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ANTA CLAUS, as most children
and all grown-ups know, is a nick name for St. Nicholas. And St. Nicholas was not a German saintthat will please all good Americans. The saint of children lias not come to us from the people who so wantonly abused the children of France and Belgium. When we call St. Nicholas "Santa Claus" we are merely saying lu our own way "San Nicolaas," as the peo ple of Holland say it. For the Hollanders, who settled Jn New York and New Jersey 300 years ago at the very'beginning of our country, brought fian Nicolaas with them, and it was not long be fore Americans were saying "Santa Clans." Why, St. Nicholas belongs to all the world. Hundreds of churches in England bear his name. There are more than a hundred St. Nicholas churches in Belgium. Thousands of such churches are scattered all over Europe. The queer thing about it is that St. Nicholas was really born in Asia Minor, in Panthera, in the province of Lycia, in the sixth century. St Nicho las of Barl, he is oftenest called by Europeans, but only the bones of St. Nicholas reposing for eight centuries in the crypt of a handsome cathedral at Bari, Italy, have" given him that title. He never lived in Bari. Italian sea traders, who worshiped him as their especial protector, stole his body from its resting place in Myra in the twelfth cen tury and brought it to the Italian seaport. Since that time the celebration held there' in the saint's honor is unique. The eastern world knew and loved him first, but tt Is from western Europe that we learn of many -of the quaint customs connected with the celebra tion of his birth. In Lycia he lived to a good old age, filling his days even In childhood by,doing good deeds and giving lavishly to the poor of the fortune he inherited. It was Christlike to-give, so, as a steward of God, his wealth belonged to God's children, Nicholas believed. Finally he was made bishop of Myra, where he went to live after a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. It Was not strange that after such a life of charity he should become a saint of the common people, even as St. George was a saint of knight hood. He was invoked by the laborer toiling for bis daily bread, by mariners, by merchants. He was protector of the weak against the strong, the poor against the rich, the captive, the prisoner, the slave. He was especial guardian of maidens, schoolboys, the orphan poor. Throughout most of Europe children -are taught to reverence him, and to believe if they are docile and attentive to their duties he will fill the cap or stocking with dain ties if they are naughty or Idle,-he certainly has a rod in pickle to bring along for them. Here is what the Encyclopedia Britannlca has to say about St. Nicholas: "St. Nicholas, bishop of Myra, in Lycia, a saint honored by the Greeks and the Latins on the sixth of December. His cult Is as celebrated as his history is obscure. All the accounts that have come down to us are of a purely legendary char acter, and it Is impossible' to find any single in cident confirmed historically. The main facts of his life are usually given as follows: "He was bishop of\Myra at the time of the Emperor Diocletian, was persecuted, tortured for the faith, and kept in prison until the more tol erant reign of Constantine, and was present at the council of Nicaea. It should be observed that this last circumstance is Ignored by all histor ians and that St Athanasius, who knew all the notable bishops of the period, never mentions Nicholas, bishop of Myra. The oldest known monument of the cult of St. Nicholas seems to be the Church of Sts. Phiscus and Nicholas built at Constantinople by the Emperor Justinian. In the West, the name of St Nicholas appears in the ninth century martyrologies, tand churches dedi cated to him are to be found at the beginning of the eleventh century. It is more especially, however, from the time of the removal of his body to Bari, in Apulia, that his cult became popular. The Inhabitants of Bari organized an expedition, seized his remains by means of a ruse, and transported them to Bari, where they were receiyed in triumph on the ninth of May, 1087, and where the foundations were laid of a new basilica in his honor. This was the origin of a famous and still popular pilgrimage. There are nearly 400 churches In England dedi cated to St Nicholas. He Is the patron saint of Bussia the special protector of children, schol i a ars, merchants and sailors and is invoked by travelers against robbers. In art St Nicholas is represented with various attributes, being most commonly depicted with three children standing in a tub by bis side vOf the various interpreta tions ef this, none Is absolutely certain. One ex planation has been sought in the legend of St Hldbplas miraculously restoring to life three rich juulln. who had been murdered, cut up, and con cealed in a salting tub by a thievish innkeeper or hatcher, In whose house they had taken lodg- "A legend of his surreptitious bestowal of dow ries upon the three daughters of an impoverished citizen is said to have originated the old custom of giving presents In secret on the eve of 'St. Nich olas, subsequently transferred to Christmas day. Hence the association of Christmas with 'Santa Claus,* and American corruption of the Dutch form, 4San Nicolaas,' the custom being brought to America by the early Dutch colonists." Many wonder tales are told of St. Nicholas. Here are three famous adventures of the saint: Rescue of the Stolen Boy. There was a rich merchant who was a Christian. He lived near the border of a heathen land. One day his only son was stolen by some wicked neighbors, who sold him to a heathen king. The boy was handsome, so the king made him the royal cup-bearer. It happened that the king was giving a great banquet And as the boy was presenting the cup full of wine he suddenly remembered that it was the Feast of St Nicholas, and that his family father, mother, and sisterswere happily cele brating the day. Thinking about this, the boy burst into tears, "Why do you cry?" asked the king angrily. 'Do you not see that your tears are falling into my cup and spoiling my wine?" "This Is the Feast of St Nicholas," answered the boy, sobbing, "and every one at home is eat ing and is merry! And, alas! I am aot thereI" "Great may be your St Nicholas," replied the king scornfully, "but he cannot save you from my hand!" Scarcely had the king spoken these words when a violent whirlwind tore around outside the palace, and a flash of lightning illuminated the hall, and loud thunder roared. And, lol St Nicholas him self, dressed in his bishop's robes, and wearing his mitre, stood before the throne. He caught the boy by the locks, and flying with him through the dome of the hall, whirled him rapidly through the air. In a few minutes he set him down in the midst of his astonished family, who were keeping the feast of the good St Nicholas. The Terrified Robbers. After St Nicholas was dead, he still cared to help people. Once there was a man who would not become a Christian. He heard how many kind things St Nicholas did for his followers, so he stole an image of the saint He placed the image in the best room of his house, which was filled with treasures. The next morning, before he left the house, he said to the image: "Guard my treasures! If, when I return, I find anything gone, beat you well!" So saying, be went away. He had not been gone long when robbers broke Into the bouse and stole all the treasures, aad carried them off to their den. The man came back and saw what had happened. He was filled with fury. He took a whip and beat and hacked the image without mercy. That very night St Nicholas himself appeared to the robbers. He showed them his bruised and bleeding form, and commanded them to restore the treasure they had stolen. They were terrified, and gathering together all the stuff, carried it back to Its owner. They told him what had hap pened, and he was so astonished that he immedi ately became a Christian. The Boy and the Cup. Once there was a rich man who bad no son to be heir to his wealth. He made a vow to St Nicholas that If a son were born to him be would THE TOMAHAWK, WHITE EARTH, MINN. 0 give the saint a cui, of gold. Time went b#, and a beautiful boy was born. Immediately tho father had a cup made of pure gold. It was very fcwvy and wrought all over with figures. In fact the cup was so elegant that when the goldsmith had finished it the father decided to keep it for him self, and have a silver one* made for the good saint When the silver cup was finished, the father took his little son,.who was old enough to walk, and set out for the shrine of St. Nicholas. On the wny, feeling thirsty, he stopped near a river, and giving the cup of gold to the boy, told him to fetch some water. The child went to do so, but stooping over, slipped on the bank and fell into the river. And he was seen no more. The father, weeping with grief and repentance, hastened to the shrine and laid the silver cup on the altar. But the cup rolled to the floor. Once, twice, thrice, did the man place it on the altar, but every time it fell to the ground. And while all the people who stood by marveled to see this wonder, suddenly the little boy himself stood on the altar steps, holding 'the cup of gold In his hand. St Nicholas had saved him! Full of joy the father took the cup of gold and placed it with the silver one upon the altar. Then thanking St Nicholas, he took his son and carried him safely home. As the Christmas legend came down the ages it gathered to itself the myths df all the faiths and what more natural and right than that the religion of the brotherhood of man should contain something of every ideal and every form of wor ship of man, since the human race began? And last, but somehow most conspicuous now among all the traditions, the legend of St. Nicho las, or Santa Claus, straight from Holland! Hollanders celebrate Christmas most heartily. The Star of Bethlehem, as seen In Holland, Is the harbinger of Christmasa huge illuminated star which is carried through the silent, dark, Dutch streets shining upon the crowding people, and typical of the star which once guided the wise men of the east The young men of a Dutch town carry this star through the streets as the signal that Christ mas has come again. They gather money for the poor from the crowds who come out to welcome the symbol of peace, and having done this for the good of those whom fortune has not befriended, they betake them to the head burgomaster of the town, who Is bound to set down the youths who form the star company to a very comfortable meal. 'Tis a great institution, the Star of Bethle hem, in many Dutch towns and dtles. Christmas Is celebrated In Holland as a time for sugar plums and candies and gifts. Toward dusk, the story goes, a white sheet Is spread in side the door, and the family, attired In their best and bravest await the saint Presently he ar rives, clad in embroidered robes, with gems. Jew eled gloves and golden miterand in his arms either gifts or sweets or the dreaded birch rod for the children according to their various deserts, And these, with a little speech of scolding or ap proval, be drops upon the sheet before he vanishes again into the night Such Is the kindly saint who came to the island of Manhattan with the first Dutch settlers and still lives among us changed only in name and costume-like all the rest of the immigrants. 6,000,000 Christmas Tree*. It takes about 6.000,000 trees to supply the dv mand of the entire country, from Canada to Mexy lco, and from coast to coast N. D. SPECIAL SESSION DOES IHPORTMTWORK Farmers Act Quickly to Meet Pressing Problems in State. WOMAN SUFFRAGE PASSED. Several of the Industrial taws Amend. ed for Greater EfficiencyA County Cow Purchasing Plan Investigate State Knockers. Bismarck, N. D.In its special session the farmer legislature of this state has lived up to its rec ord for constructive legislation. Several of the new Industrial laws have been amended in the interest of greatsV efficiency. Dairying is promoted by making it possible for counties to issue bonds to furnish cows to associa tions of 10 or more farmers. The soldier bonus law has been broadened. Important steps have been tak en to limit the power of the three turncoat state officials to work mischief. Propaganda and propagandists aiming to hurt the state credit will be investigated. The federal woman suffrage amendment has been approved. Due to the speed and economy of tne regular session this special ses sion haw been held without cost to the state. And the special session has been able to reduce the expected state budget by $600,000 and state taxes by 25 per cent. Of this amount $100,000 is the sum given the state bank to start operations which bank is now able to return. The workmen's compensation bureau was able to re turn $50,000. Cows For Drouth Sections. The county cow buying law is a farmers' method of meeting the great problem in the drouth sections of the state. Balanced farming would give the farmer something to fall back on when the grain crops fail, and a gen eral development of the dairy indus try would be likely to result in suc cessful co-operative creameries whore isolated dairying fails. Upon the petition of 50 or moro free holders, the county commissioners may issue 6 per cent bonds, the proceeds of which may be used to purchase cows for members of a cow-owning association. Not more than 5 cows to cost not more than $1,000 are to be bought for each member. For each 50 cows one pure bred sire IB to be purchased and the cost pro-rated to the members of the association. The buying is to be done through the of fice of the state dairy commissioner. The farmer must plant five acres of corn or other cultivated fodder crop for each cow obtained thus, and there are other safeguards thrown around the public's investment. The bill was brought out by Senator A. A. Leider back of Dunn county who with 3 herds of 30 dairycattle has been able to withstand 4 years of failure of the wheat crop while many of his neigh bors have been cleaned out. Home Building Helped. The special session has also made provision for other special aid to drouth farmers, and the bank of North Dakota will be able to put a good deal of state credit in the sec tions needing financial help. The home building act has been amended to allow the state to issue $2,000,000 in bonds that the work may pushed more rapidly. Underbuild* ing during the war and the high cost if commercial building and commer cial interest rates now have given rise to a great demand for state-built homes. Both houses have passed the bill making the new laws effective 10 daysr after the session adjourns. Irrigation Progress. The reclamation service, according to its annual report, irrigated during 6 crop year 1918 nearly 1,120,000 ores, covered by project statistics, and the cropB raised on this land were worth over $66,000,000. Water was. furnished to an additional 500,000 acres not counted as "actually irri gated." The Irrigated area, covered by crop census, is 93,000 acres more than In 1917. In order to deliver this water the service operated Irrigation works that included 40 reservoirs, several power and pump plants, over 12,000 miles of canals and drains, as well as pipe lines, flumes and tunnels, and thou sands of structures such as dams, headgates, weirs, checks, drops, etc. It also continued the extension of the projects, Including the construc tion of 396 miles of canals 179 miled of drains and nearly 8,000 canal struc tures, and excavated 14,000,000 cubic yards of earth and rock. One of its special fobs was the sur vey of possible soldier-settlement tracts throughout the United States, locating feasible projects in almost every state, ranging in area from 5,- 000 to over 20,000 acres. The government has been far more snecessful with irrigation than private companies have largely because the private concerns look for too much speculative profit from the farmer who works the land. MINNEAPOLIS VOTERS DEFEAT STREETCAR UN Company Fails by 6,943 Votes in Spite of Newspaper Support. LARGE SUMS EXPENDED. Result Shows People Are Awake Will Strengthen Farmer-tabor Cause At Next Election Next Fight In State Leg islature. Minneapolis, Minn.With only 3 of 13 wards in the city favor able, the people of this city turned down the plea of street car com pany for higher fares by a deci sive vote. Nearly as many voters turned out for this special election in spite of the cold as turned out last fall. The vote for the whole city was 23,37* for to 30,3*5 against. Noteworthy features of the elec tion were the expensive publicity campaign carried on by the com pany while claiming to need high er fares and the line-up of the city daily papers with the company. In spite of its heavy election ex penses the company shows profits for the first 10 months of this year of $850,000. The company wanted an excessive valuation recognized and a so-called "cost of service" plan which was only a round about way of rais.'ng fares over the franchise rates. State Battle Next. Aside from getting poss hie minor concessions from the city council such as waiving of charges for paving be tween tracks and penalties for poor service, the company will probably make its next fight in the state cam paign. An attempt will be made to push through the legislature measures which could not be obtained locally. The defeat thus lines up another strong group to help oppose the farm er-labor candidates in 1920. But on the other hand, the progressives which won In the recent election with out press Bupport will have to Join the farmers and workerB of the State to protect their city. The machine can didates will inevitably be pledged to give the utilities what they want The new farmer-worker daily to be pub lished here soon will also be a promin ent factor in the 1920 fight. High Valuation Wanted. The company was probably mors interested in getting its own valuation approved by the voters than in high er rates. Traction maganted through out the country are preaching public ownership now because the business has been milked to death and cannot yield the returns obtained in indus tries still operating on the war prof iteering basis. It would appear that the sooner the properties are sold, the higher the prices are likely to be. Sales have already been made to the city In Seattle, Washington, and many- other places. The terms given to the utility interests in Seattle, while Ole Hanson was mayor there are said to have been especially satisfactory to the In terests. On the other hand they make profitable municipal ownership that much harder. Two Fares Pay Better. Minneapolis is one of the few cities of the United States in which the traction company has not been al lowed to increase rates on the plea of higher expense. And it is probably due to this fact that the company Is able to show considerable profit. In other cities where the rates have been raised to 7 to 10 cents instead of 5 cents, people stopped riding short distances to such extent that the com panies found themselves worse off than bci'ore. Boston became worse off with 10 cents than it had been with 5 cents, and on the contrary Cleveland, Ohio, which for many years has had 3 cent fare, has been doing fairly well in the last year with an increase of only 1 cent. Twin Cities' Legion Posts De mand Baker's Resignation. The demand for the resignation of Secretary of War Baker coming from Twin Cities' posts of the American Le gion may be of considerable signifi cance. Hitherto different officers of the legion and different posts have made strong attacks on progressives as well as radicals on the plea that it was Americanism rather than politics. Breaking into old line politics, how ever, may speedily produce such re* suits as to force the Legion definitely out of politics. The Grand Army of the Republic thus ceased to meddle in political affairs after a brief ex perience with insiders who attempted to use it for political capital. After all the losses which the farm ers have suffered in the last four months in the bogus cost of living drive, the cost of living in our cities is officially uow reported to be higher than ever before. "The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof" declares the scrip ture and it is not conceivable that He wants either His earth or Its fullness parcelled out among a fe* mouopo* 'tots.