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The Tomahawk. [volume] (White Earth, Becker County, Minn.) 1903-192?, August 28, 1919, Image 4

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89064695/1919-08-28/ed-1/seq-4/

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Establishment of soldiers' com
munity settlements through reclama
tion of cut-over timberlands and wet
lands of the South, irrigation of Arid
lands in the West, and development of
other unutilized lands throughout the
country, as. contemplated in the tfoa
dell bill, is indorsed bj the American
Legion, the great organization of
world war veterans of this country,
for membership in whim 4,000,000 men
are eligible.
At a joint meeting In New York of
the executive committee of the Paris
and St. Louis caucuses of the Ameri
can Legion the Mondell bill was ap
proved in principle.
By authority of the meeting legis
lative representatives of the Legion
are in Washington to do what they
can to further the enactment of the
legislation. The legislative committee
is made up of Col.' Luke Lea {portrait
herewith), formerly United States sena*
tor from Tennessee, and Col. T. W. Miller, who was formerly a member of the
house of representatives from Delaware.
The general idea in the bill is to set returned soldiers at the work of
reclaiming these semlarid, cut-over and overflowed lands, pay them for
their work and sell them reclaimed lands on long time, with such financial
assistance as may be necessary to give them a good start. The community
settlement is an important feature of the plan.
Senator Joseph S. Preylinghuysen
of New Jersey offered a resolution
(S. Res. 126) the other day In sub
stance as follows:
Whereas for several years the
price of coal to the consumer has
from time to tune been largely in
creased and
Whereas for a period this increase
In price was attributed to existing
war conditions and
Whereas in spite of the fact that
since the armistice was signed, No
vember 11, 1918, normal peace condi
tions have prevailed, the price of cool
hns continued to rise, without any
apparent economic or other proper
reason therefor: Therefore be it
Resolved, That the committee on
interstate commerce, or any subcom
mittee thereof, be Instructed to make
inquiry into the cause or causes which
have brought about the enormous in
crease in the market price of coal, and
to that end obtain full data regarding freight rates, wages, profits, and other
matters bearing upon the question under consideration, with a view to de-
termining who or what may be responsible for such increase in price, whether
due jto economic causes, and, therefore, proper and right, or whether due to
manipulation or profiteering on the part of mlneta, shippers, or dealers in coat
Resolved further, That the committee on interstate commerce shall report
its findings to the senote, together with such recommendations as may be per-
tinent and advisable, with a view either' to congressional or executive action,
in order to remedy existing conditions or the punishment of any individual or
corporation deemed guilty of unlawful acts.
There's thunder for feminists In
the career of Miss Helen Taft, only
daughter of a former president, Wil
liam Howard Toft. In 1917 Miss Taft
was made dean of Bryn Mawr college,
from which she had graduated only
two years before. And the other day
a dispatch announced that she had
been elected president of the school to
serve during the year's leave of ab
sence granted Dr. M. Carey Thomas.
It wasn't long ago that Miss Taft
made her social debut in the White
House. Then a student at Bryn Mawr,
she gave up her studies after her
sophomore year and went to Wash
ington where the weight of the social
responsibilities of the White House
fell upon her shoulders, as her mother
was 111 most of the time.
Her success as a hostess and so
ciety leader was acclaimed by tht
diplomatic circle in which she ruled.
Popular with the women of Washing-
ton, the wives of congressmen, cabinet secretaries and members of the diplo-
matic corps put their heads together in an effort to choose her a husband:
In this, however. Miss Taft herself didn't display much Interest Instead she
returned that year to Bryn Mawr to complete her studies.
HE IS INSURED FOR $4,500,000
The most heavily Insured man in
the United States is Rodman Wann
maker of New York and Philadelphia,
of whom a portrait is given herewith.
Mr. Wanamaker's policies aggregate
Pierre Dupont of powder trust 1
fame follows with 14,000,000. Next is
John Wanamaker, Sr founder of de
partment stores, with policies aggre
gating $3,000,000.
J. Pierpont Morgan carries poli
cies totaling $2,500,000. In the $2,000.-
000 class are Julias Rosenwald of Chi
cago and Percy Rockefeller. Henry
Francis Dupont carries $1,250,000.
There are approximately 17 others
in the United States whose Insurance
equals or exceeds $1,000,000.
Policies of $500,000 are common.
There is scarcely a successful busi
ness man of the well-to-do class who
does not carry upward of $100,000.
The list of heavy Insurers, how
ever, gives some strange contrasts in the matter of individual insurance hold-
ings, taken in ratio to reputed wealth. John D. Rockefeller, for Instance, is
listed as holding $50400 insurance, though It is prebaset ttst his policies
Primate Cathedral of Colombia In Bogota.
name with which Licenci
ado don Gonzalo Jiminez de
Quesada and his warring hosts
christened the Andean plateau
was Santa Fe. To that nobleman
nothing seemed more fitting than to
give to the land he had discovered the
name of his birthplacethat classic
Santa Fe founded upon royal command
of Ferdinand and Isabella opposite the
opulent Granada, to vex the multitude
of heretic Mohammedans who aroused
the jealousy and resentment of the
Spanish by their fiestas and tourneys,
the valor of their sons, the Moorish
.beauty of their women, and the un
equaled romance of their arched win
dows, stone lacework, and balconies
adorned by expert goldsmiths.
And what a thrlU the conquistador
must have felt, yet what homesickness
must have been awakened within him
as he gazed upon a plain watched over
by two somber hills, so like that of his
own land, with the Moorish Granada
guarding the Castlllan city,, writes W.
F. Anzola Samper In the Bulletin of the
Pan American Union. But the Val
ley of Castles (Vulle de los Alcozares),
the Teuscaqulllo or recreation spot of
Zlpa de Bacata, Its rightful possessor,
was renamed by the new lords in mail
and gorget. Bacata fled, abandoning
Ills dominion, to die In the heart of
the forest, never knowing that after
centuries justice should be paid him
that the "very noble and loyal city"
should bear Ms name, slightly modified,
as decreed by the Emperor Charles
in 1540. On December 3, 1548, it was
given 'a coat of arms portraying a
black eagle on a gold field, with an
open pomegranate In each claw, and
bordered by golden branches on a bine
Old and New Are Mingled.
Bogota, the intellectual and cul
tured capital city, molder of thought,
home of savants and thinkers, is a
metropolis which, while offering to the
tourist no startling display of New
York or Parisian skyscrapers, boule
vards or JBroadways, claims attention
by reasontbf the gifts with which na
ture endowed it Spring is there eter
nal the climate Is ideal the fertility
of the soil surrounding Is extraor
Bogota conserves vestiges of her
colonial period. Over the portals of,
rambling old houses which defied the
ages are to be seen cohts of arms. The
century-old churches, venerable relics
of the past, guard beneath panels of
gold and costly wood collections. of
masterly paintings Byzantine cornices
of arabesque designs abut the granite
pilasters which support arches, and
under data of wrought gold and silver
the choir lofts are to be seen long
spiral staircases, massive towers, and
belfry spires stand out against the
clear sky, just aa they did centuries
On the other hand, the tendency to
ward twentieth century building is Ir
resistible, and the most up-to-date tal
ent la displayed in the erection of lux
nrkms homes or public buildings In
Bogota today.
The national capital situated en the
southern aide of the Plana de Bolivar,
resembles the Church of the Madeleine
In Parte, and Is considered one of th%
beat stone edifices In South America.
Along the entire western side of the
plasa extends buildings uniformly of
pare French style, and along the north
ern aide modern buildings occupied by
hanks and commercial booses the
eastern aide la Occupied by the cathe
dral, a massive structure, the towers
of which rise 80 meters, and some few
In the heart of the plaza there is a
small perk which attracts notice prin- brought tram
dpally because of the statue of BoaV market In
var the Liberator, which rises upon Its
marble pedestal in the center of the
square, being one of the finest works
of the Italian sculptor, Teneranl.
From the Plaza de Bolivar the. main
thoroughfares extend in every direc
tion, almost all paved with asphalt
and kept in excellent condition by the
municipality. Calle Real, the principal
business street, and Florlan street are
the most bustling of the city. The for
mer, a wide thoroughfare, merges Into
Republic avenue (Avenlda de la Re
pubIlea), flanked by modern buildings
and traversed by electric cars.
Called the Athena of the South.
The Colombian capital has long
been the patron of science. The as
tronomical observatory, National Li
brary, the academies, museums and
universities form a group of Institu
tions which maintain the right of Bo
gota to be considered the "Athens of
the South," the name with which a Eu
ropean scholar christened her.
The observatory owes its existence
to the efforts of the naturalist, JJFse
Celestlno Mutlz, It Is octagonal in
form, 2,630 meters above sea level
hence, Is one of the highest of the
world and possesses a valuable set of
Instruments for taking observations.
The academies were established by
devotees of science and art. The Lan
guage academy recently took posses
sion of a new building. The Museum
of* Bogota contains objects of beautj
and considerable historic worth. A
Museum of Natural History foundec
by the Christian Brotherhood (Her
manos Chrlstlanos) possess exhaustive
The universities happily own ade
quate buildings. Recently the build
ing to be used for anatomic lecture
halls was completed, equipped much
like the corresponding building of the
University of Paris. Public Instruc
tion is becoming constantly more wide
ly diffused and Bogota Is the center of
secondary schools supported by the
Cultured and Prosperous.
Bogota, by the refinement of its in
habitants and the luxury hi evidence,
might be taken for a European city.
Culture is marked foreign news is re
ceived promptly desirable features of
Paris and London are imitated to stim
ulate progress. Unfortunately, owing
to the extreme narrowness of the
streets, many of the architectural fea
tures of the city cannot be appre
ciated nevertheless, upon contemplat
ing the constant progress of the cap
ital and its development, one is forced
to the conclusion that Bogota will be
come an Imperial city in the western
world, the heart of the plateau which
extends 16 leagues from north to south,
and 8 from east to west
Economically Bogota la on a sound
footing, being a commercial and bank
ing center of constantly growing im
portance. There are five banks of
large capital, the American Mercantile
bank (Banco Mercantll Americano)
having been established last year, and
at present the establishment of an
other la under consideration. Several
insurance companies contribute to the
success of financial enterprises. Large
export houses have founded headquar
ters there and Importation is conducted
on rather a large scale. Foreign credit
companies In the United States and Eu
rope are added factors In Bogota's de
velopment. Industry also Is being ex
ploited. Thread and textile Industries
compete with foreign establishments la
the production of fabrics and doth.
Stock raising la increasing consider
ably on the plain, the strains having
been carefully selected from stack
We Are Responsible for All Damages to
Foreigners in Mexico Since 1910
By SENATOR A. B. FALLDebate in Congress
The Calvo doctrine, as acknowledged and accepted
by Latin-American countries, provides simply this, in
No government shall be responsible for damages
to any of its citizens occurring during a revolution, or
by virtue cf a riot.
No citizen of a foreign country shall be entitled'
to collect damages against this government except as a
citizen of this country would be entitled to collect dam
ages. Under the Calvo doctrine, as it was presented
at The Hague tribunal and refused, we could not have
interfered diplomatically in Mexico to recover damages for any of our citi-
zens, either for death or otherwise.
In 1913, prior to the recognition of Carranza when he proclaimed
himself first chief of the revolutionary forces, and when he was seeking
recognition, he issued a decree known as the Calvo decree, and in that
decree he pledged himself to us, because he filed it in the staje department
of the United States government, that immediately upon the success of
his revolution he would go back to the year 1910, to the inception of the
Madero revolution, and that he would, by a joint commission, ascertain
all damages done to any foreigner or to his property up to the time that
he founded his government substantially in the City of Mexico, no matter
from what source, whether by revolution or by riot in other words, that
he would not do as they had continuously done, put in a defense that the
damage had occurred by revolution.
But the decree of 1915, which the president sent to the senate, as
the foundation of his recognition of Carranza, repudiated the decree of
1913 and adopted the Calvo rale and we recognized him upon it and what
is the consequence today? That we are bound by every rule not only of
morality but of international law to every government under the sun for
every dollar of damage done to any foreigner in the Bepublic of Mexico
from the time the revolution occurred in 1910 down to date, because the
secretary of state and the president of the. United States called upon
France and Germany and Great Britain to yield to us in handling Mex-
ican affairs, as was announced by the state department, and they yielded.
When they yielded Carranza's decree agreeing to pay damages was
in full force and effect We handled Mexican affairs, and when we recog-
nized Carranza we recognized him under an absolute repudiation of that
Have we not placed tin) Monroe doctrine at least in pawn to every
foreign government?
/World Statesmanship Will Be Sorely
Tried in the Next Few Years"
By ROBERT LANSING, U. S. Secretary of State
Undoubtedly there is a great danger in the world, today. Western
civilization is still dazed by the shock of four and a half years of destruc-
tion. Industry and commerce are not yet restored. All of Europe is im-
poverished parts of it are starring. Its whole political fiber has been shot
World statesmanship will be sorely tried in the next few years. Two
things are essential: first an alert, intelligent, interested public opinion
and second co-operation of the nations.
The former is needed both as a check on any sinister purposes that
may crop up and as the great support for common action. The second
is essential, unless the nations are to return to a selfish particularism
which can only breed the most dangerous dispute.
The peace conference has been history's greatest instance of a unified
world statesmanship directing the moral and material resources of the
world's family of nations. To allow the spirit behind it to disintegrate at
this moment of emergency, when united action is imperative, would be
fatal to all the hopes of permanent peace with which we entered the war.
If it is true that one nation can destroy the equilibrium of all it is
all the more true that each nation is bound by its own law of self-preserva-
tion to co-operate with the others to check troubles before they get their
So I come home pleased but not complacent with the outcome of the
past six months and hopeful but not in the least unmindful of the prob*
lems of the next few yean.
World Is Forced Into New
die Protection of All
Br JULIA LATHROP, Children's
It is not too much to say that the world is being forced willy nilly
to a new activity for the protection of all childrennot a few, not favored
children, but all children. War losses of population and of wealth force
Europe. A decent self-respect would force the United States even if it
were not plain that the nations which are to maintain leadership win be
those which most wisely and generously equip the children of today and
First, as to illiteracy, the United States is perhaps ninth among civi-
lised nations that is, Australia, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, the
Netherlands, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Germany all have a larger
proportion of the population who can read and write than has the United
Second, as to maternal mortality, the United States is fourteenth
in the list of civilised nations, judged by the proportion of deaths of
mothers from causes incident to child-bearing. That is, in thirteen coun-
tries the mother's life is safer than it is in the United States.
Third, the United States is eleventh among civilised countries, tested
by its infant mortality rate, a rate whose searching value as a sign of social
wellbeing is axiomatic.
Considering the exemption this country enjoys from the poverty and
hanger and devastation of Europe, it is not less than our reasonable session
to make the United States stand first in every phase of child welfare i
any list of countries. The war has left us no sectional questions. We have
only the issue of a n^tisn's welfare.

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