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New Ulm weekly review. [volume] (New Ulm, Minn.) 1878-1892, July 29, 1885, Image 6

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89064939/1885-07-29/ed-1/seq-6/

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Practical Suggestions on the Time and Man
aer of Pruning Trees Intended for Tim-
berMinor Topics.
Pruning Timber Trees.
Pruning, in its legitimate sense in
the culture of forests, wiites a cor
respondent of The Garden, denotes
only the removal of unsightly excres
cences or superfluous parts of trees
with the view of making the bole grow
straitrhter, higher, and more regular.
This, I know, is still a disputed sub
ject, some strongly advocating its ne
cessity and utility, while others de
precate it as useless and injurious.
The truth probably lies between the
two extremes, for much may no doubt
be done in assisting nature to rectify
defects and to correct deformities, and,
in adding to the general health, beauty
and vigor of the tree. On the other
side, it is not less true that many trees
are irreparably injured and whole
plantations rendered useless by un
skillful and indiscriminate pruning
and wholesale mutilation.
Many authorities agree that pruning
is beneficial and essential in promot
ing the profitable growth of most
hardwood trees, but this may be ren
dered less necessary in certain situa
tions by thick planting and judicious
timely thinning. Pruning should
commence when the trees are three or
four years old, and should be contin
ued "if necessary during the after
growth ot the tree. No general rules
can, however, be laid down on this
point which shall equally apply to all
circumstances and situations. There
is no doubt that much of the success
of pruning depends on 1 he manner in
which it is performed. Branches
which are to be amputated should be
cut off clean, smooth, and close, mak
ing the stroke upward, and with a
sharp bill, in order that the bough
maj not splinter and carry away with
it portions of the bark from the bole,
which is both dangerous and unsight
ly. Although it is generally agreed
that one leading shoot should be pre
served, it is an erroneous practice to
cut awaj all the side branches at once,
and the removal ot large boughs
should be avoided as far as possible.
Although hardwood trees generally
derive benefit from pruning, coniferous
trees do not admit of being pruned at
all, unless under special circumstances,
and then only with gre-it care and
judgment. The pruning of timber
trees has had many warm ad\ocates,
especially in Scotland, and no one
perhaps has explained the real or
imaginary advantages of the S) stern
better than Mr. Cree. He says "To
manage woods in a proper manner,
young trees should be examined well
the third 3 ear after they are planted,
and if more than one leading shoot is
found to exist the best should be se
lected and the other's shortened to one
half the lengtn of the selected shoot.
"This practice of examining the
trees should be continued every year
until they are about liiteen feet
height. These shortenings, however,
must not be confined to superfluous
leading shoots, but extend to any
branch which is gaining a disoropor
tionate ascendency over other branches
of the same year's growth. At first,
and for some time previous to this
stage of the growth ot the plant, the
shortenings should be more carefully
performed than is necessary after
ward. The process ot examining a
tree is a simple one it is done in a
moment by the pruner casting his eye
over the whole tree and detecting the
branches which require to be short
"ened. As a general rule, where it is
found that any branch has a greater
growth upon it than the leading shoot,
it should be shortened by cutting to
about half the length ot the leader.
Writers differ much regarding the best
way of cutting off the branches. Bv
some it has been recommended to leave
snagsthat is, to allow a few inches
to remain between the stem and the
place where the branch is cut off. This
ts a bad system. Even granting that
trees suffer much by bleeding when
cut close to the stem, that bleeding
will soon be prevented by the wound
becoming healed. There are two evils
attending the practice of leaving
snags. In the elm and many other
trees of considerable size an effort is
made by the tree to cover the snag
long before its growth is sufficient to
reach the amputated part, and the
consequence is that a large knot in the
wood is formed, thus defeating one ot
the principal objects which it is the
business of the pruner to accomplish.
But another e\il consequent upon this
practice, where no effort is made by
the tree to cover it until the annual
increase of the alburnum circles shall
havi done so, is that the snag, in
resinous trees in particular, is always
liab'e to bleed until it is healed, or
when the snag has lost its vitality it
soon becomes liable to rot. From
this latter circumstance arises the dan
ger of finding large trees, apparently
sound when cut*down, rotten in the
interior. This is frequently the case
with snags, even in middle sized trees.
When large branches, too, are ampu
tated from old trees before the growth
of the tree can cover the part it has
become rotted, and by explosure to
the atmosphere moisture is carried
down the pith of the tree, which com
mences the work of decomposition,
spreading to other parts of the wood."
Another writer says: The physiolo
gy of pruning trees requires" looking
into. The woodman in pruning cuts
the branch clean off near the trunk,
leaving the concentric rings which
usually form round the base of a
branch. As growth progresses, the
bark gradually grows over the wound
till it is quite covered, and it is then
supposed to be healed. The time re
quired for this depends on the size of
the branches, but in good-sized branch
es it takes years. Meanwhile, the ex
posed wound is very apt to collect
moisture, and from' that and other
causes the tissue rots back into the
trunk, leaving a hole which may in
the end destroy the tree, and always
injure it more or less. Paint will pre
vent decay, but unless it is 'applied
frequently it wears off, the face of the
wound cracks, water gets in, anfJ de
cay follows. I have examined many
tree wounds from artificial pruning,
and found this to be the result in nu
merous instances. Nature prunes in
1 .another way and with different results.
Decaying branches break off sooner or
later some distance from the trunk.
When this happens, nature at once
begins to work' by closing in the Bark
at the base of the branch, which is
finally forced off when the bark meets,
if not before. In vigorous trees decay
in such a case rarely extends farther
than the base of the branch, because
the projecting pieces afford protection
trom moisture until the wound is heal
ed over, a3 is often very well shown
in the burried knots of sawn-up trees.
I had a ramble through a broad belt
of woodland the other day, which, I
am assured, the "pruning-hook" has
never entered, and was impressed by
the fact that it had never apparently
been missed. The trees are rather
crowded, having been planted for
sheltering purposes, but, with the ex
ception of those at the margin of the
belt are remarkably straight and
cleanalthough they are all decidu
ousshowing that the shape of timber
trees depend more upon thinning than
prunning. The wind has little power
to do injury to such a plantation, but
many ot the lower branches decay and
fall off naturally before they get
strong, and hence' leave no mark on
the trunk, because the knots soon heal
over. If this were not the case, such
a thing as a clean pine or fir-tree
would never be seen* in plantations,
for, as a rule, these are subjected to
no other pruning than nature affords,
and which consists in the shedding of
so many branches annually. Within
the past few years there have been cut
here large tracts of as fine larcn, per
haps, as cpuld be seen, every tree bare
of branches to near the top, from na
ture's pruning. There was not an un
sound trunk among tnem from deca\ ed
branches. The same thing happens
with deciduous trees under similar
conditions. If the trees are judicious
ly thinned, the lower branches decay
and fall off before they grow large,
and the marks of them disappear in a
short time.
Minor Topics.
Plenty ot grass should be given
fowls confinement, in order 10 keep
them in good healthy condition.
The sheep business, comprising both
the wool and mutton produce, is one
of the greatest industries in the United
It is claimed that if milk is brought
iust to the boiling point, then poured
immediately into cans and sealed air
tight, it will keep for an indefinite
In hot weather all the unconsumed
food should be frequently swept away
from the chicken coops, ^as it soon
sours and acts like poison if taken into
the crop.
Potash on grape vines has been tried
with great success, especially on light
soils. It is said to promote "the thrift
of the vines and largely increase the
yield of the crop.
Scotch farmers hold that cut straw
is better for the dairy when newly
threshed, and therefore they thresh
each day enough fodder for the next
day's consumption.
At the annual sheep shearing in
Vermont the heaviest ram's fleece was
twenty-eight pounds thirteen ounces,
and the heaviest ewe's fleece twenty
one pounds eight ounces.
It is said that the originator of the
Corcord grape has raised over 20,000
seedlings in the past 35 years without
finding his ideal grape, and only 21
had desirable qualities.
A mistake is frequently made in
over-feeding after lambing and then
reducing the supply, whereas the
lambs need more milk as they grow
larger, and this should be provided
Plants watered with water a few de
grees warmer than the temperature of
the atmosphere will make a far more
vigorous growth, all other conditions
being equal, than those to which cold
water is applied.
Some fruitgrowers claim that alter
nate rows ot pine and fruit trees pre
vent the moth and other destructive
insects from injuring the fruit. The
strong odor of the pine is obnoxious to
a great many kinds of insects.
Spreading the manure or fertilizer
over the ground broadcast is much
better than placing it in hills or rows,
as the roots of plants spread out in
everj direction, and thereby utilize
the manure to greater advantage.
Earlv lambs are the most profitable.
A cross of the Cotswold and South
down lately produced a lamb that
dressed twenty-tour pounds at two
months old. which sold for twenty-two
cents a pounds, a total sum of 5*28.
Lime and salt, mixed with a soft
food, is one of the cholera remedies
for poultry, but the method generally
adopted as the most efficacious is to
give each sick fowl a heaping tea
spoonful of hyposulphite of soda in
enough water to slightly moisten it.
Plantain, dandelion and other weeds
in a lawn my be destroyed by placing
a little sulphuric acid with a stick in
the crown of each plant. The acid
should be carried in an open-mouthed
bottle with a long handle, so that fin
gers and clothes are protected.
The killing of sheep by dogs is usually
done during the night. To guard
against dogs the sheep should be in
duced to come up every evening to be
fed inside of a high inclosure made of
palings or wire, with an open shed in
the center for protection to the sheep
against storms.
A gentleman at German town, Pa.,
who was greatly annoyed by the flock
ing of sparrows in large numbers to an
ivy which covers one side of his house,
got rid of them by sifting half a pound
of red pepper down through the vine.
The birds at once left in disgust and
have not returned.
Cleanliness is absolutely indispen
sable in the dairy. Wash in tepid
water every dish, implement or uten
sil that comes in contact with milk or
its products, then scald in boiling wa
ter or steam, rinse in cold water and ex
pose to the airand sunshine if possi
bleuntil wanted for use.
All kinds of grain may be fed to
fowls with benefit, as variety seems to
be an advantage. A single kind of
grain, with the necessary animal and
vegetable accompaniment, will secure
profit, especially if that grain be
wheat, less so if it be corn, put a va
riety of seed is still more profitable.
One Hundred and Hfty-flre Feet Down from a
Cliff into the Rio Grande.
When the news of Prof. Odium's
fatal leap from the parapet of Jhe
Brooklyn bridge reached here, writes
a San Antonio, Tex., correspondent to
The Philadelphia Times, we were talk
ing over the affair in the "Gold room."
Sam Graham, ex-sergeant of rangers,
called attention to a parallel incident
which attracted a great deal of atten
tion on the frontier at the time, and,
gave the name of "Hammond's Leap"
to a lofty canyon wall on the bank of
the Rio Grande, about six miles west
from where the Alkaline waters of the
Pecos empty into it. The track of the
Southern Pacific railroad runs close to
the river here, and as you whirl by the
trainmen point out the spot where
Robert Hammond made a sheer leap
of 155 feet to the muddy waters of the
Rio Grande below. The leap was
made in the early summer of 1882,
when tne railroad was in process ,of
construction. The painted red men,
from a safe hiding-place on the Mexi
can side, watched the ousy scene with
wide-opened eyes, heard the "big thun
der" of the blasts with loud-beating
hearts, and stole back to the Santa
Rosas. The only animate beings that
did not seem to mind the noise and
tumult were those pestiferous little
varmints, the vinegaroan, the devil
horse, the tarrantula, the centipede,
the stinging lizard, and the rattle
snake. They remained and disputed
the ground inch by inch with the in
vaders. They caused a great deal of
trouble and the na^ vies teared and re
spected them. It was a stinging liz
ard or scorpion that caused Ham
mond's leap. Hammond was a navvy,
born in England, and at the time he
made the leap ahout 26 jears of age.
He was of rather slender build, but
wiry and muscular, and Jack Harris,
the contractor for whom he worked,
considered him his best churn-driller.
Harris' camp was at the head of a
deep canyon, about one mile south of
Vinegaroan. He was engaged in mak
ing a fill and two wide cuts, and
worked gangs day and night.
Hammond worked in the day gang,
and the big wall tent he shared with
six or eight others was about three
hundred ards from the edge of the
lofty wall, against whose base the
"great river" dashed and tumbled.
At this particular point the river is
quite deep. One night the sleeping
occupants cf Harris' camp were arous
ed by a series of startling yells which
came from Hammond's tent. Before
they could collect their senses and
settle in their minds whether or not
the camp had been attacked by In
dians, Hammond dashed from the
tent, and, although held by his com
panions, tore himself awaj, and, yell
ing at every jump, made giant bounds
toward the river. The drillers and
blasters in the cut stopped their work
and ran up on the bank to see what
was the matter. They saw Hammond
as he dashed toward theni and heard
his agonized yells. A cry of horror
burst~from their lips as the yelling
man reached the brink of the preci
pice and without a second's hesitation
leaped out and shot down like a plum
met to the boiling flood 155 feet below.
They heard the loud splash made by
his body when he struck the water,
and then, with blanched faces and
hushed "voices, hurried down to the
river level to search for the poor fel
low's mangled bodv. What was their
surprise to meet the supposed dead
man alive, uninjured. He was shiver
ing with cold, however, and the muddy
water dripped trom his clothing.
"What was the matter?" cried the
group of searchers in chorus.
"One of them infernal stinging liz
ards got in my ear and nearly drove
me crazy," answeied Hammond, but
he popped out when I struck the wa
ter. By the way, boj s, what do you
think of that jump?""
"It ought to have killed you," said
one man.
"It aidn't though," cried Hammond,
with a laugh. I'll make it again for
a 10 bill."
The next morning Jack Harris had
the distance measured, and the tape
line, held close to the cliff edge, mark
ed 155 feet and a few inches when the
other end touched the water. Ham
mond did not appear to suffer from
his terrible flight through the air. He
worked for Harris until the latter's
contract was finished, and then went
into Mexico to work on the Mexican
Central. He was in his underclothes
that night, and his feet were protected
only by thin socks. He struck the
water teet first, and described the sen
sation experienced as similar to
that if the teet had been smartly slap
ped with a broad strap. While in the
air he felt no difficulty in breathing,
and the increased velocity, as his body
neared the water, was not perceptible.
England's Great Guns.
The Woolwich correspondent of
Tlie London News writes: The new
guns which have been designed to
maintain the naval supremacy of
Great Britain are in an advanced state,
but they have to undergo a course of
experiments to settle the range tables
and other particulars, and it will prob
ably be the beginning of next year be
fore they are ready for sea. This will,
however, be earfier than the ships
which are to carry them can be com
pleted, and there will be ample time
available for a full and leisurely study
of their requirements and capabilities.
The first ot the four 63 ton steel breech
loaders for her majesty's ship Rodnev
will be shortly finished, and will be
used as an experimental gun, care
being taken not to damage it in the
process by any of the surgical opera
tions to which experimental guns are.
occasionally subjected. Although
seventeen tons lighter than the 80-ton
muzzleloader on board the Inflexible,
the 63-ton gun is expected to surpass
the older "weanon in its destructive
power. It will probably throw a \Z\
inch shot of 1,250 pounds weight, with
a powder charge of about 580 pounds,
and the estimated velocity at the muz
zle is to be 2,100 feet per second.
The 80-ton projectile weighs 1,700
pounds, but the cartridge is but 450
pouni s, and the muzzle velocity re
corded is 1,600 foot seconds. Should
the new gun realize expectations it
will penetrate twenty-nine inches of
M- *tK *efci
wrought-iron armor at close quarters,
and prove too much"for twenty-seven
of a thousand yards. Still morepower- I
ful, but not in the same ratio ofincrease
Hide and Seek.
Of all the good old games of child
hood give me "Hide and Seek-'
barrel, jumped
down, picked them up, carried them
to the goal, then hung them on a peg
and said "One, two, three for Harr}
Then he sat down and laughed as if
his heart would break. I didn't smile
didn't see an\ thing funny. Then
he came back and *sat on me again
and said, "Keep dark, I won't tell on
"I want to come out."
"Well, why don't eeome out then?"
"Please get my pants lor me. Say,
get off the barrel, it smells bad In
"Get yer pants yerself. Smells bad,
does it? He, he! Kinder wet in there,
ain't it? What kind of dress have yer
got on, S'mother Hubbard, ain't it?"
Then I was mad and pushed up the
lid with all m\ might, upset my tor
mentor and climbed out, just as the
boj's and girls came around the house.
My dander was up and I was mad
as a hornet. I spit out cuss words
and wigglers. The girls yelled and
exeunted. I stood my ground, shook
off rain water, bad smell and wigglers
and wanted to fight the whole crow d,
The boys yelled and laughed and told
me to wipe oft my chin and pull down
my vest. [This last remark was cer
tainly a slur!] I went and took down
my clothes, got inside and then said,
"One, two, three for we.'"
During the next two weeks I had to
lick five boys for calling me "Wig
glers" and "Old Rain Water," and
the girls would smile and look innocent
when I came around. The next time
I hide in a barrel of ancient rain wa
ter, I will first spill it, and then hide
in a box.H. Hamill, in Peck's Sun.
Rather Previous.
"Were you acquainted with the mur
dered man?" asked the prosecuting
attorney of a witness for the defense
in a murder case. The willingness of
the witness to say all that he could in
behalf of the prisoner was very appar
nt, by the way.
"I know'd him he was de honestest,
"Never mind about his honesty.
You say you knew him."
'"Yes, sah, an' I's proud ter say I
nebber know'd sich a noble
"Nobody a*ked you about that.
What was'the condition of his health?
Was he "not in robust health?"
"No, sah he was de feeblest niggah
I ebber seed."
"He was killed by the accused, was
he not?"
"I can't say so, sah. My idee am
dat he was in sich bad health dat,
eben if he hadn't been killed when he
was, he would have died anyhow at
least two days previous, sah.''Ttzas
it JB*"
$?& "J
Feeding an Army.
grandpa's old barn, with the rain pat
tering down outside and all nice and
dry inside. In dry weather we boys
and girls used to play it around the
house and sheds. Someone would be
gin to count, "Monkey, monkev, Dottle
of beer. How many monkeys are
there here? One, two, three! Out
goes he'" untill all but one were
counted out. The one left would shut
his eyes, lean up against a shed or
post and. begin to count one hundred.
The whole crowd would then scatter
like scared sheep and hide. Aftei
counting one hundred the seekei
would remark"A bushel of whpat,
A bushel of ryeAll who am't reudy
hollerl." And then he would poke
around as near the goal as possible,
and look in rat holes, behind sheds,
fences and bushes, and walk on his
toes and twist his mouth ever} time
he gave a squint.
One day we bo}s and girls were
playing, and I was looking tor a new
place to hide in. I found it. An old.
blue rain barrel, full of water a month
old and wirh an odor about ten pounds
to the square inch, stod at the corner
of the house. A bright idea struck me
and in halt a minute I had all my
clothes off and was standing up to my
chin in rain water and wigglers.
After dropping my pants, hat and
waist outside, 1 carefully pulled the
coyer over my head. The water be
gan to smell out loud and the wigglers
waked up. I wanted fresh air, but
the girl was now wandering around
near me, seeking whom she might spy.
After awhile all the others were
caught. Then they all looked for me
a tew moments, but gave me up and
yelled "Come in free." I didn't come.
Then they \elled"Oh, ye needn't be'
afraid! We'll let ye in free!" I
politely, but silently, declined the in
vitation because all were standing
within ten feet of my lair. I wasn't
dressed for a party anjwa}wigglers
and rain water didn't suit"me and the
barrel didn't lit. It was too big.
Then all began to look for me again.
In a few moments one boy camp back
and got up on the barrel and sat down
to rest I took a mouthful of wigglers
as I dodged. Then he noticed
clothes behind the
For many years prior to the Mexican
writes a New York correspondent
will be the 110-ton guns now being commissary for the United States army
manufactured forH. M. S. Benbow. was stationed at New York city. Ine
There are three of the g^ins ordered, i extent of the depot and tne amount ot
one of which will be surrendered for I supplies Hf.? WA verv
the purpose of scientific experiment,
while the other two are sent on board
ship, where, however, they will not be
wanted until the mid-summer of 1886.
The projectile will be 16 inch diame
ter, and weigh 1,800 or 2,000 pounds.
The powder charge will be the enor
mous one of 900 ponuds, or half the
weight of the projectile, supposing
this to be 1,800 pounds,' on which
suppbsition the velocity may be reckon
edat 2,050 feet seconds, and its power
of penetrating armor at 31J inches
near the muzzle, or 2 inches less at
1,000 yards. The new guns will be
vastly superior to the Italian 100-ton
guns, which are at present at the
head of all the naval artillery in the
world, and they are to the like ex
tent in advance of the 100-ton guns
which are doing duty for England on
the fortifications ot Malta and Gibral
tar, although these are larger in the
bore by li inches. The substitution
of steel for wrought iron admits of
heavier charges of powder, and this
faat makes all the difference.
Journal, a purchasing
there obtained were very
limitedsmallsomee 1
for time in consequence
of the siz of the army. It was
not until the commencement of the
rebellion in 1861 that the labors of this
1 depot reached increased magnitude
greatf proportionsfield Wito 1 million men in the bover suba
sisted, a very great quantity of the
articles of the rationmeats, flour,
hard bread, sugar, coffee, teas, sait*
etc.necessary for many of them,
were obtained'in this city. Not unusal
ly cargo after cargo of coffee was pur
chased for the troops. At several times
during the war special purchases of this
article were obtained abroad, as it
could be so procured more economi
cally for the army. Under the man
agement of then "colonel, afterward
Brig. Gen. A. B. Eaton, commissary
general of subsistance, United States
army, the purchases were very ex
tensive. Col. Eaton had a corps of
experts, well trained,some of the
best merchants in the city,as inspec
tors and adjustors, and secured tor the
government the best articles which
could be purchased at the lowest
prices. A rigid fulfillment of all con
tracts was exacted and made under
the safeguards his experienced fore
sight had placed around him.
To the purchase of the soldiers' ra
tions, some 3 ears since, was added the
procuiement of over one hundred
articles tor his comfort and conven
ience and that of the officers of the
army ana their families at military
post, all disposed of to them at first
cost. There are tew posts in the army,
in any locahtv, that will not show
some supplies procured by the sub
sistence officer in New York city, and
some of them many of the important
articles which those stationed there
receive. Under a recent act of con
gress, all supplies must be advertised
for, except in very extreme emergency
cases. This opened competition To all,
and upon the purchasing officers is im
posed the duty of selecting from the
numerous bidders and their samples
articles at th lowest pricequali
conditione considered. An ex
tensile knowledge of all such articles
should be possessed by officers of the
subsistence department, and many
have from long ex]erienc and associa
tion with the soldier knowing his
wantsclose observation and study,
qualified themselves tor these trying
and responsible positions. Some have
a specialty of certain articles, and are
well and thoroughly skilled therein.
Upon the receipt of the order for
supplies, pub'ic proposals are sent out,
if the stock held on hand by the depot
officer will not permit the order to be
filled from it Such quanties are ac
cepted as are required, after a
thorough comparison with the sample
submitted. These articles are trans
ferred to the quartermaster's depart
ment for transportation to the posts
desiring them. All bids are required
to be carefully abstracted, and even
the envelopes in which they are re
ceived sent with them to the subsis
tence bureau in Washington, D.
for examination and supervision. No
act of the most uuimportent character
can be done without a thorough know
ledge of it by the revising authorities.
At the end ot each month every article
purchased, its mode of procurement,
its price, quaintity obtained, name of
seller and amount is reported to the
Washington authorities. A monthly
report is also made of every cent re
ceived, paid out, and every pound or
pint purchased or on hand must be
satisfactorily accounted for by com
plete and explicit vouchers, setting
forth also the authority for purchases
when made. Whilst the labor of pur
chasing, inspecting, and shipping army
supplies is complete and accurate,
there is no less completeness in the
careful and unj ielding exactions of
accountability which the government
requires by reports and returns ot its
ami) agents.
The large, varied, and unlimited
market in this city is for the purchase
of subsistence supplies not only the
verj* best but the most important in
the country. The subsi3tence depart
ment has always tried to select for
its purchasing officer here one of its
most experienced members, whose
main object is advancing, protecting,
and securing the public interest.
There has never been a defalcation at
this depot since its establishment,
nor have the duties required to be
performed here failed to meet all de
How We Judge a Xovel.
Nearly all the stories printed to-day
have in them an attempt at something
beyond the mere telling of a tale with
trappings of scenery and puppets to
bear out the illusion. But we do not
examine this scenery to know if it is
real, or stick pins in these puppets to
learn it they are merely stutted dolls
to play upon our fancy. In this we do
ourselves an injustice,' both losing the
fine flavor of a good nove) and tailinc
to penetrate the tinsel and stage ef
fects of a poor one, in much the same
way as a befuddled drinker swallows
Ve. Cliquot and champagne cider with
the same approval Then, too, in order
to catch a page or two of "conversa
tion" or "action" that is valued only
as it carries forward the plot, we are
prone to run hastily over descriptive
writing that paints a vivid bit of land
scape with cameo fidelity and beauty.
Or a chapter filled with life and color
is voted dreary and slow because only
indirectly it aids in tangling the
threads of the romance. It is the
amount of "thrill" in the concluding
chapters and the agreement in.doc"
trine and sentiment of the writer with
the reader's personal beliefs and tastes
that settles the novel as good, bad or
indifferent.The Curi-ent.
In an essay on the "Poor Man," Burdette
makes the following Shakspearian remark:
''!he father of Shakspeare couldn't spell and
couldn't write Lis own nameneither can
you even bis illustrious son couldn't spell it
twice alike."
Ferd. Ward* is not yet the v, ar of New York
state, nor likely to see the wards of Sing Smg
for some time.
Capt. Peetmeier, of the Fish-Hawk, Preparing"
s-for Next Season's Fishery.
"We are here in the interests of the
United States fishing commission,"
said Capt. Peetmeier, of the United.
States gunboat Fish-Hawk, now lying
at anchor off Gloucester. "We are
hatching shad eggs. The process is a
simple one. Come this way and I will
show you."
He led the way to the fore part of
the gun deck, which was cleared of
all implements of war for the reception
of some of the most scientific machin
ery of peace. In the center of the
deck stood a large copper tank, con
taining water constantly changing
from the river, but capable ot being
stopped when at sea. On on,e side ot
this tank stood twelve zinc cones,
about three feet in height, with the
conical ends downward. A multiplic
ity of pipes, tubes, valves, and stop
cocks showed that the cones were in
"This is were we do the hatching,"
said Capt. Peetmeier. "These cones
are supplied with water from below
by tubes from the tank. The supply
is" regulated by a stop-cock at the top
and the surplus water escapes though
this zine net-work which surrounds
the top of each ot the conical tanks.
Thus we have running water all the
time. If we are in a river we allow
the surplus to go overboard, but when
at sea, it being impossible to get the
fresh water necessary for hatching the
eggs, we allow the water to run back
into the main tank, and so it keeps on
running over and over again. When
the seine up is drawn we take the fe
male fish with roes and force them to
discharge the ova by squeezing them.
Then we take the "males and b\ the
same process of squeezing force them
to impregnate the ova. The massi
then counted, or rather measured, and
put into one of these cones and the
water allowed to run."
"How do jou count the eggs for 1
see you have 160,000 eggs in this cone
"It is done by measure so nianv
eggs to an ounce,a fluid ounce, I
mean: say 10,000. Well, there are
thirty-two fluid ounces to a quart,
therefore there must be within one or
two of 320,000 eggs. We use an ordin
arv graduated glass druggist quart
measure. It takes from one to three
days for the eggs to hatch. Then we
keep the young fish two or three days
more and then consign them to their
native element. To put them in the
river requires considerable care. We
gather them into a bucket then lower
the bucket into the water and allow
the little fellows to swim out.
Now let
of the egzs.'',
tube and pushed it'into one of the coni
cal tanks and, bringing it out, closed
each end with a finger. It was full
of small transparent globular sub
stances, all moving about in the tube
and somewhat difficult to see at first.
"If you look carefully at them you
will see joung fish inside. Mostot
them are nearly ready to come ouL
There are also some of the joung fiat
Do you see that tin]*-
to each of them? That
sac. The oung fish
feeds upon that up* to a certain age
and finally absorbs it altogether. You
may see the same thing attached to
the fish still in the eggs. Do you no
tice how the eyes of the young fish are
sparkling. That is because" they are
sick. They have no air in this tube."
"Do they leel the want of it so soon
as that?"
"O }es. There, I will put them'
back in their cone perhaps they may
recover. The eggs, you observe, all
remain at the bottom of the tanks,
unless I turn the water on hard. That
drives them to the top but it is not
good for them, for it halches them too
quickly. Since we have been on the
river, some weeks now, we hatched
several millions of eggs, which would
have been lost Of course a vast num
ber are hatched by the process of na
ture in the river. But these that we
have produced artificially will o-o a
long way toward stocking the fisherv,
and would have been cooked and eaten
or otherwise destroyed if we had not
stepped in and saved them. We have
other tanks lor hatching the eo--s
smaller glass onesbut they are^only
used when we are ver\ busy. We
keep the water running through them
by an arrangement of siphons, all
leading to a large aquarium. I don't
know how long we will remain here,
but I suppose as long as we can ob-S
tain ova to work upon.''Philadelj luM
in this tube,
globe hanging
is the umbilical
Exempt trom Taxation.
There is in New York Gity 8265,694,-
060 worth of real estate exempt taxa
tion. Of this S178 SU4.060 is cit\ prop
erty, 12.640,000 is United States
property.S40.211.500 is church proper
ty, and 33,948,500 comes under thi
head of miscellaneous, belonging to
schools,libranes, and char.ties. At 2
per centand the taxrate in New York
City is usually higher than thatthe ex
empt church and miscellaneous proper
ty would pay nearly $1.5 JO,000 a vear
toward the expenses of government.
As it does not pav it, others must, anc1
in this way secular realtv is made
pay, by force, $1,500,000 a year for th
support of churches, etc. This is
pushing the excemption doctring pre-'
ty far. The same rule prevails, in
preportiouate measure, throughout the
country. And that it does prevail,
and with little or no protest, is a strik
ing proof of the tolerant and kindh
feeling of the Amarican public toward
religious and educational enterprises
of all sorts.
We, Us & Co.
It is always best to be careful and
precise in given directions to servants.
Col. Yerger told his colored servant
"Go and get us a couple of tickets
for the performance to-night."
Sam came back and onlv brou
one ticket.
"Where is the other tieket?"
"1 has done disposed ob hit."
i "What do you mean?"
"Bo3s, you tole me,
show yo some
took apieceuof glass
4go and et ttc
two tickets.' Bar's vour ticket,~and i
done guv my ticket "to a eullud ladv 1
metonde street. She will bedar,
Boss. You bet she will be aaf. Dar'
no danger ob de ticket bein' los' 01
wasted."Texas Sittings.*

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