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fip *M/t*M GLENN E. PLUMB MAN OF THE HOUR 4 i^i8^ *^P \4^K^n K^^^^^^^VK^^^ ^a **flP^5ft /a. tliiillla that his work as counsel for the four brotherhoods would mean the direction of a mighty fight His son is Corporal Plumb of Battery of the Eighty-third field artlUery. His wife is heart and soul with him In his fight. The Plumb plan has been Indorsed by the 2,000,000 organised railroad employees of America, and the American Federation of Labor, approving the principle of government ownership, has instructed its executive committee to co-operate with the officers of the railroad Internationals In their effort. It also has been indorsed by several farmers' organizations. CROWELL URGES AIR DEPARTMENT Concentration of the air activities of the United States, civilian, naval and military, within the direction of a single government agency, with an official holding a place in the presi dent's cabinet at the head, is recom mended by the special American avia tion mission, headed by Assistant Sec retary of War Benedict Crowell, which has been studying aircraft develop ment in Europe. The proposed department of avia tion, the mission asserted, should be charged with full responsibility for "placing and maintaining our country In the front rank among nations In the development and utilization of air craft for the national security and In the advancement of civil aerial trans portation and communication arts." The report of the mission, which is divided Into three parts, dealing with general organization, commercial development and technical develop* sent, is based on studies made In England, France and Italy after conferences with air ministries of the three governments, ranking army and navy com- manders, and the foremost aircraft manufacturers. SIMON LAKE, U-BOAT INVENTOR ocean. There Is an alrlocked chamber which enables a man to go out through a deer Into the aea, but which prevents the water from coming in. F1SKE GIVEN AERO CLUB MEDAL The board of governors of the Aero Club of America have awarded the gold medal of the club to Bear Admiral Bradley A. Flake, U. 8. N retired, for his Invention of the tor* pedo plane, patented on July 16, 1912, which was used effectively during the war. Announcement is also made of the receipt of a letter from Admiral Flake which says, among other things: To be awarded the gold medal of the Aero Club of America la an honor that Is exceptional, because the standing of the Aero dub Is exception al. But though the standing of the ere dab is high, the effective work which It carried on throughout the war is not fully appreciated by the nation for the reason that its work was unofficial, and therefore not recog nised officially. "Like many another unrecognised agency however, its Influence was po tent aid profound. Acting ae the advance scout of aeronautic progress, the Aero dub continually gave tion to the country of the possibilities of naval and military aeronautics, In- sisted thvt those possibilities be utilised, and demanded that congress appro- priate such sums of money aa 'would enable the government departments ts utilise those poamfblllties completely and hi time. "Enormous appropriations were then made, but aa congress delayed mak- ing them until after we had actually entered the war, the appropriation* came too late to permit American aeronautics to do ae much effective work ee It otherwise could In winning It." Admiral Flake concludes by paying a tribute to the llgenca of the pressfernair mattera. 3 The man of the hour is Glerm E. Plumb, the author of labor's plan to nationalize the railroads. A few days ago he was as unkaown to the man in the street as any I'hief in Patagonia. His name is in the headlines now, and will stay there along time. The spot light has been thrust upon him with dramatic suddenness. He Is a corpo ration lawyer who gained his experi ence in transportation matters in Chi cago. Mr. Plumb clings steadfastly to the assertion that the railroad unions aim "to eliminate the mative of operation for profit and substitute the motive of operation for service" to which he adds the corollary that "it means democracy in Industry, without which democracy in politics is a mere shell and sham." He lives with his family In Chevy Chase, having moved there from Chi cago recently,when it became apparent ALEPPO, 3 Simon Lake has been at work perfecting the modern submarine since 1896. And while he was perfecting the submarine for destruction be was alto evolving one for salvage. Today his plans are complete, and out In Long Island sound lies the submarine. The device Is apparently simple. A noncollapsible steel tube permits the salvers to have an operating base on the floor of the ocean. A flight of stairs run down this tube. One end of the tube is attached to the surface vessel and the other to an operating chamber. Water-ballast tanks are distributed throughout Its length so that the structure can be placed In equilibrium with the water when ready for submergence. Under perfectly normal conditions a man can walk down these stairs to the bed of the aea. He can step from the submarine and walk in perfect safety and comfort on thefloorof the Byzantine Versus Hamadanlte. During the middle ages Aleppo's ex istence was a life of stormy magnifi cence. Daring the earlier wars of the Saracens with the eastern Roman em pire It was more than once taken and retaken. In the tenth century it be came the seat of a brilliant local dy nasty from Hamadan In Persia. The most noted ruler of this family waa Seyf-ed-Dla, whom the Bysanttne his torians call "Khabdenos," 1. e., the Hamadanlte. Seyf-ed-Dln kept great state at Aleppo, and probably the chief portions of the present fortifications of tiie dtadel were built by him, though It Is quite possible that they are older. He was a patron of art and literature and also a mighty warrior, who led many expeditions against the eastern Reman empire with alternate success end defeat After much success be sustained a terrible defeat In 961 hi the Taurus pusses, aad himself escaped only by a breakneck scramble up a precipice. Next year bis fate waa upon htm, for the great Bysanttne marshal. Mice phoroo Phokaa, soon to be emperor-re gent, marched against Aleppo with all the available forces of the Bast Seyf ed-Dla made desperate efforts be lev led an the citizens of Aleppo and in trenched himself to guard the ap proaches to his capital, while In Mes opotamia a holy war waa proclaimed, aad the troops of Mosul, Bdessa, Mar din and many other places marched to tiie relief of Aleppo. Could all these forces unite tiie Bysanttne general must have been defeated, but he was ao prompt that he reached his goal be fore the Mesopotamlana could arrive. By one of those masterly turning move ments which In those days only By santtne generals snd Bysanttne troops could achieve, PhokaaflankedSeyf-ed Dla out of his tntrenchments and forced him to fight In the open before tiie dry gates. He waa utterly defeat ed, and as his beaten troops poured back Into Aleppo sedition broke out The dttsen soldiers mid the blame of me rent upon tiie Arab and Tnrkhfe mercenaries they turned tbdr swords against one another, and amid this In ternedae strife the Bysanttne cuiras siers stormed the walls and came pour ing Into the streets, sweeping the last aimy of "Khabdanos" before them In rout and runt. For three days the vic torious army wrought Its will on un happy Aleppo, while upon the sack aad destruction the fallen emir and a rem nant of his army looked down from the walls of the impregnable dtadeL per baps those self-same pfles of taway sse whlch crawa the fortress hffl to THE TOMAHAWK, WHITE EARTH, MINN. ALEPP O SBSSHSS^* View of Aleppo and Its Citadel. the capture of which by General AUenby on Octo ber 26,1918, was the culmina tion of the conquest of Syria, Is", like Damascus and Konleh, one of the andent cities of the world. It may, indeed, be older than either cer tainly It appears In history as early as Damascus and before Konleh. It was one of the Syrian towns captured by the Egyptian conqueror, Thothmes lU, about 1480 B. O., and thereafter Is of frequent occurrence in the agitated annals of those early times, says a writer In the Sphere. Under Roman rule It enjoyed a long period of pros perity. Ira andent Syrian name of Halban, or Khalban, was corrupted by the Greeks into Chalybon, but it was also known as Berea. When, after seven centuries of Roman rule, it fell Into the hands of the Arabs, it was tailed by them Haleb, a nearer approx imation to Its ancient name than the Greek Chalybon. The Venetian and other Italian visitors, of whom there were many la the middle ages, blun dered Haleb Into Aleppo-that Is, they dropped the aspirate, as Latins so often do, sounded the final "b" as a "p." and added In the arbitrary fashion of Romans, Greeks and Italians their terminationMo." The secret of Aleppo's long prosper ity, which endured even under Turkish rule, Is Its splendid commercial posi tion at the junction of at least four great trade routes. This was perhaps largely due to the destruction of Pal myra (Tadmor) by Aurdian, after which the bulk of the trade which had passed through the city of Solomon and Zenobta now diverted Itself by a more northerly route through Al eppo. By caravan It traded with Persia and India through Mesopota mia, with Egypt by way of Damascus, with Asia Minor and Constantinople by the andent route through Taurus. In Romano-Persian times the caravan* passed by Ctesiphon,but after the Sara cen conquest was the half-way station on the way to Persia. this day. When the Mesopotamlana arrived they found that Phokaa and his army had quietly retired with their prisoners and plunder, leaving ruin and destitution behind. Aleppo In the Middle Ages. Aleppo's brief political greatness thus fell beneath the hammer stroke of Ntcepboros Phokas, but Its commercial eminence did not leave it. For two centuries Jt led a precarious political existenceusually in vassalage to the dominant great power. It was part of the empire of the mighty Saladin, and probably the work of his masons is to be seen today In the citadel walls. After Saladin and his house had passed away Aleppo fell to the Mameluke sul tans of Egypt. Thither in 1402 came the terrible Timor (Tamerlane) on his way to overthrow the army of Egypt at Damascus. Timur left terrible traces of his pres ence on Aleppo, but the city, thanks to Its splendid situation, recovered, and for the next century or more. Indeed, was at the height of its prosperity. It was Injured by the discovery of the passage round the Cape of Good Hope, but remained great and wealthy until 1822, when it was smitten by an earth quake and almost completely de stroyed, with a loss of life calculated at the lowest at 20,000 persons. Dur ing the thirteenth, fourteenth and fif teenth centuries It was foremost among the trading dtles of the world, and its renown spread far and wide. It was from Aleppo that thefirstpio neers of England's Indian trade and empire started on their long journey to the courts of the moghul emperors. Doubtless It was from some of them, or reports of their journeys which must have been current In Elizabethan London, that Shakespeare and Marlowe learned of the oriental city. %t all events, references to Aleppo are to be found In the plays of bothless In Shakespeare than In Marlowe, whose bent was dearly In the direction of ori ental glamor. Modern Aleppo still suffers from the destruction wrought by the catastrophe of 1822, but there Is no doubt that the researches of skilled areheologlsts would meet withrichreward In a city which has existed continuously for 4,000 years, which has seen the char ioteers of Egypt and of Khattl, the phalanx of Alexander and the legions of Rome, no less than the mailed horse men of Bysantlum and the savage riders of Tlmur and SeUm the Grim. The dtadel walls still stand intact and Imposing the walls of the Inner city are mainly in ruins. In the western rampart there survivesIn the form of an Inscriptionevidence of the pres ence of the HItttte conquerors, who wrested North Syria from the weak hands of the heretic Pharaoh Akena ten. The flat roofs of the houses are often laid out aa gardens, and south aad west of the city extend wide plantations and orchards. Water la supplied by means of an andent aqueduct, a relic of the Roman rule, which, in Syria, aa In Gaul and Brit ain, baa left Indestructible evidence of Its passion for works of practical util ity. There la much local Industry, and as a principal station on the Trans Syrian railway dose to the Bagdad line, Aleppo stffl occupies a position of great Importance. Under civilised rule It has every opportunity of recov ering its former prosperity. "FAMILY HOTEL" CAUGHT ON Ridiculed When First Established Idea Hae Met With Enormous Success. In The first "family" or "temperance" hotel In London, the forerunner of tens of thousands of such hostelriea In all parte of the world, waa opened In Oovent Garden about 146 years ago. An Inn for the more or less permanent accomodation of families, and minus bar, waa an undreamedof thing, and other hotel-keepers laughed the proj ect to acorn. Despite their derision, the aehsma was successful, and made a snug fortune for Its founder, David Low. London now baa hundreds of family andtemperancehotels, and the United States baa thousands of them, The edifice In which Low started his hotel is stffl steading. The build ing waa erected early in the seven teenth century, and was originally the home of 8ir Kendal Dlgby. Crom well's council add sessions In the betiding, It la said, and ft waa the of many other noteworthy gata tt waa converted Into a Europe Is Not Wrecked and Ruined the Greatest War of History By OSCAR T. CROSBY, Interallied Council Europe ha3 not been crushed by the war and her outlook is not a desolate one. When a continent or a country is ruined you do not have to call witnesses to prove it. In the United States the war roused latent human forces which had been neglected and presented to us at the conclusion of the war an industrial and agricultural equipment far superior to the one we pos sessed before. In Europe the war's effect upon real wealth and production has not been different in character. Each of the principal belligerent nations has vastly increased its mechanical capacity for production. England's greatest loss is that of merchant ships, while her power to replace those ships is so much increased that the loss will soon be more than made good. In France there is an ugly streak of devastation running from Flan- ders to Verdun. Thousands have lost their private fortunes. But their desolation is not the ruin of France noT will it even bear heavily upon the task of French reconstruction during the critical years, because full restitution will be made by German money and German labor. France exhibits the same attributes of increased producing efficiency that are shown in Great Britain and the United States. Germany is well off except in the case of her merchant marine. Her industrial plants are intact, and the peace conference has conferred upon her a unique advantage in the power to man them by abolishing the mili- tary establishment in that country. What the world produces in food it consumes every year, no matter whether there is peace or war. There is a hard pinch in some places at present, but the crops now being harvested will take us over the peak of privation. The world will need five years to rest and recuperate and ten mora before another great conflict can be staged. Enduring peace will remain a phantom until the instruments for making war are taken away from separate governments and intrusted entirely to a society of nations. Single Air Control Is Necessary for Army, Navy and Postal Service By HARRY S. NEW, V. S. Senatorfrom Indiana I believe that the aviation question is of sufficient importance to the country to call for the creation of a single department of the government to look after it to the exclusion of everything else. Great Britain was forced to the adoption of this eighteen months or more ago, and so was France. The United States should do likewise, and sooner or later she must do it. It is merely a question of whether she will do it now and take advantage of the present opportunity to get ahead or whether she will wait until forced to do what other nations have done and then attempt to oome from behind with the same old American disregard of expense and lack ef appro-, ciotion of the wisdom of preparedness. I know that there is opposition to the separate department plan on the part of the navy. There is also opposition in certain army quarters, but this ia the result of selfishness and a disregard of the interests of aero- nautics in its broad and general sense. The navy is concededly competent to look after its own aeronautical needs. So likewise is the army. But neither of them can go beyond their own service. The attempt to create such a department may be successfully resisted for a timealthough I honestly believe that congress will be wise enough to discount bureau jealousies and do the obviously sensible thing at thia sessionbut whether it does or not it cannot be long deferred. No man knows what is to be the future of aeronautics. The mar- velous development of the science can be best appreciated when we atop to think that the first man to fly, Orville Wright, is today but forty-eight years old. Shall America realize all thia and shape her aims accordingly in time to keep abreast of other nations, or shall we be permitted to bring up the straggling rear of a rapidly moving procession? That is the question to be answered by congress and the people. We Need an Annual Supplement to the Decalogue in These Latter Days By EDWARD A. ROSS, in "Sin and Sodety" The sinister opportunities presented in this webbed social life have been seized unhesitatingly, because such treasons.have not yet become infa- mous. The man who picks pockets with a railroad rebate, murders with an adulterant instead of a bludgeon, burglarizes with a Takeoff instead of a jimmy, cheats with a company prospectus instead*of a deck of cards, or scuttles his town instead of his ship, doesn't feel on his brow the brand of a malefactor. The shedder of blood, the oppressor of the widow and the fatherless, long ago became odious, but latter-day treacheries fly no skull and crossbones at the masthead. Our social organization has developed to a stage where the old right- euosness is not enough. We need an annual supplement to the Decalogue. The growth of credit institutions, the spread of fiduciary relations, the enmeshing of industry in law, the interlacing of government and busi- ness, the multiplication of boards of inspectors--beneficent as they all are, they invite to sin. What gateways they open to greed I What fresh para- sites they let in on us! How idle in our new situation to intone the old litanies! The reality of thia close-knit life is not to be seen and touched it must be thought The sins it opena the door to are to be discerned by knitting the brows rather than by opening the eyea. It takes imagination to see that bogua medical diploma, lying edrer- tisement, and fake testimonial are death-dealing iiistrumrat* Ittakee imagination to see that savings-bank wrecker, loan shark and inreetmena swindler in taking livelihoods take lives. It takes imagination to see that the business of debauching voters, fixing juries, seducing lawmakers and corrupting public servanta ia likt seeing through the props of a crowded grandstand. Whether we like it or not we are in the organic phase, and the thickening perile thai path car. be beheld only by the mind's eye.