January 31 of this year 291. Of these six were shipped abroad. Orders
for 1,000 Mark I light tanks were canceled, as were orders for 15,015 three-ton
tanks, 15 of which had been completed on November 11.
The total rifle production in the United States from the beginning of the
war up to November 9,1918, was 2,506,307, of which a little more than 300,000
were Springfield rifles.
Considerable attention Is devoted to the production of automatic pistols
and revolvers for the troops. In the Colt .45, the standard army automatic
developed as a result of Philippine experience by the army and which also whs
an Invention by Browning, the United States forces had a weapon which all
Europe could not match for efficiency In action and which brought terror to
the Germans when American troops reached the front.
European countries failed to appreciate the value of a large caliber, hard-
hitting weapon of this type and the chief use of pistols and revolvers in
European armjes had been as ornaments for officers' uniforms, It Is said, rather
than for active fighting.
"The result of Europe's neglect," the report says, "was that the small caliber
revolvers of the Germans and even of the French and English were toys in
comparison to the big Colts that slapped the thighs of American doughboys."
The standard American army rifle ammunition proved its superiority in
action, adding materially to the accuracy of American small arms fire. Ex-
traordinary measures to produce cartridges In sufficient numbers are recounted
in the report, and in the fall of 1918 the United States achieved an average
monthly output of 284,852,735 rounds, against a British average of 259,769,000
and a French average of 139,845,000.
Pole Star, the One Which
Seems to Keep Its Place
f|g Without Any Movement
Most people, If they know nothing
else of astronomy, at any rate know
the pole star, the one star which seems
to keep Its place In the heavens with
out movement of any kind, says a
writer in the Rehoboth Sunday Her
ald. There are a great many, however,
who do not know what a wonderful
thing It Is. In the first place, It can
be seen when looked at through a good
telescope to be two stars and not one.
There Is one fairly bright one, of what
Is known as the second magnitude,
and another of the ninth magnitude
close to it.
But that Is not all'. The brighter of
the two is really three stars revolv
ing round one another, or, rather,
round their common center of gravity,
like three children playing "ring a ring
This secret Is revealed to us by
what Is perhaps the most astonishing
of all scientific Instruments, the spec
troscope. It not only tells us what the
stars are made of, but whether they
are moving toward us or away from
When you stand facing the star
you are always facing north. The rea
son that It does not appear to move
as the others do Is that It Is nearly
In line with the axis of the earth. Its
distance from us Is enormous. This
can be Judged from the fact that al
though the earth In its journey around
the sun Is today about 190,000,000
miles from where It was six months
ago, that makes no appreciable differ
ence to Its distance from the pole star.
It must therefore be many times 190,-
000,000 miles away.
Nation's Public Debt Up
to $25,921,151,270 in May
The nation's public debt reached a
new high mark of $25,921,151,270 at
the end of May, an increase of $1,006,-
040,750 during the month, resulting
from new issues of certificates of in
debtedness and payments on Victory
loan subscriptions. Ordinary disburse
ments In May amounted to $907,492,-
920. only slightly less than the $1,088,-
203,020 In the same month last year.
If you see one young man
laughing at the ancient Jokes
of another the other has a
The average woman doesn't
believe In equality of the sexes
she thinks she Is a little more
Some men are candidates for
office because they cant help It
and soma because the people
can't kelp It
The young girl with her ban
dog* jap for the first time pos
sesses more awe-insplrtng dig
nity than a foot walker In a
dry goods store.
HINTS FOR THE
The Pennsylvania experiment sta
tion recently conducted some tests on
the fattening of cockerels for market.
Two types of breeding and care were
represented by the fowls selected, viz.:
ordinary farm-raised and closely man
sged, egg-laying types. Various ra
tions and methods of confinement
were compared. The number of fowls
forming the group representing a par
ticular method was ten In each case.
The results showed-that farm-raised
poultry of the Plymouth Bock and
Rhode Island Red breeds may be fat
tened In crates or pens at a cost for
food of 10 to 12 cents per pound of
gain. No difference appeared In the
gains from crate and pec-fed fowls,
but with fowls of these kinds close
confinement resulted In greater econ
omy per pound of gain. Thin fowls
made the cheapest gams. Fine-ground
grain and rations rich In protein gave
the better results. Milk was superior
to meat scrap as a source of protein.
In the case of the more active, egg
laying breed, represented by Leghorn
cockerels, fattening was profitable
with fowls weighing up to two and a
half pounds, but not beyond that limit,
at present food and poultry values.
The cost of gain with this breed rang
ed from &25 to 12 cents per pound.
With the lighter birds, regular grow
ing rations were superior to special
fattening mixtures, and dose confine
ment was not as advantageous as con
ditions permitting some exercise.
Miracles by Heroism of
the Considerate Mothers
Medicine can to some extent prevent
disease from attacking the child med
icine cannot perform miracles. If it a
miracle If children brought up In foul
and evil surroundings grow up healthy
and wholesome men and women. The
miracle, incidentally, Is usually ac
complished not by doctors but by the
self-sacrifice and heroism of the moth
er of the children, who too often loses
her own health in the process.Lon
Blade Walnut Used tor
Roadbed in Indiana City
Recently in an Indiana city en
gineers were Installing a concrete
foundation along a main thoroughfare.
In excavating they came upon a
corduroy road, burled several Inches
unaer the street surface. The road
was constructed of black walnut and
extended, they found later, for a dis
tance of nearly a mile. The logs were
in excellent condition.
Mosquitoes, but No Malaria.
In the Alps, the ssosqulto Anopheles,
which causes malaria. Is found plenti
fully up to heights of 5,600 feet, but
malaria Is never mot with above 2,600
Blue Sun Phenomenon Has
Been Recorded Only Once
In August, 188% in Java
The expression "once In a blue
moon," meaning that occurrences are
so widely separated by time as to al
most never recur, Is not merely a fig
ure of speech. It has a basis of as
tronomical fact. The phenomenon has
been twice observed la both Italy and
Austria and once In England. There
is no available record of It having been
noticed In America.
A blue sun has been recorded only
once. That was In August, 1888, in
Java. A day or two before there was
a very violent eruption of a large vol
cano about a hundred miles from Ba
tavla. The eruption ended with an
explosion in which a range of moun
tains was destroyed, a vast cavity be
ing left in its place, more than a thou
sand feet deep at one point. Billions
of tons of rock, mud and dust were
thrown high in the air and the sun
was obscured over a large area. At
Batavia the darkness became so deep
that street lamps had to be lighted
in the middle of the forenoon. Thiit
condition prevailed until toward sun
set. Then the volcanic cloud began to
clear away, leaving the sun visible.
Instead, however, of It being red, as
it usually is when viewed^through a
smoke cloud. It appeared as a mag
nificent deep-blue disk, remaining that
color until it sank below the horizon.
The phenomenon was seen by every
one within 30 to 40 degrees of the
Smiles for You
"Did you ever order that taxi for
"Yes." "Well, how long am I to wait for it?"
"Some time, I fear. The man says
he'll send it when you pay your old
Would-Be ContribDo you think
the article would be better If I boiled
EditorNo, Tm sure It wouldn't but
I should try the action of heat on it
in another way If I were you.
A Weather-Beaten Bud.
HeShe told me it was her first
SheWhy, she's been out four sea*
HeWell, I suppose she counts four
seasons to the year.
Evidently a Fraud.
of your efficiency
"I fired him."
"Why?" "It took him an
hour to get lunch
In a cafeteria."
A Personal Matter.
"The shade of Julius Caesartatpre*
ent and wishes to converse with you."
announced the medium.
"Nothing doing," replied the client
"I want to have a word with the tat*
James J. Jones of Hickory Hollow."
"I don't know any such person,"
"Well, I do. He died mat week om%
Ing me HO."
Paris Sewers Have Total
Length of 1,400 Kilometer*
The Paris sewers have a total length
of 1,400 kilometers, are traverses by a
tram line, telephone and telegraph
wires, pneumatic tubes by which spe
cial delivery letters are whiffed across
the city and enough canals to rival
Venice. There are no gondola*the
canals are not wide enoughbut there
are some flat boats, and Joy riding la a
skiff would not be an impossibility.
Mend China and Glass
An excellent way to mend
aad glass to to malt alum hi tm old
Iron spoon over fibs fire and apply te
the broken parts. Whan dry thane ar
tides can be washed In hot water and
the cement wW hold rigidly.New
Too Muoh High Thinking
We Americans were once aa free
and happy that our present coadtttosi
to lamentable. What to the trouble? 1
believe it to high thinking failure to)
realise the Issportaace of dlethuj fug
the mind.*. W. Howe's
Wise men say nothing la
THE TOMAHAWK, WHITE EARTH, MINN.
"I want you to
speak for our
c.a 1 cam
paign. We're try
ing to encourage
people to can
"I can speak
for that with all
me heart," de
Fatt. "The more
can, the fewer
they'll have to throw at me."
Inspection of Chinese Boy Scouts
The Chinese Boy 8couts of Troop 150, New York, were presented with a
loving cup by the Chinees republic. Photo shows Chinese Consul General
Chilian Inspecting the scouts in front of the headquarters, 200 Fifth avenue.
Cooperation a the Key to
do not pick our men, we de
velop them," says a successful manu
facturer. "Or, rather, we help them
to develop themselves. Not one of our
men can be fired outright No fore
man or department head can dismiss
an employee. Good cause has to be
Developing men is a very-good rule,
as many can tell, but a good rule for
making rabbit pie begins: First catch
the rabbit. The developer of men
must be the comrade of his men. not
the autocrat. If he to supercilious the
penalty will be failure. He must have
at least fair general knowledge of
how to do the work he wants done.
His Is rare ability, founded upon rare
temperament He is the dynamo
which runs any successful enterprise.
The French say "cherchez la emme"
when a crime has been committed.
The formula to "cherchez l'homme"
when anyone wishes to account for the
success of a great industrial enter
prise. The man at the bottom of its
success is one who knows how to get
the best work out of an army of em
ployees. A successful general Is the
officer whose men swear by him not
the fussy martinet whose men swear,
secretly, at him.
Forests Draw Water From
Sott, Then Send It Forth
Into the Air From Leaves
"It has been estimated that 600
beech trees during a single season of
foliage evaporate about 20,000 barrels
of water," said Dr. John M. Coulter,
professor of botany at the'University
of Chicago, In a recent article.
"This indicates one of the important
missions of the forests, namely, to
draw water from the son and send It
forth Into the air from the leaves as
water vapor. From the foregoing fig
ures one can compute what Immense
quantities of forest vapor are poured
Into the air In thickly wooded dis
tricts, keeping It moist and favorable
"Another mission of the forests Is
to conserve rainfall, the soli devel
oped by a forest being wonderfully
retentive of water, acting as huge
sponge which absorbs and holds the
rainfall and doles It out gradually.
This fact Is especially realised when
forests are removed, for then the rain
fall runs off the surface and floods
the streams without supplying Its full
quota of water for vegetation. The
devastating floods In China are caused
largely by the destruction of their for
ests and forest planting and conser
vation Is one of the greatest needs
of that country,
9 WORDS OF WISE MEN
A black hen will toy a white
All Mood to ancient
A blot Is not a blot unless It
A blow with a reed .makes a
noise, but hurts not
Blow first and sip afterward.
It to not allowed In war to
blunder twice.Latin Proverb.
It to only the first bottle that
is dear.French Proverb.
Blame la the laxy man's
Mother's Cook Book
We call him strong who stands un
Calm's* some tempest-beaten rock
When some great trouble hurls its shock
Ws say of him "His strength is proved
But when the spent storm folds its wings,
How bears he then life's little things?
Candles for the Kiddies.
During the hot weather one may
prepare in the home or at the lake
or in the country without heat these
delicate candles. The secret of mak
ing uncooked candles Is to jute the
finest confectioner's sugar, so fine that
when rubbed between the fingers no
grain to left..
Break the white of an egg into a
bowl and mix with an equal amount
of liquid, water fruit juice, coffee or
ilk or cream may be used. Into
stir one pound of confectioner's
sugar, adding It gradually until thick
enough to mold with the fingers. From
this foundation one may enlarge, so
that an endless variety may be made.
Orate the rind of a lemon Into a
bowl, add the strained lemon Juice,"a
pinch of tartaric add and enough con
fectioner's sugar to mold Into bails,
then press Into fiat cakes and let stand
In a cold place 24 hours. Orange may
be used In place of lemon, making an
Dust a board with confectioner's
sugar and place on It some of the
foundation cream, flavor with vanilla,
kneading it well. Divide into five por
tions leave one white, color the re
maining portionsvwith chocolate, yel
low, pink and green. Boll out each
portion to the same shape, place one
on top of another, pass a rolling pin
lightly over to' make the layers ad
here, cut in squares or slices, wrap
In wax paper and put In a cold place
to become firm.
Use the foundation cream made
with coffee, roll Into balls and press
a half walnut meat on each side. Dip
In beaten egg white and roll In col
Use the foundation cream flavored
with peppermint For wintergreen fla
vor with wintergreen and color green
for cinnamon color pink.
Silt glace cherries In halves length*''
wise, mold cream flavored with al
mond Into balls and press a half cherry
on each side. To form the stalk of
the cherry use strips of angelica or
the stem of the fresh fruit
Candled pineapple, ginger, dates,
figs and prunes sB make a most deli
cious candy when used to combina
tion with the
Ants Powerful Enough to
Eat Into Hardest Woods
veryone has observed trees that
have been hollowed out by ants, and It
la apparent that their biting powers
are equal to working in the hardest
woods. In tunneliag, ante are expert,
and authentic cases are known of their
inneling under ditches and streams.
Indeed, a South American ant Is said
to have excavated a tunnel under the
bed of Parahyba river at place where
it Is as broad as the Thames at London
Philadelphia U.S. Mint Has
Complete Series of Nearly
All Coins Issued in World.
In the collection at the Philadelphia
mint (one of the finest in existence)
there are fairly complete series of
nearly all the coins ever Issued in the
Coined money was In circulation In
Asia and Europe as early as 700 B. O.
But the ancients did not put dates on
their coins, and so It was not always
easy to fix the exact periods of their
They were, of course, not struck
with dies, but merely cast in molds,
so that they had not the smooth sym
metry of modern coins. Nevertheless,
some of them possessed a very high
Even nowadays people bury money.
In ancient times, when a man's pos
sessions were far less safe, the prac
tice was much more common. Largely
owing to it Is the fact that such great
numbers of early coins (mostly dis
covered by accident) exist today In
There Is, indeed, hardly an ancient
coinage of which specimens are not
extant Many of them have been de
rived from the hidden hoards of sac
The earliest known bronze coins of
the Romans date back to 385 B. 0.
They Issued silver coins less than a
century later. But doubtless the gold
and silver money of other countries
was largely used by the ancient Ro
mans, Introduced among them through
the aggressive commerce of Greek and
There was no lack of the precious
metals In those days. Dr. T. L. Com
parette, numismatist of the Philadel
phia mint (from whom the .above
statements are quoted), says that In
ancient-times the supply of gold and
silver was as great in proportion to
the population using money coined of
those metals as it to today.
Cubs' Shortstop Star Is
Hailed iz the Greatest
Charley Hollocher, the youthful
shortstop star of the Cubs, is off to
a brilliant start, and everywhere Is
hailed as the ^reat inflelder of the
future. Hollocher today ranks among
the highest stars of the pastime, and
the current season should be a banner
year for him. Hollocher'a all-round
playing In the opening game of the
Giant series at the Polo ground show
ed htm to be at hjs best His home
run Into the right field stand In the
first Inning put the Cubs to the lead,
and his skillful defensive play subse
quently helped to thwart the Gotham
Walk humbly, O Amrica, to the crown
ing of peace
With ssesk heart and reverence to the
meeting of our peers
Forget not. America, Uw weary months of
The black high pride of three lone
Remember, America* the Used who lie
The wounded and the slain of our great
Remember, too, the sacrifice of the wom
en and children.
The months we lay la darkness, uosee
Ing with our eyes.
Make as demands. America, of the mem
who fought before us,
Be not domineering o'er the men who
We have not known the whole white
gnaw of sacrtaon
If we hare saved democracy, let not
Walk humbly. O Amsrirs, to the crown
ing of aenes
With ssesk heart aad rsvaroacs te the
meetlag of ear peon
Forget not. O America, the weary months
high Bride of three long
-Katherine K. la Life.
When the Gat Escapes.
8houtd a leakage of gas be noticed
at a time when It Is impossible to get
plumber, gome moistened
should be applied round the
where the escape has been located.
This method of tapping, a leak to oaur
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