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New Ulm weekly review. [volume] (New Ulm, Minn.) 1878-1892, December 11, 1878, Image 3

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THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.
Delivered to the Last Session of the
45th Congress, Dec. 2, 1878.
FELLOW CITIZENS OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OP
REPRESENTATIVES: Our heartfelt gratitude is due
to the Divine Being who holds in His hands
the destinies of nations for the continued be
stowal, during the last year, of countless
blessings upon our country. We are at peace
with all nations. Our public credit has greatly
improved, and is perhaps now stronger than
ever before. Abundant harvests hare rewarded
the labors of those who till the soil. Our man
ufacturing industries are reviving, and it is
believed that the general prosperity, which has
been so long anxiously looked for, is at last
within our reach.
TgE VELLOW FEVER.
The enjoyment of health by our people gen
erally has, however, been interrupted during
the past season by the prevalence of a fatal
pestilence, the yellow fever, in some portions
of the Southern States, creating an emergency
which called for prompt and extraordinary
measures of lelief. The disease appeared at
New Orleans and other place* on the lower Mis*
sissippi BOOH after midsummer. It was rapidly
spread by fugitives from the iniected towns
and cities, and did not disappear until early in
Novembei. The States of Louisiana. Missis
sippi and Tennessee have suffered severely.
About 100.000 cases are believed to have oc
curred, of which about 20,000, according to in
telligent estimates, proved fatal. It is im
possible to estimate with any proximate to ac
earacy, the loss to the country occasioned by
the epidemic. It is to be reckoned by
the hundred millions of dollars. The
suffering and destitution that resulted
excited the deepest sympathy in all parts of
the Union. Physicians and nuises hastened
from every quarter to the assistance of the af
flicted communities. Voluntary contributions
of money and supplies in every needed form
were speedily and generously furnished. The
government was able to respond in some meas
ure to the call for help by providing tents,
medicine and food for the sick and destitute,
the requisite directions for the purpose being
given in the confident expectation that this ac
tion of the executive would receive the
sanction of Congress. About 1.8C0
tents and rations of the value of about
$25,000 were sent to cities and towns which ap
plied for them, full details of which will be
furnished to Congiess by the proper depart
ment. The fearful spread of this pestilence
has awakened a veiy general public sentiment
in favor of a national sanitary administration,
which shall not only control quarantine, but
have the sanitary supervinion of internal com
merce in times of epidemics, and hold an ad
visory relation to the State and municipal
health authorities, with powers to deal with
whatever endangers the public health, and
which the municipal and State authorities are
unable to regulate. The national quarantine
act, approved April 29, 1878, which was passed
too late in the last hours of Congress to provide
the means for carrying it into practical opera
tion during the pafit season, is a step in the
direction here indicated. In view of the ne
cessity for the most effective meaures by
quarantine and otheiwise for the protection of
our seaports and the country generally from
this and. other epidemics, it is recommended
that Congre=s gi've to the whole subject early
and caretul consideration.
THE COLOR LINE.
The permanent pacification of the country by
the complete protection of all citizens in every
civil and political right continues to be of par
amount interest with the great body of our
]eople Every step in this direction is wel
comed with public aporoval, and every mter
i notion of steady and uniform progiess to the
desired consummation awakens general uneas
iness And wide-spread condemnation. The re
cent Congressional elections have furnished a
direct and irnstwoithy tfst of the advance thus
tar made in the practical establishment of the
right of suffei age secured by the constitution
to the liberated race in the Southern States.
All disturbing influences, real or imaginary,
had bten removed from all of these States.
The constitutional amendments which confer
ifd freedom and equality of civil and political
lights upon the colored people of the South
weie adooted by the concurrent action of the
great body of god citizens who main
tained the authority of the national govern
ment and the integrity and perpetuity of the
Onion at such a cost of treasure and life as a
\MSO and necessary embodiment in the organic
law of the just results of the war. The peo
ple of the former slave-holding States accepted
these results and gave, in every practicable
form, assurances that the thirteenth, four
teenth and fifteenth amendments and laws
passed in pnrsurnce thereof, should, in good
taith. be enforced rigidly and impartially in
letter and spirit, to the end that the humblest
citizen, without distinction of race or color,
should, under them, receive full and equal pro
tection person and property and in political
lights and privileges. By these constitutional
amendments the southern section of the Union
obtained a large increase ot political power in
Congress and in the electoral college, and the
country justly expected that elections would
proceed, as to the enfranchised race, upon the
same circumstances of legal and constitutional
freedom and protection which obtained in all
the other States of the Union. The friends
of law and order looked forward
to the conduct of these elections, as offering to
the general judgment of the country an impor
tant opportunity to measure the degree in
which the right of suffrage could be exercised
by the colored people, and would be respected
by their fellow-citizens. But a more general
enjoyment of freedom of suffrage by tie col
ored people, and a more just and generous pro
tection of that freedom, by the communities
of which they form a part, were generally an
ticipated, than the record of the election dis
closes. In some of those States in which the
colored people have been unable to make their
opiuions felt in the election, the result is main
ly due to influences not easily measured or
remedied by the legal protection, but in
the States of Louisiana and South Car
olina at large, and in some particular
Congressional districts outside of these States
the records of the election seem to compel the
conclusion that the rights of colored voters
have been overridden, and their participation
in the elections not permitted to be either gen
eral or free. It will be for the Congress for
which these elections were had to make such
examination into their conduct as may be ap
propriate to determine the validity of the
claims of members to theii seats. In the mean
while it becomes the duty of the executive and
judicial departments of the government, each
in its province, to inquire into and punish vio
lations of the laws of the United States which
have occurred. I can but repeat what
[said, in this connection, in my last message
that whatever authority rests with me to this
end, I shall not hesitate to put forth, and I am
unwilling to forego a renewed appeal to the leg
islatures, the courts, the executive authorities
and the people of the States where the
wrongs have been perpetrated, to give their as
sistance towards bringing to justice the offend
ers and preventing a repetition of the crime.
No means within my power will be spared to
obtain a full and fair investigation of the al
leged crimes, and to secure the conviction and
just punishment of the guilty.
It is to be observed that the principal appro
bation made for the department of jnstice at
too last session contained the following clause
"And for defraying the expenses which may be
incurred in the act Approved Feb. 28,1877 en
titled an act to amend an act approved Hay 30
1870, entitled an act to enforce the rights of
citizens of the United States to vote in the
several States of the Union and for other pur
poses, or any acts amendatory thereof, or sup
plementary thereto. It is the opinion of the
attorney general that the expenses of these
proceedings will largely exceed the amount
which was thus provided, and I rely confidently
upon Congress to make adequate appropriations
to enable the executive department to enforce
the laws.
I respectfully urge upon your attention that
the Congressional elections in every district, in
a very important sense, are justly a matter of
interest .and concern throughout the whole
country. Each State and every political party
is entitled to a share of power which is con
ferred by the legal and constitutional suffrage.
It is the right of every citizen possessing the
qualifications prescribed by law to cast one un
timidated ballot, and to have his ballot hon
estly counted. So long as the '^exercise
of this power and the enjoyment of
this right are common and equal, prac
tically as well as formally, submission
to the results of the suffrage will be accorded
loyally and cheerfully, and all the departments
of the government will feel the true vigor of
the popular will thus expressed. No tempo
rary or administrative interests of government,
however urgent or weighty, will ever displace
the zeal of our people in defense of the pri
mary rights of citizenship. They understand
that the protection of liberty requires the
maintenance in full vigor of the manly meth
ods of free speech, free press and free suffrage,
and will sustain the full authority of the gov
ernment to enforce the laws which are framed'
to preserve these inestimable rights.
The material progress and welfare of the
States depend on the protection afforded to
their citizens. There can be no peace without
such protection, no prosperity without peace,
and the whole country is deeply interested in
the growth and prosperity of all its parts.
While the country has not yet reached complete
amity of feeling and reciprocal confidence be
tween the communities so lately and so seri
ously estranged, I feel an absolute assurance
that the tendencies are in that direction, and
with increasing force. The power of public
opinion will override all political prejudices
and all sectional or State attachments in de
manding that all over our wide territory the
name and character of citizens of the United
States shall mean one aid the same thing, and
carry with them unchallenged security and re
spect.
PARIS EXPOSITION.
Our relations with other countries continue
peaceful. Our neutrality in contests between
foreign powers has been maintained and
recommerce
spected. The universal exposition held at
Paris during the past summer has been attend
ed by large numbers of our citizens. The
brief period allowed for the preparation and
arrangement of the contributions of our citi
zens to this great exposition was well employed
in energetic and judicious efforts to overcome
this disadvantage. These efforts, led and
directed by the commissioner general, were
remarkably successful, and the exhibition of
the products of American industry was credita
ble and gratifying in scope and character.
The reports of the United States commission
ers, giving its results in detail, will be duly
laid before you. Our participation in thiB in
ternational competition for the favor and the
trade of the world may be expected to produce
useful aud important results in promoting in
tercourse, lriendship and commerce with other
nations.
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY CONFERENCE.
In accordance with the provisions of the act
of February 28, 1878, three commissioners were
appointed to an international conference on
the subject of adopting a common ratio be
tween gold and silver, for the purpose of estab
lishing, internationally, the use of bi-metahc
money, and securing fixity of the relative
value between those metals. Invita
tions were addressed to the various
governments which had expressed
a willingness to participate in its deliberations.
The conference had its meeting in Paris in Au
gust last. The report of the commissioners,
herewith submitted, will show its results. No
common ratio between gold and silver could be
agreed upon by the conference. The general
conclusion was reached, that it is necessary to
maintain in the world the monetary functions
of silver, as well as of gold, leaving the selec
tion of the use of one or the other of these two
metals, or of both, to be made by each State.
THE HALIFAX AWABD.
Congress having appropriated at its last ses
sion the sum of $5,500,000 to pay the award of
the joint commission at Halifax, if after cor
respondence with the British government on
the subject of the conformity ot the award to
the reouirements of the treaty, and to the
terms of the question thereby submitted to the
commission, the President sholl deem it his
duty to make the payment, communications
upon these points were addressed to the British
government through the legation of the United
States at London. Failing to obtain the con
currence of the British government in the views
of this government respecting the award, I
have deemed it my duty to tender the sum
Lamed within the year fixed by the treaty, ac
companied by a notice of the grounds of the
payment, and a protest against any other con
struction of the Bame. The correspondence
upon this subject will be laid before you.
CUBAN INSURRECTION.
The Spanish government has officially an
nounced the termination of the insurrection in
Cuba and the restoration of peace throughout
the island. Confident expectations are ex
pressed of a revival of trade and prosperity,
which it is earnestly hoped may prove well
founded. Numerous claims of American citi
zens for relief for injuries or restoration of
property have been among the incidents of the
long-continued hostilities. Some of these
claims are in process of adjustment by Spain,
and the others are promised early and careful
consideration.
FOREIGN RELATIONS.
The treaty made with Italy in regard to re
ciprocal consular privileges has been dnly rati
fied and proclaimed. No questions of grave
importance have arisen with any other of the
European powers.
JAPAN AND CHINA.
The Japanese government has been desirous
of a revision of such parts of its treaties with
foreign powers as relate to commerce, and it is
understood has addressed to each of the treaty
powers a request to open negotiations with that
view. The United States government has been
inclined to regard the matter favorably. What
ever restrictions upon trade with Japan are
found injuriousto that people cannot but affect
injuriously nations holding commercial inter
course with them. Japan, after a long period
of seclusion, has within the last few years made
rapid strides in the path of enlightenment and
progress, and not unreasonably is looking for
ward to the time when her relations with the
nations of Europe and America shall be assimi
lated to those which we hold with each other.
A treaty looking to this end has been made
which will be submitted for consideration of
the Senate.
After an interval of several years the Chinese
government has again sent envoys to the United
States. They have been received, and a per
manent legation is now established here by that
government. It is not doubted that this step
will be of advantage to both nations in pro
moting friendly relations and removing causes
of difference.,,, ,X fihS ^'f* *&>
SAMOA.
The trcatv with the Sarauau Islands bavins
been dnly ratified and accepted on the part ot
both governments is now in operation, and a
survey and sounding of the harbor cf Pago
have been made by a naval vessel of the United
States, with a view of its occcpation as a naval
station, if found desirable to the service.
RELATIONS WITH MEXICO.
Since the resumption of diplomatic relations
with Mexico, correspondence has been opened
and still continues between the two govern
ments npon the various questions which at one
time seemed to endanger their relations. While
no formal agreement has been reached as to
the troubles on the border, much has been
done to repress and diminish them. The
effective force of United States 'troops on the
Bio Grande, by a strict and faithful compliance
with instructions, has done much to remove
the sources of dispute, and it is now under
stood that a like force of Mexican troops on
the other Bide of the river is also making an
energetic movement against marauding Indian
tribes. This government looks with
the greatest satisfaction upon every
evidence" of strength in the national
authority of Mexico, and upon every effort put
forth to prevent or to punish incursions upon
our territory. Reluctant to assume any action
or attitude in the control of these incursions
by military movements across the border, not
imperatively demanded for the protection of the
lives and property of our own citizens, I shall
take the earliest opportunity consistent with
the proper discharge of this plain duty to
recognize the ability of the Mexican govern
ment to restrain, effectively, the violations of
our territory.
It is proposed to hold, next year, an interna
tional exhibition Mexico, and it is believed
that the display of the agricultural and manu
facturing products of the two nations will
tend to abetter understanding and increased
commercial intersts between their people.
SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES!.
With Brazil, and the republics of Central and
South America, some steps have been taken
toward the development of closer commercial
intercourse. Diplomatic relations have been
resumed with Columbia and Bolivia. A bound
ary question between the Argentine republic
and Paraguay has been submitted by those
governments for arbitration to the President of
the United States, and I have, after careful ex
amination, given a decision upon it. A naval
expedition up the Amazon and Madeira rivers
has brought back information valuable for sci
entific and commercial purposes. A like expe
dition is about visiting the coast of Africa and
the Indian Ocean.
FOREIGN COMMERCE.
The reports of diplomatic and consular offi
cers relative to the development of our foreign
here, furnished many facts that have
proved of public interest and have stimulated
to practical exertion the enterprise of our
people.
THE TREASURY.
The report of the secretary of the treasury
unishes a detailed statement of the operations
of that department of the government and of
the condition of the public finances. The or
dinary revenues from all sources for the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1878, were $257,763,878.70.
The ordinary expenditures for the same period
were $236,964,820.80. leaving a surplus revenue
for the year of $20,799,551.90. The receipts
for the present fiscal year ending June 80, 1879,
actual and estimated, are as follows: Actual
receipts for the first auarter, commencing July
1, 1878, $73,389,743.43 estimated receipts for
the remaining three-fourths of the year, $191,-
110,256.57. Total for the present fiscal year,
actual and estimated, $264,500,000.
The expenditures for the same period, will
be, actual and estimated, as follows: For the
quarter commencing July 1st, 1878, actual ex
penditures, $73,344,583.27, for the remaining
three quarters of the ear the expenditures are
estimated at $166,755,426.73, masing the total
expenditures $240,160,000, and leaving an es
timated surplus of the revenue for the year
ending June 30. 1879, of 244,000.00.
The total receipts during the next fiscal year,
ending June 80, 1880, estimated according to
existing laws, will be $264,500,000, and the es
timated ordinary expenditures for the same
period will be $236,320,412.68, leaving a sur
plus of $28,179,587.32 for that year.
THE PUBLIC DEBT.
In the foregoing statements of expenditures,
actual and estimated, no amount is allowed for
the sinking fundB provided for by the act ap
proved February 25, 1862, which requires that
1 per cent, of the entire debt of the United
States shall be purchased or paid within each
fiscal year to be set apart as a sinking fund.
There has been, however, a stnbsantial com
pliance with the conditions of the law. By its
terms the public debt should have been re
duced between 1862 and the close of the fiscal
year, $518,361,806.28. The actual reduction of
the ascertained debt in that period has been
$720,644,739.61, being in excess of the reduc
tion required by the sinking fund act of
$203,282,983.33. The amount of the public
debt less cash in the treasury November 1,
1878, was $2,024,200,083.18, a reduction since
the same date last year of $23,150,617.39.
REFUNDING THE DEBT.
The progress made during the last year in re
funding the public debt at lower rates of inter
est is very gratifying. The amount of 4 per
cent, bonds sold during the present year, prior
to Nov. 23,1878, is $100,270,900, and 6 per cent,
bonds, commonly known as 5-20's, to an equal
amount, have been, or will be, redeemed as
calls mature. It has been the policy of the de
partment to place the 4 per cent, bonds within
easy reaah of every citizen who desires to in
vest his savings, whether small or great, in
these securities. The secretary of the treasury
recommends that the law be so modified that
small sums may be invested, and that through
the post offices or other agents of
the government, the freest opportunity may be
given in all parts of the country for such in
vestments. The best mode suggested iB that
the department be authorized to issue cer
tificates of deposit of the denomination of
ten dollars, bearing interest at the rate of
3.65 per cent, per annum, convertible at any
time within one year after their issue into 4
per cent, bonds, authorized by the refunding
art, and to be issued only in exchange for
United States notes sent to the treasury by
mail, or otherwise. Such a provision of law,
supported by suitable regulation, would enable
any person readily, without cost or rigk, to
convert his money into interest-bearing
security of the United States, and the money
so received could be applied to the redemption
of 6 per cent, bonds.
The coinage of gold during the last fiscal
year was $52,689,980: the coinage of silver dol
lars, under the act passed July 28. 1878,tional
amounted on the 22d of November, 187S, to
$19,814,550, of which amount $4,984,947 are in
circulation, and the balance, $14,829,603, is
still in the possession of the government.
SPECIE RESUMPTION.
"With views unchanged with regard to the act
under which the coinage of silver proceeds, it
has been the purpose of the secretary faithfully
to execute the law. and to afford a fair trial to
the measure. In the present financial condi
tion of the country 1 am persuaded that the
welfare of legitimate business and industry of
every description will be best promoted
by abstaining from all attempts to
make radical changes in the existing
financial legislation. Let it be under
stood, that, during the coming year, the
business of the country will be undisturbed by
interference with the laws affecting it, and we
may confidently expect that the resumption of
specie payments- which will take place at the
appointed tune, will be successfully *ort easily
maintained, and that will be followed by a
healthful and enduring business prosperity.
Let the healing influence of time, the inherent
energies of our people, and the boundless re-
ffikJR-Wit-^
WWBTO
sources of our country have a fair opportuni
ty, and relief from present difficulties will
surely follow.^ *m$F* Wff&
OURABMV. TT:v lisKV
The report of the secretary of war shows
that the army has been well and economically
supplied, that our small force has been actively
employed, and has faithfully performed all
the service required of it. The morale of the
army has improved, and the number of deser
tions has materially decreased during the year.
The secretary recommeuds that a pension be
granted to the widow of the late Lieutenant
Henry H. Benner, who lost his life by the yel
low fever while in command of the steamer J.
M. Chambers, sent with supplies fer the relief
of the sufferers in the South from that disease.
The establishment of the annuity scheme,
for the benefit of the heirs of deceased officers,
as suggested by the paymaster-general the
adoption, by Congress, of a plan for the publi
cation of the records of the war of the rebellion,
now being prepared for that purpose. The in-1
crease of the extra per diem of soldier teachers
employed in post schools, and liberal appropri
ations for the ereetion of buildings for schools
and libraries at the different posts the repeal
or amendment of the act of June 18, 1878, for
bidding the use of the army
as a posse comitatus or
otherwise for the purpose of executing the
laws, except in such cases and under such cir
cumstances as may be expressly authorized by
the constitution or by act of Congress the
passage of a joint resolution of Congress legal
izing the issues of rations, tents, and medicine
which were made for the relief of sufferers
from yellow fever that provision be made for
the erection of a fire proof building for the
preservation of certain valuable records, now
constantly exposed to destruction by fire.
These recommendations are all recommended
to your favorable consideration.
THE NAVY.
The report of the secretary of the navy shows
that the navy has improved during the last fis
cal year. Work has been done on seventy-five
vessels, ten of which have been thoroughly re
paired and made ready for sea. Two others
are in rapid progress toward completion. The
total expenditures of the year, including the
amount appropriated for the deficiencies of the
previous year, were $17,468,390.65. The actual
expenses chargable to the year exclusive of
these deficiencies, were $13,306,914.09, or $797,-
199.18 less than those of the previous year,
and $4,928,677.74 less than the expenses
including the deficiencies. The estimates
for the fiscal year ending Jane 30,1880, are
$14,562,381.45. exceeding the appropriations of
the present y"ear only $83,949.75, which excess
is occasioned by the demands of the naval
academy and the marine corps.
As explained in the secretary's report, the ap
propriations for the present fiscal year are $14,-
528,431.70, which, in the opinion of the secre
tary, will be ample for all the current expenses
of the department during the year. The
amount drawn from the treasury from July 1
to November 1, 1878, is $4,740,544.14, of which
$70,980.75 has been refunded, leaving as the
expenditure for that period $4,669,563.39 or
$620,899.24 less than the correbponding period
of the last fiscal year.
THE POSTAL SERVICE.
The department of the postmaster-general
embraces a detailed statement of the operations
of the postoffice department. The expendi
tures of that department for the fiscal vear
ending June 30. 1878. was $34,165,084.40. The
receipts, including sales of stamps, were $29,-
277,516.95. The sum of $190,436.90, included
in the foregoing statement of expenditures, is
chargeable to preceeding years, so that the ac
tual expenditures for the hscai year ending
June 30, 1878, are estimated at $365,719.00
and the receipts, from all sources, at $20,664,-
023.00, leaving a deficiency to be appropriated
out of thetreaRuryof $5,907,876.10.
The report calls attention to the fact that
the compensation of postmasters of railroads
for carrying the mail is regulated by law, and
that the failure of Congress to appropriate the
amount required for these purposes does not
relieve the government of responsibility, but
necessarily increases the deficiency bills, which
Congress will be called upon to pass.
In providing for the postal service the fol
lowing questions are presented: Should Con
gress annually appropriate a sum for its ex
penses largely in excess of its revenues or
should such rates of postage be established as
will make the department self-sustaining?
Should the postal service be reduced by ex
cluding from the mails matter which does not
pay its way
Should the number of post routes be dimin
ished?
Should other methods be adopted which will
increase the revenue or diminish the expenses
of the postal service?
INTERNATIONAL POSTAL CONGRESS.
The international postal congresH, which met
at Paris May 1, 1878, and continued in session
until June 4th of the same year, was composed
of delegates from nearly all the civilized coun
tries of the world. It adopted anew conven
tion to take the place of the treaty concluded
at Berne, Oct. 9, 1874, which goes into effect on
the lBt of April, 1879, between the coun
tries whose delegates have signed it.
It was ratified and approved by and
with the consent of the Presi
dent, August 13, 1878. A synopsis of this
universal postal convention will be found in
the report of the postmaster-general, and the
full text in the appendix thereto. In its origin
the postal union comprised twenty-three coun
tries, having a population of 350,000,000 o$
people. On the 1st of April next it will com
prise forty-three countries and colonies with a
population of 650,000,000 of people, and will
soon, by the accession of the few remaining
countries and colonies which maintain organ
ized postal services, constitute in fact as well
as in name, as its new title indicates, a univer
sal union, regulating upon a uniform basis of
cheap postage rates the postal interests be
tween all civilized nations.
Some embarrassment has arisen out of the
conflict between the customs laws of this coun
try and the provision of the postal convention
in regard to the transmission of foreign books
and newspapers to this country by mail. It is
hoped that Congress will be able to devise
some means of reconciling the difficulties which
have thus been created, so as to do justice to
all parties involved.
COURT BUSINESS.
The business of the supreme court and of
courts in many of the circuits was increased to
such an extent during past years, that addi
legislation is imperative to relieve and
prevent the delay of justice, and possible op
pression to suitors, which is thus occasioned.
The encumbered condition of these dockets is
presented anew in the report of the attorney
general, and the remedy suggested is earnestly
urged for Congressional action. The creation
of additional circuit judges, as proposed, would
afford a complete remedy, and would involve
an expense, at the present rate of salaries, of
not more than $60,000 a year.
INDIAN AFFAIRS.
The annual report of the secretary of the
interior, and ot the commissioner of Indian
affairs, present an elaborate account of the
present condition of the Indian tribes, and of
that branch of the,pubhc service which minis
ters to their interests. While the conduct of
the Indians generally has been orderly, and
their relations with their neighbors friendly
and peaceful, two local disturbances have oc
curred which were deplorable in their
cnartioter. but remained happily con
fined to a comparatively small number of
Indians. The discontent among the Bannocks,
which led first to some acts of violence on the
MOUNTED INDIAN AUXILIARIES.
Both the secretary of the interior and the
secretary of war unite in the recommendation
that provision be made by Congress for the or
ganization of a corps of mounted "Indian
auxiliaries," to be under the control of the
army, and to be used for the purpose of keep
ing the Indians on their reservations, and pre
venting and repressing disturbance on their
part. I earnestly concur in this recommenda
tion. It is believed that the organization of
such a body of Indian cavalry, receiving a.
moderate pay from the government, would
considerably weaken the restless element
among the Indians by withdrawing from it a
number of young men and giving them con
genial employment under the government,
it being a matter of experience that Indians in
our service, almost without exception, are
faithful in the performance of duties assigned
to them. Such an organization would materi
ally aid the army in the accomplishment of a
task for which its numerical strength is some
times found insufficient. But while the em
ployment of force for the prevention or repres
sion of Indian troubles is of occasional neces
sity, a wise preparation should be made to that
end, greater reliance must be placed on humane
and civilizing agencies for the ultimate solution
of what is called the Indian problem
H?
part of some members of thettribe, and finally^
to the outbreak, appears to have been caused ?I 'sJS
by an insufficiency of food on the reservation, ^#,~{J
and this insufficiency to have been owing to the,,, sf
inadequacy of the appropriations made by'si"-
Congress to the wants of the Indians at af*-" "f
time when the Indians were prevented roml* ^J
supplying the deficiency by huntings
After an arduous pursuit by the
troops of the United States, on several engage
ments the hostile Indians were reduced to sub- /j
jection, and a large part of them surrendered
themselves as prisoners. In this connection if')'
desire to call attention to the recommendation, v
made by the secretary of the interior that a
sufficient fund be placed at the disposal of ther
executive to be used with proper accountability
at discretion in sudden emergencies of the In
dian service.
The other case of disturbance was that of a
band of Northern Cheyennes, who suddenly
left their reservation, in the Indian territory.
a'nd marched rapidly through the States of
Kansas and Nebraska in the direction of their
old hunting grounds, committing murders and
other crimes on their way. From documents
accompanying the report of the secretary of
the interior it appears that this disorderly band'
was as fully supplied with the necessaries of
life as the 4,700 other Indians who
remained quietly on their reservation,
and that the disturbance was caused by
men of a restless and mischievous disposition
among the Indians themselves. Almost the
whole of the band have surrendered to the
military authorities, and it is a gratifying fact
that when gome of them had taken refnge in
the camp of the Red Cloud Sioux, with whom
they had been in friendly relation^ the Sioux
held them as prisoners, and readily gave them
up to the officers of the United States, thus
giving new proof of a loyal spirit, which,
alarming rumors to the contrary notwithstand
ing, they had uniformly shown ever since the
wishes they expressed at the council of Sep
tember, 1877, had been complied with.
It may be very difficult and require much pa
tient effort to curb the uniuly spirit of the rav
age Indian to the restraints of civilized life, bnfc
oxperience shows that it is not impossible.
Many of the tribes which are now quiat and or
derly and self-supporting, were once as savage
as any that at present roam over the plains or
in the mountains of the far West, and weie then
consideied unaccessiblc to civilising influence.
It may be impossible to raise them fully up to
the level of the white population of the United
States, but we should not forget that, they are
the aborigines of the country, and called the
soil their own on which oar people nave
grown rich, powerful and happy. We owe
it to them as a moral duty to help them at
taining at least that degree of civilization which
they may be able to reach. It is not onlj our
duty, it is also our interest to do so. Indians
who have become agriculturists or herdsmen,
and feel an interest in property, will thence
foith cease to be a warlike and disturbing
element.
INDIAN EDUCATION.
It is also a well authenticated fact that In
dians are apt to be peaceable and quiet when
their children are at school, and I am gratified
to know from the expressions of Indians them
selves, and from many concurring reports, that
there is a steadily increasing desire among In
dians belonging to comparatively wild tiibes
to have their children educated. I invite at
tention to the reports of the secretary of the
interior and the commissioner ot Indian affairs
touching the experiment recently inaugurated
in taking fifty Indian children, boys and girls,
from different tribes, to the Hampton Normal
Agricultural institute in Virginia, where they
are to receive an elementary English education
and training in agricultural and other useful
work, to be returned to their tribes after the
completed course, as interpreters, instructors,
and examples. It is reported that the officer,
charged with the selection of those childien,
might have had thousands of j'oung Indians
sent with him, had it been possible to make
provision for them. I agree with the secretary
of the interior in saying that ''the result of this*
interesting experiment, if favorable, may be
destined to become an important factor in the
advancement of civilization among the In
dians."
INDIAN TBANSFKR.
The question whether a change in the control
of the Indian service should be made, was, at
the last session of Congress, referred to a com
mittee for inquiry and report. Without desir
ing to anticipate that report. I venture to ex
press the hope that in the decision of so im
portant a question, the views pxpressed above
may not be lost sight of, and that the decision,
whatever it may be, will arrest further agita
tion of the subject, such agitation being apt to
produce a disturbing *fect npon the service as
well as on the Indians themselves.
HOT SPRING3 COMMISSION.
In the enrollment of the bill making appro
priations for sundry civil expenses at the last
session of Congress thaj portion which provided
for the continuation of the Hot Springs torn
mission was omitted. As the commission had
completed the work of taking testimony on the
many conflicting claims, the suspension of taeir
labors before determining the rights of claim
ants threatened for a time to embarrass the
interests, not only of the government, but also
of a large number of the citizens of Hot
Springs, who were waiting for final action on
their claims before making contemplated im
provements. In order to prevent serious diffi
culties, which were apprehended, and at tho*
solicitation of many leading citizens of Hot
Springs, and ethers interested in the welfare of
the town, the secretary of the interior was.'" -1
authorized to request the late commissioners t
take^pharge of the records of their proceedings,
and to perform snch work as could properly
be done by them under such circumstances to
facilitate the further adjudication of the claims,
at an early day, aiid to procure the status of
the claimants, until their right should be final
ly determined. The late commissioners com
^J
I
A
plied with that request, and report that, the
testimony in all the cases has been written out,"
examined, briefed and so arranged as to facili-"Uii
t%te an early settlement as authorized by law.' ,-jj^j
It is recommended that the requisite authority
be given at as early a date in the session as,*4
possible, and that a fair compensation bet*j^t(it
aliowoo: the laic couiuiiKsumerx ror tne expons*-^
incurred and labor performed by them since--* f^
the 25th of Jnne last. ttl t% vih&
I invite the attention of Congress to the rec- |_
[Continued on sixth page
*J"
V*-
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TIMBER THTEVES. *$$*'* ^J&y$
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