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VOLUME VIII. CIIILLIOOTIIK, LIVINGSTON COUNTY, MISSOURI, TIIUIISDAY, AVfiUST (5, 1S8.1. NUMBER 51. fUSDOM CLIPPINGS. CHKVRF.ri., the gront French ehern 1st, will round hi centennial year in August; A subscription is being mud in England for tlio purposo of pre senting a free-will ofl'oring to Walt Whitman. The sum of 4,500 a wcok is now being paid by tlio government on ac count of the work of making the new harbor of Vera Cruz. It is given out tluit the proper way to pronounce Sir Stafford Northcoto's now title, Karllddeslcigh, is "ldsloy," and cut quito as short as possible at that. KrnimKON, liiu Knglish preacher, has a son who is a pastur in New Zea land and whoso sermons are said to be even more sensational than his f :v thor'e. Tub first edition of (ien. Grant's hook will consist of Si 10, 000 copies. It is thought now that Hut family will realize about S-.'.OUO.IHW out of the work. A man in Manitoba found cool aud oasy sloop in a hammock swung from the limb of a tree thirl v feet from the ground, but ono night a storm blew .him out, breaking his legs and arms. louNO Mu. Mosaiiiian, of Kliode Island, who goes toMauheim as cole eul, was ono of tho niosl cll'eelivo of the younger Cleveland stumpers. He is a Itrown university man, and only 20 years old. , A railway similar to that on Mount Washington is to bo constructed on Mount Royal at .Montreal. Ry means of it tho magnilici'iit views from that famous spot will bo brought within reach of tho million. Tho road is to bo completed by September, and 18 cents will pay for a round trip horso car ride from any section of tlio city and tho ascent of the mountain. The Duko Alexander, of Wurtem borg, now dead, was once a cavalry general ill tho Austrian army, but ho did not distinguish himself in that capacity. After his retirement from tho scrvico ho devoted most of his mind and tituu to the construction of hobby-horses and carrousels for the instruction of youths in equestrianism, in which ho was notably proliciuut. l-lTiAN HorsiiN. of Texas, when the late war began, invenled and had pat ented by the confederate government a projectile which was used witli souie success in Charleston harbor against tho union vessels. After tho war the palont of course was worthless, lte i.jphUv lions. mi filed an implication for n patent for the same projectile, aud a few days ago a letter was sent to him from tho interior department inform ing him that his application had been granted. TtiK heartbroken appearance of a pretty girl, about 10 years old, who was ou her way through to Birming ham, Ala., induced a reporter to look into tho case. He found that tlio young lady had been forced by a pecu liar clause in a will to marry an old man, a perfect stranger, In order to save the properly of tho family, The Atlanta Constitution, which relates tho incident, adds: "The mother was es corting the daughter to sco.that tho sacrifice was duly niadu. This May nnd December business should bo stopped." An old, rich Now Yorker, tho head of a Knickerbocker family, who knows a good deal about private estates, tells a correspondent of TIm Motion S'lfi--(tail Uuzctlc that the wealth of many persons in New York is absurdly ox ageraled. Ho declares Unit, omitting William II. Vanderbilt John Jacob and William Astor, Jay Gould, Rus sell Sago, Sidney, Dillon, 1). 0. Mills. Henry Hilton, Cyrira Field, aud a few olhers, thoro are not twonty citi.ens worth $0,000,000 each. Tho geucral opinion on the subject is that this as sertion is a ruonstrious depreciation of tho wealth jf New Yorkers. An old settler near Valdoza, Ga., had novor killed a deer, but was fortu nate enough to trap ono. "Now" said ho to his wifo, "I'll have it to say that l're killed ono deer." So he tied a rope around tlio animal's horns and fastened it to a tree. Carefully load ing his big boroJ rille, ho stepped oil' n few yards and aimed deliberately at the buck's head. Hang went the gun, I ho dust How fi'om the rope, and the door bounded oil', freo and unleltorod, to enjoy tho pleasures of his haunts In the greenwood. Tho bullet had cut tho rope in twain. D. M. Jones, "Wyoming's favorite poet," is a practicing lawyer of Wilkosbarro. His ecconlricitios nro many, but I hey aro nioro than nullified hy tho charm of a pleasant niaunor nnd the attributes of.an honest heart. Tootry is his Idol. Ills own produc tions aro remarkabio for thoir sim plicity of diction, the Imagery of a cultivated Imagination, and tho hatred of oppression which they broathe. He is still young, and would be one of tho happiest men In the world if to read and write poetry were his duly duty- . A fat litorary lady who frequents the reforenco room of (ho Itoston pub lie library carries in hor dross-pookot a sjuall eard much soiled. Upon this card is writton in bold characters: "I am sorry to remind you that spoaklng aloud is contrary to tho rules of tho library." Whenever any porson In her vicinity engage in conversation the old lady slyly pops her card beneath their eyes, and as soon as its Insorip. tion has been read she pulls It back by the string attached to Its corner. The attendants say that tho old lady is a blessing to thorn.' She preserves good order without any assistance from the ppployes, 10 A BIRD 0.1 TDK TKLKUBAftl WIKK- Onild Writ meet! What wonderful tidlncs me lheM, Fljlng onilcr the paliiiH of iby fretl A)i. ti'll mi'. lilfHc. Wtint new Ihrohs under thy trrnntlons toe, Little lnl, up there, Hhcre the warm wind blows! () hlitlio, brave binll What rumor of I'Hltlc now speeds, (III Die lip of the 1 trlitnlup weird! Wind startllint deeds. Pone on the land or the h i, I pniv, Arc told by the "Ires to the world to (lav 1 l beauteous bird, Steidlni; the Bicrc's tliitt hourly stream Out of Hie heart et the worlddcep-etlrredl I Ho I hut drciini, In falioylnir tin e, little hint, the tdinst Of nunc old nieesina', love-st nt nud lostl) ( wild hlnl sweet Smellier iwuv In tliy sspphlre coat I Mirely tln-soiic; runs In at thy feet, And out at thv throat, Thrtlllnntlie iteihii: tnlics of the air. With e,osslp iinil eciuidiil from ever) where . tl wretched bird! How and nill-t tliv llttte heart he, llearhiL'of imotdcs. yet untieanl Itv all siivc thee,---reeklti(r the bullctuis nut of tliewirea, When an empire falls or a kine, expires. (I si old hlnl, VuMnjr alone on the mumbling line, 'fill tliy soul Is tick uiiil tliy bright eyes blur'd, Willi te'ira like mine. For fl w orld irrown foul wit li folly and Bin, And death, us the yesrs creep oiil and In. 8w eet hlnl, away I Flv to the east tly lo the Wct Fly to the utti'rijiofit verge, of (lay; Klv! nor rest Till the leaning Hps of the desert kiss Kach tlioucht away of n race like this. J. S.'MfttthncK, In 'Hit Currtnt. WHAT JOHN FOUND. Iteeoss was nearly over. Tho boys and girls gathered in tho playground outside of the log school-house, but no play was going ou. Most of tho boys had their books in thoir hnmls, and were poring over (hem , if to make up for all the idle timeof ''eir lives; the girls sat on the wood pile, whis pering and looking at tho bovs with a kind of awe. Tlio school-house was built just out side of a mountain village in North Carolina. The boys were dressed in butternut, or blue cloth, the girls in a kind of linsey, all of which their nioiucrs had spun anil woven. Outside of the fence was a gang of little negroes whom the while children ordered a'outwitli an air of authority; for, poor as they were, their fathers were all slavo owners. There was n row of shiny black faces at the top of the fence. llorrv! Look at Mas' ill! I link he get it." I'shaw! G'long, you Victory! Our Mas' Hob's twist as good a scholar. See how he's pokiu1 into dat book." J ho others volunteered no opinions but shouted: Hooray! Which of vo gwioo to be lie sojer? Mas' Hob Sevier he gwuie! Ciinnel Hob Sevier! Iloorav!" Never had there been such a day known in Uncle Job's school. Hob Sevier, a fair, thin bov, with round blue ryes, sat on the steps, turn ing over the leaves of his "Historic Micro. He knew every word and lino; but he Innieil leaf iillcc leaf with his cold shaking lingers. Yt hen the lillle negroes shouted lor Cuiinel lioli!" he fell a lump in his throat choking him. If lie should not win! Hob had alwavs been head boy the school, hut during the last month be had worked harder than ov- The catiso was this: Judge Ho tel's, who wim now congressman from Ihis district, had paid a visit to tho village a few weeks before, and had drooped into the school ouc morning and made the boys a iitllo speech. "I was a pupil hori", ho said. There is the verv desk at which I sat. Uncle Job taught me pretty much all 1 1 know. Mv lather could not nllord to semi luo lo college, aud I am sure ucitlici can your talliers allord losend ,oii there. Hut I want to give soine mv here a chanro such as I did not have. 1 have theaiipointment of a ca det lo West l'oint, and 1 propose in stead of giving it lo some rich man s son, that the boy in this school who passes the oest examination a month from now shall havu it." This was tho speech. It niailo tho boys as wild as it he had put lire Into their brains. Not a boy there who did not see himself a colonel in full regi mentals, preceded by a brass baud, riding up Hie' street of the villago in triumph, nicy toll to studying, most of them lor the lirst time in their lives. I'hev never hail donu anvtliimr but lotiugo about tho sunny, hilly highland hamlet, listening to the intermiuaiiie stories of tho hunters, who came in wilh peltry, or playing "sisly out with the little neirroos. John r rumor, the shaiioicst of them all, sat apart from tho other boys with his sister Louiso. "Now, Lou, just hear mo this pago," and ho bet'an: "Charlemagne other wise Charles tho Great, was the son of I'epiii the Short, tho lirst of tho Carlo- vingian Curlovingiaii, oh, what comes next?" "Dynasty," prompted Lou. "And what's tho meaning of 'dynas ty,' I'd liko to knowP Such rubbish! I don't understand a word of itl Thoro's no use to try, Lou!" Lou's eyes tilled and tlio tears rolled down hor Hushed chocks; but John only shut his jaws a littlo firmer, nnd fixed his dark eyes on tho ground. Thoy were honest, kind eyes, but dull; very different from Hob Sevior's which glowed like lamps. "1 mightas well givo up, Lou. Undo Job says pationco nnd hard work will lake auy boy through, Hut thoro's a diil'erenee in boys. Now, Bob Sovier don't work half as hard over his books as 1 do; but just look at him. 1 reckon ho could go over the Carlovingians. or any oilier Vingian, like a trottin' bono." "Oh, yes, I reckon he could," groan ed Lou. "Hut only think of West l'oint, Jack! You'd be a gentleman and a soldier, and soe the world. An' of you don't got It, why, then " "Then Uncle Bill will set mo to plowing in the fall. Ho said only this morning he'd wasted enough nionoy on our schoolin', and you and I better to go to work to earn our salt" J ohn took up the book andwe,nt at tho lesson with a desporate energy, while Lou sat crying silently. The childron woro orphans and lived with thoir undo, a farmor, on Mount Craggy. Ho was wretchedly poor, liko all the other mountaineers, and was, besido, a coarse, hard-natur-ed man. The school-bell rang. "It's ooming now," said John, as he got tip and shut the book. "You're powerful on 'rithmotlo, Johnny, mind that Jest you keep up," eagerly whispered Lou. running along beside him. The boys crowded into the hot little school-room, and the girls followed, excepting Lou, who hung baok, and finally went back to the wood-pile again. She knew su aaould not be missed, and she could not beartobear John's examination. Tho poor little girl had but ono friend in tho world, her brother. She sal down, her hands shaking as if in a chill. "He'll fs.il I know he'll fail!" she said, looking up tu the sky and talking out loud. "I can't stand It! Oh. Heavenly Father! 1 can't!" As wilh most southern children, "Heavenly father'' was very real to l,ou. Then she began lo pray, fast and hard, to llns far-away Friend in (he sky to help John. "l)h, dear, only get hint over the Latin, and them Vitigiansl He'll manage the arithmetic him self." Sho sat there an hour or more, hearing only a droning voice now and then from the open window. At last there was a hush. Uncle Job was going to give lii.s decisision. The little negroes crowded up lo tho school house slops. l,oii stood up and threw hor calico sun-hounct oil her head. She did not know what she did. She was stitling with a sudden, terrible heal. Her strained eyes were on tho door. I'reii'iilly she heard I'ncle Job's voice in a few brief words. liu( sho did not catch them. They sounded to her like "John has won Joim Fro- moy. Suddenly there ' was a cheer inside. Then llio negroes took it up. "Hob Sevier! Ciinnel Hob! Iloorav for Hob!" Lou sat down and covered her faeo with her hands. Her brother came to her in a moment. "Get up, and come along homo," he said roughly. Sho caught his arm nnd pat ted it. "Don't you mind it Johnny," she said. "You kin do lots of things Hob Sevier knows not bin' about," sho cried, fiercely. "No. Hob won it fair," ho said, sturdily. "I'm a dunce; I didn't de serve it: that's the worst of it." His face was colorless, even to his lips, hut he showed his disappointment ill no oilier way. Judge Fetors came lo tho villago tho next day, heard the report of the ex amination, sent for Sevier, and prom ised him the appointment. He then went out to tho farm which ho owned, near to Cabel Freuioy's, John's uncle. The boy crept over, to ward night, to catch a glimpse of tlio great man who might have made him happy for life, but had not done it. He hung tniscralily about the place until evening, and then set o liomu ward. Coining to the edge of C.'aggy Creek, just where it turned from tho mountain, he sat down on the bank, and pill his hot feel into tho water. To-morrow he was to be set plowing wilh tho negroes. "It's all ycr lit for." his uncle said. "Ye'd a chance for West l'oint, an' ye didn't lake it. So yerken kennel with the darkeys for tiie rest of yer life. I'll feed ver no inure." John sat moodily lliiigtng pebbles into llio water, until dusk came on, and an owl bcg:iu lo hoot. Suddenly the boy stood up, trembling with exeilciuenl, holding a stone in his baud up to the fast failing liglil. It shone wilh a hrillinu! luster, like a great drop of dew in the morning sun. As lie moved il, it Hashed a blood red si a? ill his dirty palm. John had heard of the ruby which had oneo been found in the next gorge. "Il was worth thoii-ands of dol lars!" he sobbed, rather than spoke. "I heard Judge Hotel's tell my iinelo there was a corundum on his farm, ami a rubv is a kind of corundum. 1 am rich for life." He sat down breathless, carefully rubbing the btiliiaul lump in his hand, as Aladdin miglil have done his lamp. What was West l'oint to this? Money, beautiful houses, a glimpse of tlio world, an easy, happy life for himself and Lou. "Poor Lou! I was so cross lo her to-day! I'll go and tell her." Then he slopped as if somo one had struck him. The rubv was not his; ho was on Judge Peter's land. The boy sal dow n again, and for ono wholu hour llio tempter strove with him. If there was one ipiality strong and dominant in John Frcinov, it was his honesty: but Ibis was a temptation such as seldom comes in liiu way of any man. The next morning Judgo Peters was mounting his horse lo go into tho vil lage, when a bov came across the yard. He walked quickly as if driven by somo force from behind. The judgo waited, one foot iu tho stirrup. As long as John Iremoy lived, ho romembered, liko n sudduu, terriblo picture, tho glaring light of tho little muddy yard, tho starring negro boy holding tho horse, and portly, kiiid-lookuig old man awaiting his approach. When John reached tho judgo, he stopped nnd was silent. Ho had his litllo speech all ready, but his tongue wns stilVand his Ihroat parched. "Well, my boy, what is it?" askod the judgo kindly. John thrust out his hand. "A ruby, sir. It's worth a groat many thousand dollars. 1 found it on your land." Judge Peters took llio stono and ex amined it eagerly; then ho turned to John, nnd looked nf him as curiously. C "Why didn't you keep it, if its worth so much?" "I had a mind to, but It's yours." Ho turned away. Stopped my boy! Who aro you?" "John Frcmoy, sir." "Oho! Undo" Job spoke of you to me. You nro uncommonly quick at figures, ch?" "If 1 am, I'm a dunce at everything else. If I had not beon I might have gone lo West Point." "Yos," looking very thoughtfully at John. "Very well, Kremoy, I'm very much ploasod wilh your honesty. Good morning!" And tho judgo roue abruptly away. He rode directly to Undo Job's house and was closotod with him for an hour. Tho next day the villago was electrified by lioaring that Judge rotors was going to tako John Fre moy to Annapolis to pass an examina tion In the engineer s department of the Naval Aoadomy, and that Lou was to bo put to school in Kalcigh by tho same kind friend. John Fremoy Is now a middle-aged man, ranking high in his profession. He mot Judgo 1'otors about a year ago, at his sister's house, for Lou mar ried a planter in Virginia, and is a happy wifo and mothor. "I nave often wondcrod, judge," he said, "why you befriended me as you did. 1 certainly was a dunce as far as Latin was oonoerneal, aud I am not at. all sure if I am aocurate about the Carlnvingian dynasty yet." "Honesty is a t.rr quality bn. good scholarship, and moro useful in tho world, Fremoy." "Aud another question. Is not that tho ruby 1 found, which you wear ou your watch chain?" "Yes." "May I look closely at it?" The judgo hesiiuicd, then laughed, and gave it lo him. "Why, il is only colored quartz!" exclaimed Freiuoy. "Yes, but it is more valuable to mo than any jewel, for il gave moan hon est man for a friend " A KKMAKKAIII.H IIISTllltT. Ineiil'iiti In I lie Life of (ins of I lie Oldest Men hi Itie i'liiuitry. The fuiixral of Christopher Miinn, Hie centenarian, who died at Indepen dence Saturday in the Illlhyearof his age, look place yesterday morning, and w as attended by a large concourse of relatives and friends. The death of the remarkable old man calls tu mind many incidenls in the history of a lifo that "had ils beginning before lite birth of the republic. He 'was born in Vir ginia, Sept. l.'i, 1771. Two years lat ter his father emigrated lo Kentucky, and in 17HS at the age "f '.'I, Christo pher removed lo Ohio, where he after ward married Mis- Itessie Lusk. Leaving ( Hiio he moved lo Indiana, and in HHs he came lo Missouri, hik ing up his residence in Jasper county. In 1H:1 he moved lo Jackson county, where lie continued to reside up to his death. Seventeen children were the fruit of his lii'si marriage anil nine of Hie second, which oeeured iu Of this numerous progeny fifteen sur vive, as does also his second wife. His oldest child is a son, h'.i years of age, wh: resides in Portland, (iregun. The youngest is Lyiiia Anora, a leautiful girl of 17, who is llio only unmarried child. His lineal descendants inultule fifteen living children, forlv-lwo grandchildren, eleven great-grandchildren, six great-grcal-granilehililrcii and one great-great-grcat-grainlehild. It had been his eusloin for several years past to celebrate each annivers ary of his biilh by a family reunion, and although at no lime have all of his ilesecniliiuts been assciuhlcil yet on these occasions his little house was scarcely able to accoiuuiiulate the throng (hat Hocked Irom all parts of Missouri, in which slate nearly all of his children reside. Like other centenarians, "Uncle Chris," as he was called, had a fund of interesting anecdotes of the early history of I lus country and of the men wlio made its history what il is. lie retained a vivid recollection of the incidents of the three wars since the ((evolution, as he did of most of the important political events which have taken place within the past century. His acquaintance included Dick John son, President Harrison, Thomas Hcn ton, Daniel Hooiic, and other person ages of historic note, ami the family reunions were the occasions when he most delighted to tell of the great uieii he had known. Although extremely deaf, he could speak distinctly up lo the time of bis death, and he never failed lo regale a listener witli incid ents of his life. A circumstance over whieli Gen. Harrison had no control prejudiced Mr. Mann against the fu ture president, ami aiuiottgii he voted for him, as he did for every pre-jileut since John Adams except hvu, when he voted for the wrong men, lie never liked him. It was when lie was pass ing through Indiana that the incident referred lo ooeureil. lie stopped one uiglil til a lavern kept by Gen. Harri son, i Ih house was crowded ami ho was compelled lo sleep on the lloor, for which accommodation he was charged full rate, "Neversinee then," he observed, "have I liked 'Hill Harri son, lie was a good lighter, I hough, :ind lie did whip old Tccuiusch power ful had at the battle of Tippecanoe." .Mr. Mnnu was a constant user of tobacco. He had been habituated lo tho use o( liquor since his boyhood, although he claimed that lie had never been under its iulliieiice. It was bis boast that he had never been worsted in a personal encounter, and to judge from his appearance as an old man if was no ideal boast. Ho was over six feet in height, of a powerful frame, and retained the use of his limbs to tho last. Until within a few years ago he was in the habit of walking four or live miles each day, always carrying himscii erect, and would never ride when he could walk. A singular fact in his history was that his eyesight never became' impaired, and iio never knew Ihe need of specta cles. His death removes one ot the most remarkable personages ill Jack son county, and it is probalile that there is no one in die United Stales whoso longevity exceeds his. A'injm t'ld Tinits. Trades lur American Hoys. Tho trades in our country, of late years, have been almost monopli.ed by foreigners. The American boy, however, when ho does take a trade, goes straight on to llio top of the lad der. It seems as if our hoys would rather be fourth-raio lawyers, or phy sicians, than oarn their living by working with their bands. Only the other day I read in a New York news paper of a young lawyer in a distant ciry, whom 1 knew somo years ago when I resided in that section of tho country, who literally starved to death. Ho mado scarcely any nionoy, was too proud to tell of his want, lived as long as ho could on orackors and water, and was found ono day in his ollico, dead from lack of nourish ment, lie should never have onterod (ho legal profession, for ho had no ability in that direction. As a farmor or a mochanio ho might hnvo lived a long, useful, and successful life. No boy, of course, should enter a trade unions ho fools himself fitted for it; hut on tho other hand, ho should not, it seems to me, let tho false prido agaiust manual labor, which now pro vails to such a wido extent In our country, prevent him from endeavor ing to do hotter work with his hands than in his inmost thoughts he knows that bo can do with his head. From "Jtcwly for Justness," by George J. Hanson, in St. Nicliolaa for August. Ivy on tho Wall, The common boliof that Ivy trained against the walls of a dwelling house I (reduces damp walls and gonoral ua lealthinoss is fallacious. The vory opposite is the ease. If one will care fully examine an ivy-clad wall aftor a showor of rain he will notice that while the overlapping leavos have conducted the water from point to point until it has reaohod the ground, the wall be neath Is perfectly dry and dusty. Moro than this, the thirsty shoots whioh force thoir way Into every orov ice of the structure which will afford a firm hold, aot like suckers In drawing on any partiolos of moisture for their own nourishment. The ivy, in faot, aots like a groat coat, keoping the house from wet and making it warm. One mora virtue It has in giving toth ugliest structure an evergreen beauty, c-iatxi and rfufcfi SOILS AM) HKA1.TH. Hon Ortaln Solll Aliinrb Various natulan- cea tbst tilvs Itlns to Dangeruni flli tajel lildilllrlal Notes. Colli and llraltb. Tho soil, especially tlio first few Inches or feet below tlio surface, writes Prof. Raphael Pumpelly in Krience, is the antechamber of lifo tho laborato ry in which operalo incessantly the processes by which inert matter is prepared for the nourishment of life. It is this, because it. is also tho tomb of all terreslial living matter. Here is the realization of tho pluenix mylli, the slow combustion of organic mat ter leaving a residuum, from which springs tho new lifo of succciling generations. Tlieso processes "1 the transformation of matter are tho work of llio low forms of microscopic lifo winch are known as bacteria, and aro gifled with Ihe capacity of enormous nnd iinini'iisely rapid multiplication. I lus world ol microscopical llio is vast oarcgards the distribution and mini- lior ol Us living entities, ihese mi nute organisms are known to be ulti mately connected w-ilh many of tho fundamental processes of tho organic world, and our knowledge ol Iheir range of uelivily is constant iy increas ing. They may be considered prac tically to' stand in close genetic rela tions to many diseases: but llio ques tion of absolute difl'erentiation of forms wilh specific functions, or of tho possibility of protean functional characteristics among them, varying with thoir surroundings, is one ol tho present great problems of biology. I he great majority of pathologists now consider the infectious, and most of the contagious, diseases lo be de pendent on these low forms of lifo: and tho tendency is to consider that certain diseases, or groups of dis oases, are produced only by spocilic forms of bacteria. These organisms are wido spread, especially the various forms that aro associated with iiutretaetion and mold. Only on high mountains, and far from land on the ocean, is the air practical ly free from them. F.lsewhorn tho air, water, and soil teem with them. Their abundanco is necessarily pro portionate to the amount of decom posing organic matter in the neigh borhood, since tho v are themselves the scavengers on Which tile processes of decomposition depend. Few peo plo realize w hat an important pari llio soil plays m our lives. Tho water wo drink (unless from cisterns) has leach ed through il. Tho air wo brealho is frequently loaded witli its dust. It is ill our food. The soil is highly porous; and the interstices between the grains are filled witli water or with air groiind-walir' or 'ground-air.' Tho ground-air fluctuates witli tho varying barometric pressure and with tho rise and fall of the ground-water in rainy and dry seasons. The ground-water Hows according to the common laws of hydrostatics, but Willi a movement retarded by friction. A town on a river Hal is built over a continuous sheet of slowly-moving subterranean water, and most houses are buill where water is accessible within a few feet from tho surface. In view of the fact that our wells and Hie cellars of our houses aro in more or le-s close proximity lo these centers of pollution, it was thought desirablo lo ascertain to what extent tho dillcr ent soils act as tillers in arresting tho spores of bacteria. This invesligalioii, which was carried oul for the national board of health by the writer, assisted by Dr. Smvlh, brought out very clear ly three facts: I. All soils liner than very coarso sand have practically a continuous capacity for arresting tlio spores of bacteria from infected air filtered thrjiigh lliem. i No soil, no matter how line, can arrest and hold back llio spores of bacteria contained in water. The ex periment on which this statement rests consisted in tillering unsterili.ed wnter through one hundred feet of pipe filled wilh lino sand which had been sterili.ed by heating to a red heat. The pipo was connected by an air-tight joint with a Hash of sterilized beef-mfusion, and the whole apparatus left for several weeks beforu uso. Tho lirst drop of water thai passed through these hundred feet of sand infected tho beet. infusion, causing it to putrefy. 3. Neither bacteria nor their spores can detach themselves from a liquid or from a wet soil and pass into tho air except through ihe conversion of tlio water into spray, or through the loi ma lion of dijst by evaporation. Tho chief practical inferences from these results aro that distances, oven of hundreds of feet, botwocn wells and cesspools aro no protection agaiust infection, and that a dry, or an alter nately wet and dry, cellar may bo more dangerous than a permanently wet ono. Thoso results emphasize llio importance of an intelligent sur vey of tho condition of tho soil in se lecting a home, and ( legislation pro hibiting (ho pollution of tho soil. In many towns and citios tho privy-vaults and loaehing cesspools of every house drain really into tho shoot of ground water; tho soil arrests tlio coarse ma terial, tho grease and slime, but the swarming bacteria delTuso with case, as much as the soluble chlorides and nitra(cs, and follow (he How wholly unobstructed. In this same soil aro sunk or driven the wolls; and tho wa tor that is drawn for use is polluted in proportion to the number nnd proxi miny of tho vaults and cesspools on the one hand and the thinness nnd sluggishness of the wator-shoet on the other. In tho worst wolls in daily use the water is distinctly colored "with sowago; but the most deadly water my carry only the gorms of typhoid fever or of dysonlery, and be other wise sparklingly clear, and so pure as to pass unchallenged through the most searching chemical analysis. If tho soil is polluted and vory coarse gravel this indraught, loaded with the spores of bacteria will flow through the cellar to tho warmer rooms. If the soil is pointed and line, and the ground-water surface rises at any sea son to tho level of the floor, it will evaporate as it oozes into the cellar, and leave an Infected dust to bo taken up into the circulation of the house-air. Similar results will follow from the leaobing of the cesspool toward the cellar wall, or from the Alteration through the soil of sowerage from a broken or leaky drain, whioh is very apt to exist in or just outside of the foundation wall. The pollutions of oil and water already mentioned are of such a general character that, with ordinary forethought, thoy can be guarded against; but there are others of a local character which are not re vealed to a general survoy. In the growth ot many of our cities the nat ural topography is -disregarded. Low lands and marshes which are travesed by sewage-fed brooks are covered with a net work of high-graded streets, whioh convert the blocks Into sewage basins which eotne, in time, to under lie blocks of dwellings of all alassos, In other cases low or marshy ground Is made the (lumping-ground of tho city and receives Hie sweepings of the street, tho conlonts of the ash and gar bage barrels everything, in fact, that can not pass through the sewers or bo sold. Tho entire material is loaded wilh organic mailer, which is kept in a state of very slow decomposition by moisture. Some of the costliest dwell ings ot our cities rise upon such soil. Wo may take every precaution to avoid in our homes Ihe dangers that arise from a pointed soil and may jot fall victims lo the filthy condition of remote places over which wo have no control. Among many oOicrs there aro two exceptionally frequent sources of dan ger of Ibis kind. One of these is tho farmer's well, which is rarely safe, and when not not used to adulterate milk is used to rinso milk pans aud cans, and leaves upon their surfaces a source of contamination. The other frequent instance is Ihe use. by drug gists, of water from wells or from cis terns which are often anything but sewer-proof. Throughout the country,' and often in tho eilics, the use of only distilled water in compounding modi .'ines is far from universal; and I have had analyses made of lime water bought at a druggist's which was highly eoutatniualcd wilh organic mat ter. The druggist's well moreover, is (he sourceof the smla-waler through out the country, as well as in many cities where the water rates are high. A person having a harmless disturb ance of tho bowels, arising from a cold is just iu the condition to succumb to the dysentery or typhoid fever lurking in the medicine or Vichy water from the too iiiiich-triistcd druggist. Industrial Hrev tiles. The latest advices from dilletent parts of tlie continent of Kuropo indi cate Ihe prevalence of hot aud dry weather. In France Ihe crops have developed finely under the influence of bright sunshine. Miioh-necdeil rain has improved the rattier poor pros pects in Austria-Hungary; lint Ihoben otil has been to some extent discount ed by the damage done by thunder storms mid Hoods. From Germany anil Holland reports are mainly favor able, except wilh respect lo to the ryo crop in Germany. In the southern parts of Hussia drought has boeu so severe and prolonged thai the crops have sullereil irrcpuirahlc injury; but in llio central districts the outlook is moderately satisfactory. Mr. M. A. Moore, of Greencastte, lnd., says Tin Iwlinnu b'armvr, has succeeded ill laming robins aud cat birds that nest in the trees on his grounds so that thoy allow him to handle ihciu and take them iulo tho house at pleasure, lie began taming lliem by f ling the mother birds, while on Ihe nesi, with worms, which lie al first extended ou llio end of a long stick, ami afterward held to them on Ihe liaiul. 'i'hev soon learned to look on liiiu as a friend to be sought ami not lo ho fcar.'d and avoided, and now come at his call, like so many pet dines and chicks. The Hellenic government has pro hibited the importation iulo Gi en from all the provinces and islands of Turkey, iueliuling eastern Houiuelia, Hulgaria, and Fgvpt. of plants, roots of trees of every sorl, fresh fruits, loaves, grass, vegeialil -s, roots, bulbs, of every kind, and I russcs of hay. Tho consular agents of Greece resilient iu Olloiuan ports have received orders in d to Co, t lie icmiis necessary for the transport of thesn articles. This action is taken iu order to prevent tlio importation of the jd-.j lloxera. Seedling strawberries aro easily raised. The inosi perfect berries should be selected lor Ihe purpose. They may be dried in the sun. and gently rubbed so as to separate all the seeds; or. when larger quantities are lo be prepared, they may be washed out and strained. W hen dry Hie seeds may be kepi nli Hie following spring or till wanted. Hut a more satisfac tory way is lo mash the berries with enough line, dry sand lo make a dry mixture, ami sow at once. A singular circntusiance is reported from a hot, dry valley in .Mm houlli Wales. Last year the drought thero was of long duration, and llio deni zens of the apiaries suHurcd much from il. This year Hie bees hare made provision against a similar emer gency. They have filled a large num ber of the external cells in every hive with pure water Mislead of honey. It is thought thai the instinct of llio lit tle creatures leads them to auticiuato a hot summer. A Swedish engineer has succeeded in producing a new explosive, which ho calls roiuile. 11 is claimed that no olaborate mai hinery b. lequired in the manufacture of this explosive that it will not freeze, and call not bo explod ed except by ignilion. Experiments have been made wilh Ihe new explo sive for blasting, and it has also beon tried in shells, tho results, it is said, in both eases being entirely satisfactory. A few weeks ago Mr. K. K. Now- comb. of Pleasant Valley, N. Y., took from between tho clapboards and lath of tho side of Martin ltugcr's house at Pleasant alley Via pounds of lino honey, and succeeded ill saving tho colony of bees, which wcro soon aftor placed in a hive. Mr. Nowcoinbhas a largo apiary at 1'leasant Valloy, and has been very successful in the cult turo of beos. Persons should bo more careful about leaving empty paint cans and kegs where tho cattle will got access to them. Also to keep cattle from ncwiv-paintcd buildings anil lences. Four cows woro recently poisoned in W ndsor. Conn., two of them fatally, by feasting upon fresh paint loft in old paint-cans thrown away by a painter whose shop was in or near a cow pasture. The prize-list of the Nebraska state fair to be hold at Lincoln aept. 1 1 to 10, has been received. Ono of the rules prohibits tho sale ot intoxicating liquors, wines, or boor or. any kind, and gambling or any game of chance upon the grounds or within forty rods ol tlio grounds. The crop of early Iliehmond ohorries was almost an ontiro failure in the vi cinity of Chicago this season. Most of tho trees set out from twelve lo six teon years ago are dead or dying. The severe cola oi last winter was very hard on thorn. The total sales of wool in Boston since Jan. 1, 1885, have been 62,680,700 pounds, against 45,850,200 pounds for the same time last year. This shows an incroaso of 16,830,600 pounds. Poultry shows will be held at the following times ana places: jopesa, Kan.. Sont. 14-17; Fort Wayne, lnd., Sept.. 16-20; Chariton, Iowa, Deo. 16- 10; jatue treea, juiuu.. iu, 13-13. The first shipment of live cattle from Duluth, Minn., to Liverpool, En gland, leiiiiuiye, A'OTABLK HAl 1MW UK URANT. Quotations from Ills Nwwrlifa, AiMrrssn, Ittrt, Me. The only eyos a General can trust aro bis own. I do not believe in luck ill war any moro than in luck in business. A General who will never take a chance iu n balllo v?ill never light e. 1 would deal wilh nations as equit able law requires individuals to treat Willi each oilier. 1 nronose to light il oul on Ibis lino if it takes all suuiiner. Iu the Wil derness, May II, 1861. This is a Republic where the will of (ho people is the law of Hie land. I beg that incur voice may no nenru. -Loiter to President Johnson, imw. Tho hnmblesl soldier who carried a musket is entitled lo as much credit for llio results of Ihe war as those who were in command. Speech at Hamburg. 1S7S. With a pouplo as honesl and proud as the Americans, and with so much common sense, it is always a mistake to do a tiling not entirely right for tho sake of expediency. All hough a soldier by education and profession; I have never fell any fondness for war, and I have never ad vocated il except as a means of peace. Speech in London, 177. No theory of my own will ever stand iu the way of my execuling, in good faith, any order I may receive from those in nuihonty over inc. Loiter to Secretary Chase, July, IHti.'l. Hour eointrv could bo saved or ruined by the ell'orts of any one mail, we shonld not hnvo a country, and wo should not now bo celebrating our Fourth of July. Speech at Hamburg, 1878. Too long denial of guaranteed right is sure to lead to revolution, bloody rcvolulion, where sull'cring must fail Upon the innocent as well as the guilty. Letter to Governor Chamberlain, 187 6. There had to bo an end to slavery. Then wo were lighting an enemy with whom wo could not make a peace. Wo had tq destroy him. No conven tion, no treaty, was possiblo only de struction. Tho stabilty of this government nnd the unity of this nation depend solely on the cordial support aud tho earnest loyalty of llio people. Ad dress to loyal citizens ol .Memphis, August, lxii.'i. Peace and universal prosperity, its sequence, with economy of adminis tration, ffill lighten the burden of luxation, while it certainly reduces the national debt. Let us have peace. Letter accepting nomination, lHi8. Wn aro a Republic whereof one man is as good as another before the law. Under such a form of govern ment il Is of Ihe greatest importance that all should be possessed of educa tion aud intelligence enough to cast a vote with a right understanding of its meaning. Annua! .Message, I.S71. To prelect the national honor every dollar of the govcruicnt indebtedness should be paid in gold, unless oliierwi.se especially stipulated in tho contract. Let it lie understood that no repudiation of one farthing of our public debt will bo trusted in places. I Inaugural Address, INii'.l. 1 feel no inolinalion to retaliate for tiie otlenscs of irresponsible persons, but if il is Ibe policy of any General entrusted witli (he command of (roops to show no quarter or to pun ish witli death prisoners taken iu bat tle, I will accept the issue. Let ter lo Confederate General Hacklier, lsiij. I shall on alt subjects have a policy lo recommend, nonelo enforce against the will of Ihe people. Laws are to govern all alike- Ihose opposed lo as well as those in favor of ll 1 kno'V nonielbod lo secure the repeal of bad or obnoxious laws so oil, 'dual as their strict execution. Inaugural Address, 181il. 1 am not one of thoso that cry out against llio Republic and charge it wilh being ungrateful. 1 am suro that, as regards the American people as a nation and as individuals, I have every reason under the sun, if any person really has, to bo satisfied witli tho treatment of me. Speech iu Now York, lHi). The truth is, I am moro ol a fanner than a soldier. I lake lillle or uo in terest in military allairs, and, al though 1 onlored the army thirty-five years ago, and have been in two wars, in .Mexico as a young Lieutenant, and later, I never went into tno army without regret aud never retircil without pleasure. When I wns in llio army I had a physique that could stand anything. Whether I slept on Hie ground or in a tent, whether 1 slept one hour or ten in (ho twenty-four, whether 1 had but one meal or three or none, made no dillereneo. I could lie down and sleep ill tho rain without earing. ib;t I was many years younger aud I Could not nope to do that now. Tho President of (ho Chamber of Commcrco in his remarks has alluded (o the personal friendship existing botweeu (ho (wo nations. 1 will not say the two peoples, becauso wo are ono people, but wo aro two nations having a common destiny, and that destiny will bo brilliant in proportion to tlio friendship aud co operation of tho brethren on the two sides of the water. Speech nt New castle. Let us all labor to add all needful guarantoos for tho moro perfect se curity of frco (bought, free speech and free press, puro morals, unfetter ed religions sentiments and of equal rights and privileges to all men, irre spective of nationality, color or re ligion. Fncourago froe schools and resolve that not ono dollar of money appropriated to their support, no mut ter how raisod, shall bo appropriated to the support of any sectarian school. Address at the Reunion of Army of the Tennessee, 1875. Victory has crownod your valor and seoured the purpose of your patriotio hearts, and with the gratitude of your countrymen and the highest honors a great and froe nation can accord you will soon be permitted to return to your homes and families conscious of baring discharged the highest duty of American citizens. To achieve these glorious triumphs and secure to your selves, your fellow-countrymen and posterity the blessing of free institu tions, tens of thousands of your gal lant comrades have fallen and sealed tho priceless legacy with their lives. The graves of these a grateful nation bedews wilh tears, honors their mem ories and will ever ehorlsh aud sup port their stricken families. Address to the Armies, June 2, 1865. One thousand Craw Indians congregated on the BlK Horn recenUy to mourn the demise of Iron Ball, their war-chief, They made Some bow) for torn days, FACT AND FANCY. Tho butcher should always bo placed on joint committees. Tho older a violin is tho more valu able it becomes. It is different wltU jokes. Vera ('rum people aro discontented? wilh (ho proposed personal taxation to bo levied. Bicycle clubs aro called "voloc clubs''1 in Fiance, and their members "velocoiuen." The red rose is tho national flowei of Kuglaiid and tho red nose is the na tional llowor of English beer. Cucumbers sliced are said to remove freckles. This is not wonderful. Thoy have been known to "remove" whole families. Tlio onlv dilVerenco between "going a-lishing"" and "been fishing" is tho number of backaches and self-denunciations. Outdoor exercise being ordered her by the doctor, a Nantucket woman has begun driving a public carriage. , Quails aro so troublesomo in some parts of San Benito county,! California, (hat poison is used to de stroy Ilium. It is now announced that the kingof Siain is (lie father of 364 children. The last tinio the item went around the number was only '-'III. Tho presiding ollieer at a political meeting is probably called "thechair" on account of the apparently vory gen eral desire to sit upon him. Our little llilly's passed the golden shore; he always laughed and joked; it doesn't seem Ihe same house any more, siuce little Hilly croaked. A kitten was recently born at Reillands, San Diego, county. Cal., having four eves and two mouths in ono head. Il is ou exhibition nt Cot ton. A small lot of pompaiio received? at Fulton market, New York, on Monday morning 'r"m I'cnsaeota, were quickly sold at tho rato of 1 per pound. At Modesto, Cal., white women and men patronize Chiiiesn opium dens, and snioko 'tlio drug at open windows in plain sight from (lie prin cipal street. A seaside landlord says, "Oun snir ilucllo g'rl will eat up, waste, ami muss over more food than any (wo men who si( al my tables. I'd rather board a bear." There is a fortune in sloro for the man wlio shall invent a bonnet that can be worn ill any part of the church and always present its trimmed sido to i be congregation. The senior warden of SI. Paul's church, Woodbury, Conn., is 'JO years of age, and Ins three immediate prede cessors attained Ihe ages of !H, W, and 8,t years, respectively. A religious enthusiast in Georgia imagines that lie is John the Haptist, and insists on having Ins head return ed. An old deacon has volunteered lo put a head ou him. T he municipal debts of the live prin cipal eilies of New York aro: New York, .PO,si l,b.Vi: Hrooklyn, :17,775, li:W; HiiH'alo, i?7.!i71,-.'67. Rochester, Ir'.V-S and Albany, to.'t.ooil. "How niaiiv ineiuiiers are H ero in your church?" "Well," said a ward en, "I tell 'em we've got about (en to be depended or. toilo anything, though we've got more'u a hundred ou tno books. The author of "Silver Threads Among llio Gold" was one of the men wlio drew prizes in (he ad-liiiiii-tration lotlorv. Ho has been made postmaster with a salary of t'.'li per year. "(Hi, you can laugh," exclaimed Femlcrson, witli a showof impatience,' "but I am not quite so much of a fold as you lliiTik 1 am." "Tell you tlio truth," said Fogg. "I didn't believe id could be possible." If Adam had only had llio "licipper readiness" lo remark, when invited by his spouse lo taste tho forbidden fruit. "Not this F.vo," wo should all bo living iu southern Mesopotamia at tlio present day. The Michigan chap who has receiv ed the most bouquets this spring from tho ladies is a fellow who assaulted a woman wilh intent to rob and go( a year in slale prison. Ho was pronounc ed "perfectly lovely." An Irishman was taken to see a cathedral. As ho entered Ihe magnifi cent building, bewildered by lis beauty, ho turnod to his companion aud said: "Phwy, Moike, it bate.8 (he divil." "Thai's tho inliution, Pat." Goodness gracious! and has it como to this? A lady in tho hor:o-car re marked lo her companion: "Of course, 1 like to go away in llio summer. It's such a change, you know. Hut then it is so tiresome to have one's husband around all Jay." "I don't understand how the rail roads can nfl'ord to reduce the faro to 1 cent amilo." "Oh, it's very simple." "They hnvo to mako up tho loss in somo wav." "Thoy do. "How?" "Mako tho sleeping-ear porter divide with llio company." "My dear fellow, how glad I am (o moot vou again. It is years siuco we parted. You look woll, healthy, flour-, lshing." "Oh, yes; I'm enjoying my patrimony. And you; how have you boon? You look rather ill aud out of sorts." "l'cs; I've been enjoying my matr . ny. Difference of scx'in fort une Lotween us, that's all." The long-headed lover writes all his amatory epistles with a fTpo-wrilur now. Not only does ho save time and avoid difficulties whioh autograph manuscript involves, but by a judi cious uso of carbon paper and blanks whero proper names occur, be can mako four or live girls happy by a single struggle with the machiue. "What is your occupation?" tho judgo askod the soedy, rod-nosed man. "I'm a bartender, your honor," was the reply. "But the ollieer swears you're a loafer, and pass the greater part of your time m saloons." "Don't a bartender pass most of his time m saloons?" "True," mused tho judge. "By tho way." he askod, "which side of the bar do you tend?" "The out side, your honor." "1 thought so," said the judge; "threo months." Two laborers were trying to put a stone in position on the foundation wall of a new building. A crowd was standing around looking on, and each one ottering his eriticism and counsel freely and loudly, but not one lifting so muoh as a finger to help. "That reminds me of church work," said a passer-by to another. "Why?" "He cause," was the reply, "two men aro doing the work, and twenty are doing the talkingl" It Is aatd that the house fa yldrh Wathlng 'tafftoa rtalded wbeo be visited t'hsrtotnn, 8. C, after the Revolution, is to be oomeitcij Into baker-i shop.