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The commonwealth. (Greenwood, Miss.) 1896-1923, May 17, 1912, Image 7

Image and text provided by Mississippi Department of Archives and History

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89065008/1912-05-17/ed-1/seq-7/

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Ä Pre - Bouldpr Ola:
F ALL the evidence holds good—
and in the opinion of those quali
fied to judge, this is likely to be
the case—a skeleton recently
dug up near Ipswich, England, rep
resents not only the earliest re
mains of man yet found in Eng
land, but, with the exception of
the Heidelberg jaw, the earliest
yet found in Europe. The modern
type of man was evolved before
the commencement of the glacial
?\ period. At least it is now certain
y that thousands of years before the
Neanderthal race flourished in
South Germany, Belgium and France, England
was occupied by a race of men which in build of
body and form of brain were of the modern type.
About a mile north of Ipswich, England, is sit
uated a brick field which is famous to geologists
for the very ancient quaternary and tertiary de
posits which have been exposed by the excava
tions of the London clay for brickmaking. These
deposits, which are given in the descending order,
Chalky boulder clay,
Middle-glacial sand and gravel,
Decalcified red crag,
London clay,
Woolwich and Reading beds,
Thanet sand.
For some six years past I. Reid Moir, of Ips
wich, has been collecting flint implements from
the beds above the London clay, and, realizing
the importance of finding human bones in any
of these deposits, had carefully instructed the
workmen to communicate immediately with him
should such relics turn up.
A few months ago ho was notified that one of
the workmen, while removing some of the deenlel
fled boulder clay to get at the underlying glacial
sand, had found a portion of a human skull, and
on going down to the pit discovered that this
Indeed was the case. As two bones could be seen
projecting from the vertical face of the section at
a depth of about 4 feet from the surface, Mr. Moir,
accompanied by three friends Interested in
archaeology and geology, went down on the fol
lowing afternoon to the pit and superintended the
digging out of the remainder of the skeleton.
As a most careful examination of the hard clay
above tho remains showed that no digging had
ever taken place on this spot before, it was recog
nized that the find was an important one, and
every care was taken In removing the overlying
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sa rvpst
y~ -zerrmzsrssi
as rsss s4vczsrr<seorts-ioroA r
material. When the bones were reached it was
found that they were in such a friable state as to
necessitate the strata in which they lay being
dug up in large lumps; and as it was of the
greatest Importance to have them at once placed
In the hands of experts, they were forwarded the
same evening to the Royal College of Surgeons,
London, where they were most carefully and
skilfully examined by Prof. Arthur Keith, the con
servator of the college. During the next week the
strata each side of the place where the skeleton
was found were examined and reported on by Mr.
w. Whitaker, F.R.S., Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S., and
Mr. George Slater, F.G.S. The chalky boulder
'day. under which the bones were lying, covers an
immense area in East Anglia, and is a landmark
In Pleistocene geology. It owes its origin to the
Ice-sheet associated with the Igst episode of the
great Ice Age, and Its antiquity may be gauged
from the fact that since its deposition most of
our present river valleys have been formed. Be
fore the chalky boulder day was laid down there
was apparently a sandy land-surface to the north
of Ipswich, and on this land-surface lived the man
whose remains have been found. The flint imple
ments he and his associates made, which were,
no doubt, lying on the land-surface before the ad
vance of the ice, have been found in some abun
dance in the boulder clay, and at the Junction of
he clay with the glacial sand, and, therefore, at
exactly the same horizon as the bones themselves
occurred, these implements, and those from the
middle-glacial gravel, though very
llfully made, are of pre-Palaeolithic forms, and
ere is no doubt that in pre-boulder clay times
e true Palaeolithic Btage of culture had not been
''et the man who lived In Britain in the inter
g actal period before the boulder clay was laid
own, and who is, therefore, of a vast and un
sown antiquity, was to all intents and purposes
odern man. He stood about 5 feet 10 inches in
o'g 't; his head was perhaps a trifle smaller and
a or than present-day examples, but there was
ot ling brutal or simian in h!s appearance.
• ow. the Neanderthal men whose remains have
liTtk fr(,<luently frH'hd fh caves and rock shelters
H . 'f 0 . of France and elsewhere, and who
. in tf| ose districts tn mid-Palaeolithic times,
ate, therefore, much less ancient than the
Ancient Deed Recorded.
Tellow with
age and beginning to
spart where It had been folded
»early 106
years ago, a real estate
was recorded at Cumberland
Kim ty reg1stry recently by A. H.
■ >>' of Freeport, who found the
ciment after a long search among
Were in his possession. It is
vjJ* likely that never before In the
f i. ory of the county has 106 years
a 7' 39 'n this case, between the
«7 " at a deed was passed and the
that it was recorded.
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—f— ««
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or r&r zee>
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Ipswich man, show distinctly primitive and some
what simian characteristics. The implements
which they made are also of a more simple type
than those found In the river-terrace gravels,
which are nevertheless more ancient. Therefore,
if we are to judge of the type of man from the im
plements he made, the earlier river-drift man was
of a more advanced type than the later Mouste
rlan or Neanderthal man. The famous find at
Galley Hill of portions of a human skeleton in
the very ancient 100-foot terrace of the Thames
has proved this to be true; for here we have a
type of skull which is by no means degraded, and
associated with flint Implements which show an
advanced civilization.
Thus the evidence of the flints and the evidence
of the human bones are In entire agreement;
but the 100-foot terrace of the Thames at Upmln
ster, In Essex, rests upon, and Is therefore less
ancient than, the chalky boulder clay, and under
this boulder clay at Ipswich a modem^type of
man has been found! And yet not quite modern,
for the Ipswich man's tibia, or shin-bone, Is differ
ent In every way from ours, and not only ours,
but from any which have hitherto been found or
described. This peculiar tibia, which, as Profes
sor Keith says, represents a stage tn evolution,
and will serve to distinguish the race to which
this man belonged, was no doubt associated with
his manner of walking, but at present it is Im
possible to say exactly what this association was.
The finding of a modern type of man below the
chalky boulder clay Is, as has been suggested, at
first sight rather puzzling, but the dexterously
flaked Implements which have been found In the
older middle-glacial gravels, and the still much
older detritus bed below the red crag, make the
discovery much more easy to understand. The
outstanding fact about this discovery is that even
at such an immensely remote period as that pre
ceding the deposition of the chalky boulder clay,
modern man was already evolved, and that to find
the primitive human type we shall have to carry
our investigations back into a still more dim and
distant past.
The Neanderthal man of the earlier Ice Age Is
the oldest known Europeon. Of this type Prof.
Arthur Keith In "Ancient Types of Man," says:
"We know now that the men who lived In
Europe during the earlier and greater part of the
Glacial Period—one estimated to have extended
over a period of from 500,000 to 1,500,000 years—
were of the Neanderthal type. ... A comparl
The writing on the paper is quite
legible, although in places it is faded
somewhat and the old style writing
also has a tendency to make the writ
ing hard to read, but as a whole the
document is In a fine state of preser
vation for one of its age. The docu
ment wdb dated October 18, 1806.—
Portland Press.
Art is tho great and universal re
freshment. For art Is never dogmatic;
holds no brief for itself; you may take
it, or you may leave it. It does not
force itself rudely where it is not
wanted. It Is reverent to all tempers
to all points of view. But it is willful
—the very wind in the comings and
goings of its Influence, an uncaptur
able fugitive, visiting our hearts at
vagrant, sweet moments; since even
before the greatest works of art we
often stand without being able quite
to lose ourselves! That restful oblivion
comes, we never quite know when—
and it Is gone! But when it comes, it
Is a spirit hovering with cool wlnas

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son of tho calvaria ot !
the Neanderthal skull
with the correspond
ing part of the Galley !
I: c?v
Hill man will bring
out its peculiar fea
tures. Both are very
long skulls, the Ne
anderthal being 2li;i
mm., the Galley Hill
some 2 mm. more.
. . . The gréât size
of tho supra-orhitai
torus gives the fore j
head of the Neandeo j
tbal man a receding !

M a
It Is a striking fact j
that the brain had
reached, as regards j
size, more than a j
modern degree of de
velopment in the Neanderthal type (over I,6tlU
cc.) ; Indeed, 1,480 cc. is usually accepted as an
average for modern man.
the Neanderthal type of man yet found w
covered in the valley of the Neckar, some «IX
miles above . . . Heidelberg. Only a lower
jaw was found . . . The Heidelberg man had
a massive Jaw. . . . One can be absolutely
certain that tho head form of the Heidelberg man
was of the Neanderthal shape. ... In the
manner of head fixation Neanderthal man retains
a distinct trace of the anthropoid form. . . .
The earliest trace of the skeleton of man yet
found in Europe must be assigned to a period
which carries us back many hundred thousands
of years. . . . Yet even at that early date wq
find man already evolved, brutish perhaps In ap
pearance, savage, no doubt, in his nature—yet
large-brained, erect In posture, and In every sense
of the biologist—a man."
Of the type known as Pithecanthropus erectus,
called the "missing link," Dr. W. J. Sollas in
"Ancient Hunters,' Bays:
"Dr. Eugene Dubois, who had left Holland for
Java with the avowed intention of finding the
'missing link,' discovered in September, 1891, a
molar tooth . . . the wisdom tooth of Pithecan
zee> rewr aemuzA.
The earliest, trace of
thropus erectus; later ... the cranial vault, or
the skull-cap, was found. . . . The thigh bone
of the left leg was found lying fifty feet away
from the spot where the first, tooth was obtained,
but still on the same horizon, and finally, in Octo
ber (1892), another molar tooth. ... A de
scription of the remains of Pithecanthropus has
been published by Dr. Dubois. . . . All are
agreed that they Indicate an animal bearing a
close resemblance to men and apes. Some re
gard Pithecanthropus as an ape with certain
human characters; others as a man with evident
simian characters; others ... as a connecting
link midway between man and the higher apes.
Tho suggestion has even been made that the re
mains are those of a mliYocephalic Idiot. . . .
That which distinguishes man from all the beasts
of the field is the power and complexity of bis
. . Thus the chief interest in the
Trlnil fossil attaches to the skull-cap, or brain
pan . . . this Is certainly more simian than
human. . . . The animal has been fittingly
designated Pithecanthropus erectus—the ape
man who walked erect"
Simply Waiting.
"Dibbs Is a confirmed pessimist."
"Are you sure of that?"
"Quite sure. He soys he expects to hear any
day the booming of the first gun in a South Pole
blessing us, from least to greatest, ac
cording to our powers; a spirit death
less and varied as human life itself.—
John Galeswortby in the Atlantic.
Nearly every college graduate starts
out to set. the world on fire, but It
seldom causes the Insurance people
to sit up and take notice.
A man rlaes In his own estimation
when he settles down, and In the esti
mation of his creditors when he seh
Anchovy Found in Large Quanti
ties in Holland.
Fact It Not Widely Known— Suppôt»
tlon That Mediterranean Sea Hat
Monopoly of Induttry it Er
The Hague, Holland.—The coat ot ;
arms of KnkhuUeu, one of the dead I
cities of the Zuyder see. hears three I
stiver fishes, which, it is explained
are anchovies; for Enkhuizen owed
a great part of Its prosperity to the
anchovy fisheries.
It Is generally supposed that the j
anchovy Is caught exclusively lu the
en. so it comes as a
surprise to most people to hear that j
tt is so largely caught off the coasts j
of Holland. Dutch fishermen have ,
been familiar tor ages with the tact |
that the anchovy comes up In great
shoals at certain times of (he year
and enters the Zuyder zee to spawn
There bnvo, however, been c
able lapses of time when no
at all appeared, and when it
j feared that the Dui*h fisher folk had
, lost tlielr means of earning a llvcli
j hood, then, suddenly
j parent reason, the shoals oi tisii ,,p;,iti
became regular
lthout any up
These last
j few years the anchovy lias [h
I tieularly plentiful.
! fisherman bus made his living lor tho
! whole ye
en par
Many u /'ll y (1er z
during the unci
, which lasts lrom
0 eight
1 florins
known to be
weeks, and ns much a
• ($400) worth have beet
a l.o
In a single day.
Formerly the method ot
shoal of anchovy c
Ing an enormous net w it!
'apturlng a
slated in
two boats. This
i touched the sea bottom
I boots hoisted
Thon the
jail and the ...
there was the better pleased
j llshornien. They sailed on to
and then
when the net
j contained thousands of Btlvcrv fishes
Later on they preferred t
stationary nets, because
j could be caught in that
j fisherman places his
; certain part of the
while comes lo
been filled with fish.
The anchovy brings plenty of work
for many another category of , m-Hons
than the regular flshe
fish have to bo cleaned,
packed Into casks
■as lifted It
o tish with
more fish
way. Each
own nets tn n
sea, and after a
set» whether they have
salted and
nie cleaning k:
done almost exclusively by wonio
children, the salting
j "fifilter" and the making of the
casks employ
a little army of coop
Then the packing Is also done
by experienced hands In
such a way
! the anc 'hovy can be kept tor many
years without spoiling.
The herring fishers also oft
! < ' ur ® mlm ° ns 01 anchovy
1 coasts of Holland. "
they perceive a shoal coming their
way they will fix anchovy netting Into
their herring nets, and so ofte
cure almost miraculous hauls.
The anchovy Is a small tish, the full
j grown specimen being only fifteen
timeters (5.9 Inches) long. The hack
of this fish Is bluish and tho under
parts are white, glistening like silver
In the sunshine.
en se
noar tho
Kor as soon aH
j -
Russian Who Calmly Searched
Street tor a Girl to Kill Slays
One in Hotel.
St. Petersburg.—How a young man,
who called himself "Vadim, the Vam
pire," wrote out an account of the
crime he Intended to commit and then
street in
girl victim was told? at a
remarkable murder trial which has
Just concluded here.
calmly walked Into the
search of
Country Has Abundant Supply in
Its Bogs.
Attention I* Turned to It as Reeult of
Coal Strike—May Result In De
velopment of Reeources
Now Little Used.
Dublin.—The coal strike tn Great
Britain has sent up the price of coal
to such an extent In Ireland that the
Idea of turning to peat fuel as a sub
stitute for coal is being serioualy con
sidered. A considerable quantity of
turf 1 b consumed in Dublin at present,
not indeed aB an alternative to coal,
but as an auxiliary to it. The poor
use it instead of firewood to light their
fires In the morning, and it Is also
used chiefly by bacon curers, who
find that turf smoked bacon has an
agreeable flavor. A new
taste also accounts for the consump- j
tlon of a further small quantity.
Many Dublin people who nave been J
caught by the glamor of the Irish lan
guage movement and have spent boll- |
days In Irish speaking dlatrlcta In the j
aesthetic I
New Orleans Ordinance Forbids T!«ose
Which Protrude More Than One
Inch From the Crown.
Orleans.—Herefater any wo
in New Orleans who wears a hat
pin protruding more than one inch
the crown of her hat will be sub- |
arrest, according to an ordi
lect to
nance which passed the city council |
last night. The new law ts the result
■aged on the
of a strenuous war
lengthy hat pins by the members of
the Era Club.
Cast-Off Stocking a Bank.
Pittsfield, Mass.—Mrs. Mary Mur
phy, a rag cutter In the Rising Paper
mill, at Housatonic, was cutting up
old hosiery lor paper stock when. In
a silk stocking, she felt a small roil,
which proved to be $50 in $10 bills.
Some wearer of the ailk hose had
made the stocking a purse and forgot
■11 about the money when the hose
w»s discarded.
Mrs, Murphy is a widow and the
find Is to her a big blessing.
„ «I
k : V » S
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■ *
t Hk ■
EWELI/ SANDi HS has l ocn appolnu-d United States senator by tho
governor t>f Tenn^ssoo to fill the imoxplred term of tho late Robert
Love Taylor, and has been sworn In and taken bis Rent
"I took her to kill her," the [iris- j
oner, Nikolai Ratkewltsch, told the j
court. The evidence, says Renier,
showed that the accused strangled !
the girl In his room at an hotel and j
afterwards inflicted thirty-five knife
wounds on her body. He wrote In his
diary an analysis of Ills feelings he
fore and after the crime, and he
pinned to the wall an account of his
terrible deed, signed "Vadim, the
Vampire," in which he asserted that
he was the author of a similar mur
der at another hotel a year ago.
Inquiries, however, proved that some
time back, when Ratkewltsch had
hung a rope round his neck and was
about to commit, suicide, a passer-by—
a man of criminal Instincts—saved
him, formed a close friendship with
him, and Inculcated him with his own
horrible Ideas about murdering wo
south or west of Ireland In the sum
mer get a whiff of the countryside In
their own drawing rooms In Dublin
during the winter by using turf In
stead of coal in their tires. There are
quite a number of houses of which this
is true, not only ln Buhlin, but even
In so-called Orange Belfast.
However, all this consumption ot
peat is a mere trifle compared with
the consumption of coal. What Is now
being discussed Is the possibility of
using peat as a substitute for coal.
Ireland would be tho wealthier by
thousands of millions of dollars If Its
j tire surface,
J lying waste,
make peat moss litter in comparative
| ly small quantities, and In very re
j mote districts the turf is cut anil used
peat bogs could he turned to account
on a sound commercial basis. The
area of bog in Ireland Is nearly 1,01)0,
000 acres, or about 5 per cent, of the
surface of the country. The liog of
Allen stretches across the great cen
tral plain, and In the west of Ireland
there are districts In which peat cov
I era from 20 to 30 per cent, of the en
Most of this peat area is at present
Two or three companies
Junk Shops to Have Craft
Nlpsic, of Civil War Fame, Out
lives Her Usefulness Even as a
Naval Prison Vessel.
| »In, for many years the prison ship
of the Puget Sound navy yard, has
Seattle.—The old war vessel Nip
| been condemned as unsanitary and
will be sold at auction and broken
up. She will be succeeded as a prison
vessel by the cruiser Philadelphia,
built in 1888.
The Nipslc has a historic record.
Tho side-wheeler was built in 1863 and
was in the South Atlantic blockade
squadron during the Civil war. In
July, 1882, the Nipslc, In company
with the Lancaster, Quinnebgug and
Galena, was present at the bombard
ment of Alevandrla, Egypt, by the
British fleet.
The old timer's career was nearly
ended during the two days' hurricane
at Apia, Samoa, In March, 1889 The
war craft was driven ashore and seven
ot her men lost In the tempest. A
j men The teacher committed a mur
j der and escaped, and the pupil com
milted another and was arrested,
Lakevlew, C)r<
Walks Te- Miles Asleep.
VHsh Nelllo Porter,
twenty years old. ai'onn from her bed
and wbllo still
miles, and was found at 3
tho morning, when she fell exhausted
upon the porch of the (Hidden resi
dence In New Pine Creek, fifteen ml lea
south of here.
She did not know how she had
reached the (Hidden homo. The last
sho remembered was going to bod at
the home of the family for whom she
worked, three miles away. Her tracks
were followed through tho fields,
woods, over rocks and through creeks
which she had forded.
sleep Walked ten
'clock in
n.i fuel by the farmers, With the ex
ception of the more or less artificial
use of turf already referred to, these
are the only uses to which peat 1» ap
plied in Ireland.
The methods of preparing peat for
ruel are very primitive and would
have to be changed completely t<>
make peat fuel a real competitor with,
coal. An attempt was made sumo
years ago to make turf briquettes, hut
the scheme, though It promised well,
did not turn out as successfully aa
was expected and the company, like
the turf Itself, crumbled to pieces. The
moisture was squeezed out of the peat
hy compression and the briquettes
when fresh seemed to be Just the
thing that was wanted, but whatever
defect there was In the preparation of
them they were not. able to stand the
knocking about they got In the rail
road wagons and canal boats.
The problem of making peat
briquettes that can travel by train
without falling to pieces has, however,
since been solved In Bweden arid In
other countries and this fact has given
encouragement to Irishmen to take
the matter up again. The coat strike
has brought the question within the
range of practical things as nothing
else could have done.
week later she was floated and headed
for Honolulu for repairs The passage
to the Hawaiian port was made with
Jury rudder, deformed
screw and with
all the outside keel gone and the hull
leaking badly. The Nipslc is built of
wood and contains much valuable oak
and walnut ns well
brass trimmings.
as copper and
111 Starved to Death.
London.—A grim document
been Issued from the local
It recorded the deaths
in 1919 In England and Wales of 111
persons from starvation or "accelerat
ed by privation," and it furnished de
tails of each case. The saddest thing
In connection with these tragedies Is
disclosed hy the following sentence:
"In 85 out of the 111 cases no appli
cation had been made for poor relief
or application waa only made when
deceased was In a dying condition.
Most of the poor victims would dis
rather than beg."
ment board.

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