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11 *1 Justice and Fair Dealing for every Indian who desires to beoome a good Citizen. THE TOMAHAWK. Official Organ of the Minnesota Chippewas. 6US H. 8EAULIEU, Founder. Edited by THE TOMAHAWK PUB. CO, White Earth Agency, Minnesota. SUBSCRIPTS: 11.51 PER TEAR II AlfftlCl Eniered at the Postoffice at White Earth, Minn., as mail matter ot thethe second class. It is really to silly to repeat the rumor that certain persons in theing Northern counties have in mind a movement to bring about a divis ion of the state. Dispatches bring the news that meetings have been held on the Range and that the question of state division was seriously discussed. If such could be brought about, it would be a grevious mistake but when one contemplates the utter impossibil ity of a legal break, the absurdity of the whole thing makes one wonder if the idea is not the work of some "nut" and not that of any sane organization as reported. To divide Minnesota would require both congressional and legislative action, and history is not replete with any mention that such vas ever done in the case of other states, furthermore, there would have to be a division of trust funds, state institutions, etc. As sop to Minneapolis it is proposed to make that city the capitol of theonce new division, but whether the Mill city would care to trade the State University which has poured mil lions into its coffers for tfie doubt ful value of a Capitol City is a question. No, Minnesota will Dot be divided in my or your time, and it can be said to the credit pf a majority of the North Country press and its j^eople that they are not excited over the possibility of such. Well, get ready to dig. State Auditor Preus has announced the state tax rate for the next year and its a whopper. The rate as certified to all county auditors., by Mr. Preus, is 8.10 mills, the high est in the history of the State. Following the close of the Civil war, a rate of six mills was inreason effect, but succeeding Legislatures by a course of economy reduced that figure to as low as 2.7 mills in 1910, which was the low level for the state. Since then the fig ures have been increasing, and culminated last week in the high figure of 8.10 mills as certified by Auditor Preus. The new tax rate includes 5.67 miols to cover ap propriations made by the present legislature and 2.43 mills inherited from previous legislatures. What the you probably exclaim, show me. Well, the present leg islature at its regular and special sessions authorized expenditures totalling close to $66,000,000, and some one will simply have to payneed the bill. No one hollered and the members took it for granted that everybody was agreeable. Under the head of state expense a total expenditure of over $32,000,000 for the two years was authorized. The University management de clared it simply could not get long with less than $10,000,000 for building purposes. Then there was nearly $2,000,000 for relief growing out of various calamities and to top it all. the legislature at its late special session kicked in with more than $25,000,000 for the soldier boys. Other items were allowed and State Auditor Preus in figuring up the whole finds a tottal ^authorized expendi ture for 1919 of nearly $66,000,000. Society of American In dians Holds Successful Conference at Minne apolis, The Eight Annual Conference of Society of American Indians which held its sessions at Minne apolis, October 2d, 3d, and 4thpolitical was, in many respects a most notable and representative gather as well as a decided successful occasion. They came from ail points of the compass, the college bred man, the professional man, the business man, the Carlisle and Hampton graduate and a large number from the lower walks of life, but all bent and absorbed in the one great fundamental princi ple of Americrn citizenship for Indians self determination, in other words in Government for, of and by the people, condemna tion of segregated policies, etc., The Indians are heartily tired of being bullied and threatened into doing things'their judgement does not approve. They are weary of the depressing dominance and de moralizing tendencies of undemo cratic policies. They have meekly stood by for these many years in a "no man's land" position, help lessly witnessing the gradual de pletion and squandering of their princely heritage until it hasthe dwindled down to a mere cipher. Most of these appropriations were obtained under the "justification" of and "for the relief and civiliza tion" of this and that tribe of Infendants dians the tribe having the biggest amount to their credit in the U. S. Treasury being invariably repre sented as being most in need of "relief and civilization" and were called upon to bear the heaviest burden of such unjust taxation. Notorious facts of poverty and degredation were reported to ex ist among some of the western tribes and who were practically termed "land poor," Indians whofor held title to thousands of acres of rich grazing lands but who have been and are now deprived of Jem ploying these vast fertile acres to their individual benefits for theorder that under existing "rules and regulations" these lands are leased by the government to rich cattle men who are annually grow ing richer and richer while the Indian is growing poorer and poorer, and several instances were related by competent authority present at the Conference where Indian men and women, the poorer and older members, had been seen "ravenously devouring carrion by the road side" while the favored contractor, the lessor of these Indian grazing lands, were feasting and accumlating fortunes at the expense of America's first citizens, many of them having furnished sons to fight, and die if be, for humanity and world democracy and to make the world a safe place to live in. Time and space does not permit at this time a full and detailed ac count of the good work thus far accomplished by the Society of American Indians, but it can be stated that the Conference was a most successful occasion in every respect. And that the aims and efforts of its policies were greatly aided and encouraged by the mupictures nificent and cordial courtesips tendered them by the people and soul to appreciate them. I Injunction Continued. THE TOMAHAWK. OFFICIAL ORGAN O TI4E MINNESOTA CHIPPEWAS. Truth before Favor." rate the public press of the Twin Cities, especially so of the city of Minne apolis. Thomas Sloan, Attorney, Wash ington, D. C., a mixed-blood In dian, was elected to succeed Dr. Eastman, as President Theo. H. Beaulied, of White Earth, Vice President and Thomas G. Bishop, Tacoma, Wash., Secretary and Treasurer. A legal committee The suit brought by John Morrison, Jr., to restrain and join the Caswell et al faction fro: using the name of the Gem Council of the Chi ppewas oi Min nesota or from attempting *o userp functions of the said General Council of the Chippewas, was heard by Judge Nye of the District court in Detroit on Monday the 6th inst, on a motion by the de to change the place of trial from Becker county to Itasca county. Mr. Webster Ballinger and Frank D. Beaulieu appeared for the plaintiff, John G. Morrison etal., and E. E. McDonald of Bernidji appeared for the defend ants, Caswell et al. As there was some doubt in the mind of the court to grant the change or to proceed with a hearing for a tem porary injunction, the attorneys both the plaintiff and defend ant agreed that the change to Itasca county be made, but the at torneys for the plaintiff insisted that the temporary restraining issued by Judge Roeser be continued in force until a hearing could be secured in Itasca county, accordingly this was allowed by the court, and an order was made transmitting the files in the case to be tried in Itasca county, and t'.ie defendants, Caswell et al, were further restrained from using the name of the General Council or from attempting to userp the functions of the General Council of the Chippewas of Minnesota. The case will be heard probably some time after November 10th, at Bemidji or Grand Rapids. In the meantime the Caswell faction are restrained from using the name of the General Council and from holding themselves out to the public as officers of said Coun cil. God in Nature. More thnn ever we "need to appre ciate the works of God a* shown In the material world. A bine sky, flick ering shadows on the (Trass, the grace in the flight of a birdthese things shonld give ns the sense that God Is still in the world. Let ns listen to the voices of the brook. Let ns watch the waves of the lake. We may or majr not know what Is on the farther, un seen shore, but we can build mental of great beauty. There are thousands of beautiful pictures all around ns If we have eyes to see and White Earth, Becker County, Minnesota, Thursday, October 9, 1919. SUPERINTENOENT DICKENS RESIGNS. composed of the leading attorneys^-.V- 'special agent of the I. fndiun Offir.fi arrivort lustt. representing each tribe was also, elected. j" The time and place for the next Conference has not been decided. It is a matter of congratulation to the Minnesota Indians to know that the progressive spirit and activities and success of the Minnesota Chippewas received the warmest comment and support from the representative members of every tribe present and most of the speakers emphasized their arguments with the statement, of "let us copy after the Minnesota Chippewas, who by their persistent advocacy of their just rights theft* splendid tribal organization, the General Council, Minnesota Chip* pewas, of which JohnG. Morrison is President and its fearless official organ, THE TOMAHAWK, are now practically on the threshold of success towards freedom and full citizenship." Mr. Walter F. Dickens, who has served here as Superintendent of this Agency since last March, tendered bis resignation to the De partment some two weeks ago and the same has been accepted. Mr. Indian Office., arrived las SatuSat.nr-r day evening and will succeed Mr. Dickens, whether- temporarily or permanently we are not advised. Deserved comment of Mr. Dick ens' popularity and efficiency as superintendent and of his social courtesy, both in and out of office, while we desire to do so, must be limited at this time as definite in formation concerning his release and appointment of his successor did not reach us until just before going to press. We can but say that his coming here was hailed with a most joyous welcome and his popularity for fair play and a square deal for the Indian has grown day by day and the people sincerely hoped that he would remain here until such time as the affairs of this agency were brought to a final close. While we regret very, very much to lose bis valued council and services we heartily wish him success and prosperity in his new field of labor. Mr. Dick ens and his daughter Alouise will leave in a few days for their new home in Texas, making the trip overland in their car. Mrs. Dick ens and the balance of the family will remain here until a later date. Long before the first white man set foot in America, the conserva tion of certain natural resources was most carefully practiced among the Indian tribes of what is now the northeastern part of the United States, as Prof. Grank G. Speck of the University of Pennsylvania was first to show. To the Indian, Professor Speck well says, there was no wilderness. Trackless to the whites, to him all the land was known, and within the limitations set by his knowledge of natural resurces all of it was used. Among the Algonkian tribes each familyin our own sense of the term, a group of relatives owned a hunting ground of its own, usually of from two hundred to four hundred square miles in area, within which their right to kill game was exclusive and su preme. The boundaries of this hunting ground were determined by rivers, lakes, ridges, or other natural features. In some regions however, the boundaries were marked by signs blazed on the trees, or by cutting figures in bark representing the animal em blem of the owner. At times the shape of the family hunting ground was determined by the local distribution of game animals. Thus it might extend from the lower lands where moose were naturally abundant (in virgin forest districts) in a long uarrow strip to the higher regions de nuded by fires where bear were to (Continned on 8th page.) When you want the best White Earth, Published in behalf of, and to secure the welfare of the Indians of the United States. WTNNE5DTS HISTORICAL SOCJETT IndiansSaved Wild Game. **MV**r\M*a^^ In Groceries, Dry Goods, Winter Clothing, Footwear, etc., call on us. We're right here every day in the year (except Sunday) to supply you3 with any and everything you may need in THE BEST AND PUREST GROCERIES IN THE MARKET. The B. L. Fairbanks Company, ISo. 25. The Society Of. AMERICAN INDIANS. A NATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF AMERICANS O muni ted at Ohio State University APRIL, 1911. MEMBERSHIP ActiveIncluding Magazine, $2 annually. Junior ActiveIndians "under 21 years of age. Including Maga zine, $1.50 annually. Without Magazine, 50c annually. Application for membership should be made to the Secretary-Treasur er, Society of American Indians, 707 20th Street, Washington, D. C. Information regarding the Society will be cheerfully furnish ed upon inquiry to the Secretary Treasurer, Washington, D. C. Dr. CHARLES EASTMAN, President, Amherst, Mass. LOCAL DRUGGISTS MAKE A STATEMENT Local people should know that a few doses of simple buckthorn bark, glycerine, etc., as mixed in Adler-i ka, often relievo or prevent appen dicitis. Because this simple mix ture- Pushes tho alimentary tract COMPLETELY It relieves ANY CA.SE constipation, sour stomach or r\H. A short, treatment helps' chronic r.vomach trouble. Adler-i ka has easiest and most thorough action of anything we ever sold. L. I. HAMILTON, DRUGGIST. Ogema, Minn. riinnesota.