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University Missourian. (Columbia, Mo.) 1908-1916, January 16, 1913, Image 2

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Aa Iirtif BHjr r tk HilMtt ta tte
MmI f JamraalUai at tha VTivanttr
f mawari.
Managing- Editor.
Unlrcraltr Mlaaourlan Association ( Inc.)
J. Harrison Brown, president ; Robert
8. Mann, Secretary ; Jtmet O. May, Ward
A. Neff, Pan! J. Thompaon. H. J. McKay.
w. e. uali. 'J
8. Undson, Iran H.
Offlca : In Virginia Bid, Down Stain.
Entered at the Poatofflce of Columbia, Mo.
aa second-class mall matter.
TWO Dollars a Tear by Carrier or Mall.
Address all communications to
Colombia, Missouri
A visit to the display of Missouri
hams and bacons in the Agricultural
Building will clinch the argument
that Missouri is the home of good
things to cat. So proud have we been
of our long eared mules and corncob
pipes that we have neglected to give
the cooks of our state enough honor.
The fathers of Missouri strive to
give their sons and daughters good
schooling; the mothers strive to give
them good things to eat. What the
mothers give to the children is as
essential as what the fathers give.
A healthy body is the first essential
to success, and plenty of crisp coun
try bacon with corn bread and but
termilk in proportion accounts for
the robust Missouri youths.
Visitors from other parts of the
country give the highest of praise
to the Missouri cook. But she is so
common to the natives that she is
underestimated. Here's to the cooks
of Missouri; and may they continue
to feed us on hickory-bark smoked
Mr. Missouri Farmer is this week
the guest of the University and of the
city of Columbia. He is being
treated tip-top, too, and says he feels
right at home. The University and
the city are glad to have the Mis
souri farmer visit them for a week
every year, for he is of the class that
really amounts to something in
American life today.
Fifty million people, or more than
half of our total population, live on
the farm. This makes the biggest
single class and the biggest vote in
the country. And when we consider
that there are 6,000,000 farms, aver
aging 140 acres, with a total value
of 141,000,000,000, this makes the
greatest wealth, too. These farms
double In value every ten years. The
farmer casts 7,500,000 votes or near
ly half the total estimated vote at
national elections. He is two class
es, capitalist and worker, and truly
represents both capital and labor.
No wonder we are glad to have
the farmer with us this week. He
really amounts to something. He is
the most profound force and power
in American life today.
It Is good to note that changing
conditions are fast giving the com
forts and luxuries of city life to the
farmer. Rural life has been revolu
tionized in the last decade.
First the farmer asked that his
mail be delivered at his door as it
is in the cities. Then the telephone
was extended to the country, and
communication made as easy there as
in the city. The problem of quick
travel has largely been solved for
the farmer -by the automobile,
though he still needs better roads.
The latest addition to country life
is the parcel post With as much
ease as her city sister, the farmer's
wife now can order her groceries
over the telephone. Uncle Sam runs
the delivery wagon.
Today the farmer has a home
.equipped with all the modern con
veniences. With his automobile he
can reach the city almost as easily
as the suburban dweller on his
street car. On the farmer's table are
those luxurious eatables only known
to country life. All told, the chang
es of the last decade have so added
to the comforts of farm life as to
make it attract the people more and
To Keep Down the Weeds.
Of course it is necessary to fight
weeds. Begin with the seed. A fight
against weed-seed production and dis
tribution would help much in solving
the problem.
Written by Members of the Class in Agricultural Journalism, School of Journalism.
Any Method Is Good if Ears
Are Kept Dry and in Cool,
Even Temperature.
Not enough emphasis is placed up
on the fact that seed corn, in order
to give the best yield, should be
stored very carefully through the
winter. Many farmers kill the vital
ity of the corn by careless methods.
The best condition under which
corn for seed maintains its vitality,
is that of dryness and an even tem
perature. Any method of storing will
answer the purpose as long as the
corn is dried slowly and kept In a
cool, even temperature. If the tem
perature is too low the water in the
corn will freeze; while if it is too
high the grains may germinate, ruin
ing the corn for planting use.
One of the simplest and most com
monly employed methods is to hang
from twelve to twenty ears on a stout
cord fastened to" the celling. This is
a handy method it there is but a
small amount of corn to be stored,
but a farmer is liable to injure the
corn by hanging it up in an unshelt
ered place, thereby exposing It to
varying temperatures and to moist,
damp weather.
This method would hardly be prac
tical where a large amount of corn
Is to be stored. A better plan In this
case would be to make sloping bins,
any length, with lathes in the bottom,
from 2 to 2 inches apart This
would allow a free circulation of air
and insure a slow drying process.
The corn in these bins should never
be piled more than two ears deep.'
The ears at the lower part of the
bin can be removed from time to
time, so that others will roll down
to take their place. This will cause
the ears to be equally dried on all
There are several patent bins for
storing corn, all built on the same
principle as that described. One of
these new models consists of racks
about 6 or 7 feet high, with shelf
arrangements upon which one layer
of cars can be placed. In this bin
there is also a space of about
inches, to allow free circulation of
air from underneath.
Many farmers store their seed corn
In the attic. This is a very good
place, as it is usually cool and dry
up there with very little variation In
the temperature.
Any method of storing corn for
seed is a good method, as long as
these two things are kept in mind:
First, to keep the temperature cool,
steady and even; second, to keep the
corn dry and entirely free from mois
ture. Under no circumstances should
the corn be packed In barrels, or
boxes, unless It Is thoroughly dried
Every Precaution Snonld Be Taken
Against Spread of This Pest
You cannot afford to treat dodder
as you would any other weed. It is
so deadly that it must be stamped
out immediately, or it will become a
very serious pest
If there are only occasional small
patches to be found, mow the alfalfa
in these patches berore the dodder
begins to bloom; then in a few days,
scatter straw over the Infested areas
and burn it This may kill the al
falfa plants, but it will probably kill
the dodder also. If the field is badly
infested there is nothing to do but to
plow it up, and plant it in corn or
some cultivated crop for one or two
Dodder infests clover as frequently
as it does alfalfa, and it is Just aa
dangerous In clover as in alfalfa. It
is a good idea to have samples of the
seed analyzed at the state experiment
station before seeding.
Bat the Government's Fight Saves
Farmers $5,060,000 Annually.
According to a recent bulletin is
sued by the United States Department
of Agriculture, ihs cost of tick erad
ication to the Federal Government has
been less than $1,000,000. Yet this
movement has saved the country $5,
000,000 a year since Its beginning In
Only about one-seventh of the tick
infested territory has been cleaned up
and it Is estimated that it will re
quire about 16,000,000 for the other
six-sevenths. This seems like an
enormous sum, but the price is cheap
when the saving is considered.
W. T. Floaraoy Uses the Ventilated
System ia Keeping Apples.
Several successful orchard men in
South Missouri are cutting down their
cold storage bills op. the apple crop
this year by using ventilated storage,
according to Ashleigh P. Boles, sec
retary of the State Board of Horti
culture. Mr. Boles was speaking of
his recent ten days' inspection tour
of the southern part of the state.
"W. T. Flournoy of Marionvllle, an
experienced apple grower," said Mr.
Boles, "declares that he has saved a
thousand dollars on his storage bill
so far this year, by using the venti
lated method. A number of years ago
Mr. Flournoy built a cold storage
plant on his own farm, using the
ammonia system of cold storage.
This method proved expensive and he
began a series of experiments to find
a more efficient and less expensive
way to store fruit.
"He finally worked out a plan by
which the cold night air was forced
in among the apples when the tem
perature was lower than that in the
storage room. A hole was cut above
the floor line, in the side of the wall,
and a suction fan was Installed. This
fan draws the stale air out of the
room and cold fresh air is brought in
through an opening on the north side
of the building."
The house was originally built for
a cold storage plant and the walls
and floors were well Insulated. When
the vent holes are closed, the temper
ature is held at a low point for a
considerable length of time before
it begins to rise. A false floor is
built from 6 to 8 inches above the
concrete floor and the fruit is stored
in bins arranged upon the false floor.
The fruit is piled from 3 to 4 feet
high. A good circulation of cold air
to all parts of the bin is essential.
"The efficiency of the Bystem was
put to a test by storing a bin of cull
apples, picked up from the ground,"
Mr. Boles continued. "After two
months of storage, these culls looked
to be In almost as good condition as
when they were put In storage.
"The State Board of Horticulture
is very much interested In ventilated
storage and if further experiments
prove that it Is successful, a bulletin
will be issued, giving the details of
the system."
MIssoHrl Growers Ship North and
South Some Rotations.
Consider the definite place the Mis
souri potato has in the market The
first potatoes come from Florida and
other Gulf states. The digging moves
steadily northward and reaches Mis
souri about July 1, when Missourians
can ship potatoes both north and
south. This gives the state a double
market for early products and en
ables the grower to get a much bet
ter price.
The potato fits nicely into certain
crop rotations. Some are as follows:
First year, potatoes followed by cow
peas for pasture or hay; second, corn
which can be shocked or put in silo;
third, wheat with clover seed sown la
spring; fourth, clover.
A shorter rotation is as follows:
First, potatoes followed by cowpeas
or soybeans; second, corn in which
cowpeas were sown at last cultivation
and plowed under.
Another rotation is: First year, po
tatoes; second, wheat; third, clover.
The largest yields of potatoes are se-1
cured In rich sandy or black loam
soils containing plenty of humus.
Sod is most generally turned under.
It is always best to plow In the fall
and allow the roots to rot during the
winter. Plowed ground also dries out
earlier in the spring and can be
worked sooner.
Here's a Simple Plan That Will la.
crease the Gala From Hogs.
The concrete folding floor Is of
great Importance to the hog feeder
if he is to get the maximum gain.
This floor can be built very easily
and cheaply. First locate the place
where you want to feed of course it
should be as dry as possible and then
dig out a place about 8 inches deep
and 20 feet square. Dig the soil so
as to make the bottom of the founda
tion level; fill in with about 5 Inches
of gravel. Then put on the concrete,
about 4 inches thick. This will make
the floor extend about 1 inch above
the surface of the ground. After the
concrete has set slightly, smooth off
with a mortar two parts sand to one
part cement Put this on about
inch thick.
A mixture of one part cement to
three parts sand to six parte gravel
will answer for the concrete.
Tests Show That Corn Should
Be Given in Connection
With Other Foods.
The general impression is that corn
is a good fattening feed for poultry.
It is the common practice to feed the
birds corn in the fall to fatten them.
And the heavy feed of corn Just be
fore they are sold to the huckster or
other buyer Is not forgotten.
To determine what gains could be
made by feeding corn for fattening
purposes, a lot of farm-raised chick
ens' of mixed breeding were bought
to experiment with. These birds
were divided evenly into lots of ten
birds each, so that one lot of birds
was Just as good as another at the
beginning of the experiment A num
ber of different feeds were used and
the lots run in duplicate. The birds
were fed three times a day for a peri
od of three weeks. AH weights were
taken twelve hours off of fed.
The rations used were as follows:
Lot 1. Shell corn and 10 per cent
meat scrap.
Lot 2. Equal parts of corn and
wheat and 10 per cent meat scrap.
Lot 3. Corn meal plus 10 per cent
meat scrap and moistened with water.
Lot 4. Corn meal, low grade flour,
pea meal and buttermilk.
The pens fed rations No. 1 and No.
2 made a gain of less than 0.2 pound
on each bird at a cost of 50 cents for
each pound gained. Pens fed ration
No. 3 made a gain on each bird of
0.4 pound at a cost of 17 cents for
each pound gained. Pens, fed ration
No. 4 made a gain on each bird of
1 pound at a cost of 7.4 cents for each
pound gained.
The result shows that the feed
which made the highest gain made it
at the least cost It also shows that
whole grain cannot be used as a fat
tening food. It Is cheaper to have
the grain ground than to have the
birds do their own grinding. The re
sults will be better by using more
than one kind of feed.
Corn is a good fattening food, but
it must be finely ground and fed in
connection with some other feeds if
good results are to be obtained.
A ration that gives excellent re
sults in fattening is composed of:
24 pounds of white bolted corn meal,
6 pounds of low grade flour, 4 pounds
of either buckwheat middlings, pea
meal or finely ground hulled oats.
For each pound of this mixture add
about two pounds of buttermilk.
Take Care to Keep the Spring and
Cistern Free FronPToIlation.
Failure to keep the water supply
pure sheer carelessness causes
thousands of deaths from typhoid
Farmers get their drinking water
from the cistern or spring, more often
from the cistern than the spring. The'
cistern water is collected from the
roof of the house. Between rains
much is blown on the roof and lodged
until the next rain comes along and
washes it into the cistern.
In many cases the Spring is below
the barn. There Is nothing to prevent
the water around the barn from seep
ing into the well. In such a case the
spring water can not be used with
safety. The only way out is to lo
cate the spring above he barn. If
possible, or stop drinking the water.
A good way to make the cistern
water more sanitary Is to filter the
water before it runs Into the cistern.
This can be done very easily by build
ing a filter under the spout, where
the water runs into the cistern.
Make a vat out of concrete about
2 feet square and 3 feet deep, Just
below the surface of the ground.
Connect the pipes, which carry the
water into the cistern, at the bottom
of it put a strainer over the outlet
and fill the vat with charcoal and
put a lid over the top. The charcoal
will filter out much of, the filth that
would 'otherwise be carried Into the
drinking water. (
The Size of Chicken to Market
The size of chiqken that makes the
best gain and commands the highest
market price averages from 1 to 2
pounds. The demand for this size
chicken is so great that it enables the
farmer to receive a good price for his
birds. In the last ten years there has
been an approximate Increase in the
selling price of poultry of 50 per
Two MIssoHrl Farmers Will Feed
Waste From Cora Canning Factory.
Two farmers in Northwest Missouri,
who live near a town where a large
sweet corn canning factory is located,
have gone into partnership nd
bought the waste output from the
factory, for a term of ten years. The
waste consists of all the husks, cobs,
immature and inferior corn, in all of
which there is a good deal of feeding
These men have rented a 10-acre lot
adjacent to the factory where beef
cattle will be fed. Here they have
erected four large silos in which the
waste products from the factory are
About 200 head of cattle will be fedj
on the silage. Grain will be fed to
gether with the silage so as to form
a well-balanced ration. Hogs will
follow the cattle and will be fed some
silage. The promoters expect to start
feeding about the first of February
and will continue full feed until May
or June, when the cattle will be mar
keted. This Is probably the first undertak
ing of its kind in the state and will
be watched closely by many feeders
In that section. Sweet-corn makes
silage that is rather high in acid but
it is thought that this will not hurt
it as a feed for beef cattle. If this
experiment proves profitable many
other such operations will probably
be carried on where sweet-corn can
ning factories are located. It has
proved profitable to utilize for feed
ing purposes the waste from beet
sugar factories. Why should not the
waste from sweet-corn be a profitable
feed also?
Advice From a Washington Experi
ment Station Bulletin.
For Missouri conditions it is ad'
vised that the cherry tree be pruned
to an open head. Cherries cannot
stand severe pruning, however, and
one should be Judicious in the use of
the saw. Cut off limbs close to the
larger limbs and cut back limbs to
a healthy, fairly large outer branch
of the limb cut back.
The Washington State Experiment
Station, in Bulletin 92, recommends
the following method of handling 1-year-old
trees as they are planted in
the orchard:
All lateral branches should be cut
off close and the top headed back
to from 24 to 36 inches from the
ground. The young tree will require
no further pruning until the begin
ning of the third year, except per
haps to remove water sprouts which
may spring from the foot
At the beginning of the third year's
growth three or four main limbs
should be left, and headed back about
one-third of their original length, cut
ting to outer buds or twigs always.
The remaining limbs should be cut
The pruning for the fourth and fifth
year's growth should be much the
same as for the third, using care to
thin the top and cut back in such a
manner as to spread the top.
Co-operation for
the Farmer"-
A You heard N. P. Jacobson tell yesterday
what co-operation could do for the farmer.
See what it is doing for the students of the
University.' Visit the University Co-Operative
Store, a store owned and managed by the
students of the University to sell books and
student supplies to themselves. We shall be
glad to tell you all about our organization and
what we are doing. See the co-operative
principle in action.
You will find the store in Academic Hall, the main
buildine of the University. You will be interested,
too, in our collection of books dealing with topics
you are most concerned with. Every book in the
collection has the endorsement of a member of the
Faculty of the College of Agriculture.
CO -
Hmw T.nss rn C?rnns fan R.l
Prevented by Burning B
Over Infested Places.
Missouri farmers are in danger
losing thousands of dollars n
spring from the attack of the ch
bug upon their field crops. Dr. Lea.'
ard Haseman, entomologist to tat?
Missouri Agricultural Experiment Sta
Uon, says the chinch bug cost tVf
State of Missouri approximately J5,i:
flflfi AAA Innf voni Anrf tinloaa IrkL
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mediate steps aro taktn to destroy,'
the swarms which are living over
during the winter this loss will bt
greatly increased next year.
"In an open winter," says Doctor,
Haseman, "immense numbers of the
adult chinch bug pass through the
winter safely. In the spring these in
sects will migrate from their winter
quarters to the whrat and deposit
their egs for a second brood. Tl
last hrood will mature about the I
the wheat is harvested and will
grate to corn fields and meado
Their attack upon these field crop,
unless preventive measures are tak
en, will mean a great loss to the Mis-;
sour! farmers. Now Is the time ta
begin the fight upon this pest"
He advises that all waste lands, J
pastures, road sides, and fields which;
are heavily overgrown, be examined
for hibernating chinch bugs. The in
sects hide in clumps of grass ami.'
under leaves and rubbish. The
crushed bugs have a disagreeable
odor. i.
Wherever the Insects are found the,
fields should be burned over careful-1
ly so that every possible shelter will'
be destroyed and the insects killed.
The farmers of a community can
operate effectively In this work. "L
.. ZT-. 4
vaa ioos none in n inter win liessm
Work of Bash Season.
Every man should be looking for-B
ward to the opening of spring. Manyj
things can be done during the winUci
to lessen the rush spring work. When
spring opens everything should be ia
readiness for preparing the land and
seeding the crops.
Is the machinery in good repair!
It is probable that the wear and tean
of last summer's work has broi
many parts. The plowB, should all MM
sharpened and put In 'good repair.
Replace the missing bolts in all tad
machinery which will be .used nextfl
spring. The corn planter, plows, har-5
rows and rollers should be gone over
Have the harness in good condltli
it. has probably depreciated mo
than any other one thine in farm,
The leather should be oiled well
is to last through another summ
work. Every part should be rep;
or replaced until the set is made
tically as good as new.
IF A lit
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