Newspaper Page Text
ENBVA, Switzerland, Is to be capital
of the League of Natlonslf there is a league of nations. It seems _J^^ rather an npproprinte selection. LJSBJ The city Is cosmopolitan and has [CjBSOj historical, literary and philosophical V5g| E|^ traditions In keeping with the pur- ^7j inT pose of the league. Switzerland CjjF/ has preserved Its neutrality In a ^AAJ wa 0 De abov suspicion. Anally the Swiss Confederatione Is In Itsel a sor of League of Nations. From the practical view point the city of Geneva Is attractive, not too large, and centrally located for many of the members of the league. In fact, the enthusiasts say that considering Geneva's past, its long history full of struggles and suffering through which It won Its freedom. It would appear that from all time this city has been predestined to become the capital of the intangible kingdom of all free peoples, united to defend, not only their rights and liberty, but also the rights and liberty of others. The requirements for a location stipulated fifteen hundred meters along the edge of the lake, em bracing large properties a port for hydroplanes, facing the Alps and having access by land and water. Within the walls of the small territorial district of Geneva, amid the country adorned with parks and decked with gardens, several estates were available to the representatives Of the differ ent nations. The parish of Genthod. about four miles out from the town, perhaps the more readily fulfills these conditions. Genthod, one of the oldest vil lages, was a part of the bishop of Geneva's prop erty. In 1635 it became the property of the re public and Is Inclosed In the land that the Bernese took from the duke of Savoy. An unusually beau tiful spot, looking down upon the bike from time Immemorial, it has been-a chosen place for the Genevans. In the tenth century the noblemen replaced the country house of their forefathers by beautiful estates gardens were laid out and planted. Two of these estates with the houses Intact, rendered all the more beautiful by the passing of time, with avenues and venerable woods, were first chosen. The Creux de Genthod belongs to the family de Baussure and the de Fourtales estate. The Bar tholoni estate adjoining was added It Is occu pied by a large modern house called the Chateau Rouge. On the other side Is the property of El ward NavlUe, the Egyptologist, temporary presi dent of the International Red Cross. Spacious grounds that belonged to the estate of the naturalist and philosopher Charles Bonnet were also secured Incidentally, one of the eighteenth century houses on the Bonnet property was taken atone by stone to Geneva and scrupu lously reconstructed. Crowning this long hillock with Its gentle slopes Is a plateau Inclined toward the Jura mountains, the crest line which fills the hortson. This presents a magnificent panorama for a dis tance of over a mile along the lake shore, and a mile and a half inland, half of the township of Genthod, bounded on the north by the Versotx river and on the south by a road and crossed by the Geneve-Berne railroad and the route to Lausanne. The most ancient of these estates, and the moat symmetrical. Is the Creux de Genthod It waa built by Ami Luilln, theologian, professor and col lector ef rare manuscripts. Blondel. the great French architect, drew the plans. In 1723 he planned the gardens and park. This house became the property of toe naturalist. Horce Benedict do SatMBure. who married the granddaughter of Ami D ftnnssure's house adjoined that of his Andt Geneva: Capital of me uncle, Charles Bonnet. De Saussure, filled with a passionate love for the high Alps, the outline of which he gazed at every day, went exploring, climbing Mont Blanc, writing his "Voyage* dans les Alpes" (1770-1786). His daughter, who be came Madame Necker de Saussure, grew upfanthis delightful atmosphere. Charles Bonnet continued to carry out his study of nature, and when he lost his sight gave up his time to philosophical prob lems, strengthening his scholars* belief In an after life. Haller used to come from Berne to work with him. Learned men and scholars came from all parts of Europe to visit them. In this way the small circle of Genthod, passion ately Interested In scientific culture and Christian philosophy, became a European center In direct opposition to the one at Ferney, where Voltaire derided the austereness of Geneva and tried his best to destroy It. After the death of Charles Bonnet his property returned to the de Rive family, which wan connect ed with Madame de Stael (17TB-1817). Oar house hi near Genthod, and Corrlnne came often on fine summer days to alt on too terrace of the philoso pher and writer. The de Fourtales house was built about 1700 by Jean Louis Saladln, a diplomat of Geneva Attached to the court of Louis XV, who as a mark of appre ciation gave him his full-length portrait In oils. The de Saladln house Is on a height and commands wide view of the lake. It Is to be seen hi the center of two broad avenues with Its simple gray front, its semicircular outbuildings, all magnificent ly located. Beyond the fields that slope gently are the trees of the Creux de Genthod, the rare spe cies that Ami Lullln had collected at a great cost, chestnuts that were brought from Lyons In carts, Immense vistas of foliage, wonderful tree archi tecture Infolding the old French garden. Along the walks where the two scholars medi tated, around that house of pure lines, the meet ing place of so many distinguished men, a breath of European thought seems to float In this Genevan atmosphere, say the enthusiasts. An intimate com munion seems to unite all these grand and simple homes to the grand old trees, the gentle distant slopes behind which appear the Alps, the long, clear stretch of lake. To all this vista, at the same tune so big and so complete that It would seem Impossible to destroy this incomparable harmony certainly these homes and historical grounds will remain as they are and the new buildings will be erected Inland on the plateau. Geneva la an old, old city. Its origin hi lost in antiquity, but it was of sufficient importance in Caesar's time* to be mentioned in his "Com mentaren" It wan early the seat of a bishopric It was one of the capitals of the Burgundlana. In the sixth century it passed to toe Franks. In too eleventh century it became Incorporated with too German empire. About that tone the temporal waa added to toe spiritual power of the bishops. The dukes of Savoy began to encroach on too temporal power and at the same time the burghers took a hand in affairs. The struggles between too dukes of Savoy and the clUnens ended la favor of THE TOMAHAWK, WHITE EARTH. MINN. the latter hi the early days of the sixteenth century. Geneva Is the capital of too canton of Geneva. It contains possibly 60,000 peoplea little over 100,000 with Its suburbs and the canton has a popula tion of About 135,000. Them are 22 cantons, with a total population of about 3350,000. The Romans made themselves masters of the country In the first century, B. C. Their do minion lasted about four cen turies. A succession of masters followed. When It became a part of the German (Holy Roman) empire in the eleventh century It was a hodge-podge of petty atates ruled by dukes, counts, bishops and abbots, together with little city-states. The beginning of the confederation of cantons was In the thirteenth century. In 1276 Rudolph of Hapsburg, Holy Roman em peror, secured control of the duchy of Austria and threatened the liberties of the Swiss. To re sist its aggressions the three forest cantons of Uri, Scbwyz and Unterwaidep In 1201 entered info a league. In the fourteenth century five other can tons Joined. The house of Hapsburg found too mountaineers Invincible. At the clone of the mid dle ages the connection of Switzerland with the German empire came virtually to an end. The confederation was enlarged by fresh acceaeums. In the sixteenth century, as slated, Geneva shook off the authority of the dukes of Savoy and of the bishops. After the reformation in the peace of Westphalia (1648) Switzerland was formally de clared Independent of the German empire. In 1706 the French occupied the country and estab lished the Helvetic republic. In 1803 Napoleon re stored the cantonal confederation and new can tons were added. The congress of Vienna Id IBM decreed the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland Geneva, of course, at once suggests noted men and famous eventsJohn Calvin, Rousseau and others the Geneva convention, the Alabama claims, etc Modern Geneva Is an exceedingly attractive city. It Is beautifully situated at the southwest end of Lake Geneva, which here narrows and pours out Into the Rhone, which Is shortly Joined by the Aire. The Rhone Is crossed by nine fine bridges which Join the old town on'the left bank, with toe principal residence quarter of the foreign colony on the right bank. There are many fine structures of interest. The College de St Antotne, founded by Calvin, has nearly 2,000 students, over half of whom are foreigners. Geneva hi noted aa an edu cational center. The Cathedral of St Peter is Bysantlne in character and Is said to have been built in 1124. The botanical gardens are Interest ing. There are several museums, including the Muaee Ratln the Fol museum, with Collections of Greek. Roman and Etruscan antiquities toe Atheneum. devoted to the fine arts, and the Mu seum of Natural History, containing de Sauasure's geological collection. The Do Jean Janqaea Rous seau attracts many visitors. Tourists are shown the house of Calvin, on whom too possibly chief historical fame of the city rests. Lake Geneva la one of the beauty spots of toe world. It Is about 4B miles long and Is eight miles wide at its place of greatest width. Its northern and western shores afford striking views of Mount Blanc and its chain. The lake la very deep and a beautiful dark bin*. Now boulevards encircle Geneva they are laid out along toe lines of the old fortification* which were demolished In 185X Handsome vfOaa erowe toe surrounding heights. Altogether toe tourist seldom visits a more attractive dty and one snor Interesting historically. DENVER.Id BRECKENREDGE, Old Man Finds Relic of His Boyhood in Museum the Colorado state museum hangs the tattered Httle coat of a ten-year-ol boy, with Its coarse, brown, homespun weave, Its frayed bjinds of black velvet about the collar and sleeves, Its old-fashioned plaid lining, Its brass buttons, the rents at the shoulders and the legend upon the description card pinned to It, which reads: "This boy's coat with other clothes was found after the battle of Tupelo. Mississippi, July 14, 1864, by J. B. Wylle, Company D, Forty-fourth Iowa volunteers. Present address 175 South Franklin street, Denver." An old man, gray haired and feeble, was among a crowd of visitors the other day. He was accompanied by his wife, hardly less gray, but with" a firmer step. Suddenly the old man gripped the arm of his wife and exclaimed: "That's my coat I That's the coat my mother made for me when I was a boy. And I'm going to take it back home with me." To Superintendent James Herri9k and Curator J. C. Smiley he told the story of the'battle and of how, a child then of only ten years, he had fled with his mother from the neighborhood while the battle was on, returning later to find the house ransacked. To get his request before the board of capltol managers the old man wrote out this:. "I find In the capltol basement, hi case No. 3970, a coat of mine. This coat was made by my mother during the Civil war, she having spun all the cotton and wool, then weaving the same Into cloth and made the coat from homemade cloth. Part of the battle of Tupelo, Miss, was fought on my mother's place. This coat and many other articles were missing after the bat- tle. I would very much appreciate your returning this the first coat of my babyhood daya back to me. I was raised In Tupelo, Miss. My present home Is In Elgin, Tex. Respectfully yours, J. W. THOMAS." Confederate.Veteran Gets New Pair of Trousers OS ANGELES.Ezra L. Bliss, seventy-five years old, who was a sergeant ia the Fourth Missouri cavalry during the Civil war and was once a neighbor of Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson, the Confederate leader, declared In the Juvenile court that he had been as saulted. The weapon, It developed, was a roman candle in the hands of Willie Brown, seventeen years old, a colored high school boy. Willie Brown went to court accom panied by his parents. The extremes met at either end of a long table pre sided over by Judge Reeve. Sergeant Bliss In full regimentals, looked every lng likeness to the pictures of Gen. A* Robert E. Lee, with whom he said he fought. When the court asked Sergeant Bliss what the trouble was, ha replied: "Well, sir, I was assaulted. "What was the weapon?* "A roman candle In Downey about ten o'clock at night This boy fired It at me and two of the balls struck my trousers when I was only six feet away I have the trousers here, sir, with the holes burned In them." The court released Willie Brown Into the custody of bis parents. "A very good way to straighten up this "bunch' Is," he said, "to make pool among them and pay Sergeant Bliss for a new pair of trousers." Willie agreed to do tola. Sergeant Bliss said his trousers cost from $12 to $14 His uniform hi made of fine woolen army blankets. Bank Bandit Elucidates the Why and Wherefore CHICAGO.!itcashier's was In the new Sixteenth Street State bank at 8 Louis avenue. Behind the cage were Jacob A. Kalis, cashier, and pretty nine- teen-year-old Elsie Landauer, collection teller. On a bench, Mrs. Rose Rowen, 1022 Central Park avenue, who had just made a deposit and Mrs. Mary Rudnlck, of the same address, who had just paid a note, were discussing H. C. L. In front of the cashier's cage stood Nathan Malts, father of Samuel W. Malts, president of the bank, discussing with David Flyer, 8911 West Sixteenth street, the social unrest and economic turmoil. In the cage Jacob and Elsie were worrying neither of the high cost of living nor of the social unrest Jake was showing anew revolver and telllfig what he'd do to bank robbers. Elsie was explaining how she'd telephone the police. Then five young men entered with drawn revolvers, "Hands up I" said the leader. Up went the hands. A bandit confiscated Jake's revolver and collected about $5,000. They were so polite that aa they left Mr. Malta said to them: "Why? Whyt You're all young menfine, healthy young men. Why do fan risk your lives this way? For this you will be hounded all your lives. Why do yon do Itl" Til tell you why," said the leader. 1 waa in the armyoverseas. figured If I came back alive Things back home would be wonderful. "My girl was waiting for me when I came back. There were all kinds ef cheers and parades. We were married. That waa six months ago. Then I started looking for a job. I couldn't get a job. None of us here could get a job. My wife is going to be a mother pretty soon. And no work." Then he wheeled and the five walked out to a waiting automobile. 6 MOuTHS BACK FROM ANCE Atf NO 006- Missouri Centenarian Who Has Never Quarreled MO.In Breckenrldge Is a man who has made It a life- long practice never to quarrel or argue and never to speak 111 of any person. And that man one hundred and one years old. He la Dr. Joseph 8. Halstead, who was Henry- Clay's physician many years. There is no man equal to Clay in American public life today," he said. "Yes there is President Wilson Is," Interrupted Mrs. Halstead. But the doctor merely shook his head and waived further answer. They never have quarreled, these two aged people, who have spent 67 years as man and wife, The usual family "spat" has been entirely un known to them. "We sometimes disa gree a bit but we never permit it to go to toe extent of an argument ef enema," Mrs. Halstead said. That to one reason our love for each other hi aa grout as It waa when we were married." Dr. and Mrs. Halstead are the parents of eight children.' They have 88 Doctor Halstead la aa advocate of simpler foods, especially cornhroad and mash, and thinks them beneficial to toe human system. Doctor Halstead has smoked tobacco and chewed tobacco since he twenty years old. He still enjoys his pine. The doctor was not a strong youth not a few predicted I that ho would not live long. Moreover, during his days of practice aa a physician he toe strain and hardships that are a part of a country doctor's Ufa. He finally quit practicing and became a farmer that ho adght I lead a life of more regular hours.