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? if ' ! Kvj!'-;).:' i : -V-fc " 4-- .'Si .,"4 i r t 'Mi it S V ( 4 ?. i 1 L - h r -lit- fc fit Vvumiudl (MMIfiR) ""MM? II innnifi i I i For Making Pure, Delicious Home-Baked Food. K.IM2ES LI IPbfwdera makes Fine and Wholesome Biscuit, Delicious Cake and Pastry Building Up a Soil The Fertility Depends Very Largely Upon Humus Supply By C B. HutchUon. An'l Profewor of Afraoomjr. College of Agriculture. U. of Mo. LNo Alum No Lime Phosphate I The first thing that is worn out in oils is the vegetable matter or hu mus. The longer soils are tilled and the longer they are cultivated, the more rapidly will the humus be ex hausted. Unfortunately, most of the methods of handling soils, as com monly practiced, deplete the humus content very fast. The continued growing of grain crops, especially those that require considerable stir ring of the soil, like corn and pota toes, rapidly reduces the humus sup ply; for when a soil Is stirred fre quently the conditions are favorable for its most rapid decay. Naturally, in this decay considerable quantities of plant food are set free, and this is one of the immediate benefits from cultivating corn. When this practice Is continued year after year on the same land, the supply of humus ulti mately becomes so low as to reduce the productiveness below a profitable basis. It is, of course, true that the con stant removai of crops from the land removes large quantities of immedi ately available plant food, and this has i The following table shows the re sults of rotation at the Missouri Ex neriment Station: Yield of Corn, 1905, Rotation. Bu. per A Corn 17 years .....11.8 Corn, wheat, clover 17 years.... 50. Corn. oats, wheat, clover, tim- othy-17 years 54.2 Corn, wheat, clover (manured) 17 vears 77.6 From these results it will be seen that where corn is grown continually for 17 years, without manure, tne vteld has been reduced to 11.8 bush els per acre. Where the land has been simply rotated to corn, wheat and clover the yield standB at 50.7 bushels per acre. The increase is due first to the fact that the ground is cultivated but once in three years, thus being less exhaustive than where cultivated each year; and to the fact that clover, being a humus and nitro-ppn-hiillHins croo. is inserted. Where the rotation has been the less ex haustive, of corn, oats, wheat, clover and timothy, the yield is 54.2 bushels Pasture Feed for Hogs Good Forage Reduces Grain Required for 100 Gain Thirty Per Cent Alfalfa Is Considered the Best By L. A. VW-avcr, Instructor in Animal Husbandry in the University of Missouri Owin:.; lo llic his:h tiriccs of gwun, 111.' .iotlncMoii of pork with pritin alonv is net. nearly so proiitiible as it once was. It takes live or six pounds of grain in i!ry-loi feeding to make, a pound of pork. Rt suits of investiga tions at tiie Missouri Experiment Sta tion indicate clearly that pork can be produced most cheaply by feeding Brain in combination with forage. In most of the work done at the Missouri Station straight corn was fed when the forage was a legume such as alfalfa, clover, cowpeas or soy beans. With non-leguminous foragps such as bluegrass, rape and oats, sor- one-half bushel of oats. Six to ten pounds of clover sown ar, this time is also good to add to the mixture. 1 lie rape should not be turned onto until 14 to IS inches high. If not. pastured too closely and the season is favorable it will come on again, thus furnishing pasture for a long period. With three trials, an acre of rare and oats pastured ten head for 107 days. The grain required per pound gain was ".28 pounds. The pork ac credited forage is 380.7 pounds, or at G ceiits per pound it gave a return of $22.84 per acre. These figures indl cate that rape is one of the most pro- "COWPEAS," A SOIL BUILDER. Fattening hogs on rape and oats at Missouri Experiment Station. ghum or rye, the corn was supple mented with linseed oilmeal, the ra tion being made up of six parts of corn to one part of oilmeal. Alfalfa Forage. Where alfalfa can be grown success fully there is probably no forage crop that will give better results for swine feeding. An acre of alfalfa will pas . ture during the grazing season from ten to twenty shoats. The important point to be observed is not to pasture too closely. Best results are obtained by so pasturing that one or two cut tings of hay may be taken off the field in addition to the amount foraged off by the hogs. At this station alfalfa with-one -year's trial- pastured twelve bead for lt8 days. The amount of grain fed was about one-half of a full feed. It required 3.07 pounds of grain to produce one pound of gain, as con trasted to five or six pounds if grain had been fed alone in a dry lot. The gain accredited the forage was 697 pounds, which, with pork at 6 cents, gave a return of $35.82 per acre. Clover Pasture. Red clover probably ranks next to alfalfa. It will not feed so many hogs per acre, and does not furnish pasture for so long a period as alfalfa. Re sults at this station, however, show It to be one of the best forages In two trials, one acre of clover pastured leven head for 130 days. The amount of grain per pound gain was 2.97. The gain accredited to forage in this case -was 672 pounds, or, with pork at 6 cents, the. return from an acre of clover was $34.32. In pasturing the clover care should be taken not to turn in on it before it is ten to twelve inches high. It should not at any time be pastured too closely. . v- .'f ;'' ' :' Rap ' Paatura, ; Xba "annual" forage crap which has given best results at this station is rape in which has been sown a few oats. Rape may be sown as early la toe spring as - the ground can be worked, or about the same lime that oats would be own. If la rapid growing, succulent crop; and banc it it well adapted tor swum pastnr. The -Dwarf East Is wiety sown, for this purpose, Good rwults boon prawn drinks in tuteodr by sowing Ht or stt 1 - abrJ f Cm drill ud ttn drC fUable forages for swine and should be us-ed more often. Bluegrass Pasture. The best results are obtained wit'i bluegrass before August and after the fall rains, since bluegrass goes into a resting stage during the dry weather of late summer. To successfully finish hogs oiiJ)luegrass requii'es tue feeding of more grain' per 100 pounds live weight than on clover, alfalfa or rape and oats pasture. The grain ration should be 2V6 to 3 per cent of the live weight of the hogs. There have been four trials with bluegrass. During the first two straight corn was fed. During the last two trials the ration consisted of corn six parts and oilmeal one part. This is considered better than corn alone. For the four trials one acre of bluegrass supported an average of 12.5 bead of hogs for 142 days. The amount of pork accredited to the forage was 252.5 pounds, or a return of $15.18 per acre, figuring the pork at $6 cents per pound. Economy of Forage Crops. The average amount of grain re quired to produce a pound of gain with Ave dry-lot experiments, where a well-balanced ration was fed, was 6.11 pounds. With the four forage crops mentioned above, -the average amount was 3.49 pounds. In other words, a saving of a little more than 30 per cent or the grain was effected by the use of forage crops. The advantage of feeding the crop on the land should also be considered in figuring the economy of forage crops. . While the kind of grain to feed is important, the amount of grain is of equal, if . not greater, importance in determining the economy of gains. It has been 'shown, at different station that the best forage crops are ittle more than a maintenance raUon II gains are to be obtained, then,' it is necessary to feed some grain, gxperi ments indicate that the greatest econ omy of grain is obtained when one and one-half to two pounds of grain are fed dally for each 100 pounds of live weight The best, general role Is to food the hogs enough grain to cause a daily gain of three-fourths of a pound ' for each 100 pounds - live much to do with the decreasing pro ductiveness of such soils. The most important reason for this condition, however, is the reduced supply of humus, which lessens the available plant food, allows the soil to become hard and compact and increases the amount of surface washing. How Restore Vegetable Matter? Since humus, then, is of much im portance, and since the decreased pro ductiveness of worn lands is largely due to the depletion of their humus, naturally the first step to take in building up these worn lands is to re store the vegetable matter. Likewise the man who is thinking of the future, and who is determined to make his soils better from year to year, instead of allowing them to wear out, will manage his soil in such a way as to conserve this important ingredient. This . vegetable matter must be re stored either by the application of manure or the turning under of other organic matter, such as weeds, grass, cornstalks, etc., or the growing of spe- use of manure is, of course, of first importance, for it will not only sup ply organic matter, but will at the same time add considerable quantities of soluble plant food. Some system of live stock farming where the crops produced can be fed and the manure carefully saved and returned to the land will be found the most economical method of farm ing for maintaining the humus. Where the manure supply is limited, how ever, as is the case on most farms, the use of green manures will be the cheapest source of vegetable matter. Any kind of vegetable matter turned under will help. As a general rule, a man should never burn off any crop residue, but turn them under to add humus. Since humus is so rapidly removed from the soil by cropping, it is neces sary that some means be provided for replacing it. The first essential to the maintenance of the vegetable mat ter is the adoption of a systematic ro tation of crops that includes a wide use of such crops as clover, cowpeas and soja beans. Even a small grain crop, alternated with corn, will main tain the humus supply much longer than where corn is grown continuous ly, but where legumes are used the supply , of humus Is much more easily maintained. per acre, and where manure has been added in the corn, wheat and clover rotation the yield is 77.6 bushels per acre. Growing Leguminous Crops. Crop rotation alone, however, will not maintain the humus supply, nor the fertility indefinitely. This is only the first essential. The rotation must include a wide use of leguminous crops, both as regular and as catch crops thrown in for pasture or green manure. Such crops are usually known as humus-building crops, be cause in order to build up humus in a soil nitrogen is necessary, and these plants have the ability to secure it from the air. They do not depend upon the soil nitrogen for makiug the vegetable matter of which they are composed. If these crops are removed from the land, however, the humus actually added to the soil is small, al though since the soil is not stirred while these crops are on the land they tend to maintain it. To build up the humus rapidly in a CAPITAL STOCK $5000000 EARNED SURPLUS 340,000 clal crops forgreejL.manuring. The jroHt-is-necesBary-that these crops be pastured or fed and the manure returned; or, better still, that occa sionally crops be turned under. It is seldom advisable to turn under a reg ular crop of green manure, but catch crops should be used for this purpose. Cowpeas or soja beans may be sown 'JLlhe corn atlthe Jast cultivatlonor sown after a regular crop of oats or wheat, and either pastured off or turned under to add humus. Peas may also be planted with the corn with a pea attachment to the planter, and the peas and lower blades of corn removed by sheep, or the peas and corn pastured off together. The peas may be harvested with the corn and used for silage or fed with the fodder, though a greater fertilising value will be had if the peas are pastured or turned under. It can readily be seen, therefore, that to maintain the humus supply of a soil absolutely, and especially if the humus is to be built up, it is neces sary to make a wide use of legumin ous crops to be pastured, or turned under, unless feed or manure is brought in from sources outside one's farm. The grain fanner who makes little manure and sells the bulk.of his crops, from the land must resort to the turning under of leguminous crops if the humus supply is to be main tained. .'. :':.-; Scotch Query, A bluff, consequential gentleman from the South, with more beef on his hones Jhan brain in his head, riding along the Hamilton road, near to Blantyre, asked a herdboy on the roadside, hi a tone and manner evi dently meant to quis. If he were "half way to HaaUitoar "Man." replied the boy, "I wad need to hea whar ye frae, afore I could answer 'Exchange. - realises the golf ba- Uaale and . actualities, he he- VXtor. Mouse Plane Important. ' The care in the home nd all other forms of household work are greatly facilitated by right planning and the use of suitable materials for the con struction and furnishing of the home An adequate and convenient water supply and other conveniences are es sential, not only for comfort and for saving labor, but also from the stand point of home hygiene. Pawnshops ta Berlin are controlled by, the government. The rates of in larsat are low.; and the profits are CsedLfor charitable purposes. S. M. Jordan's Corn Growing Bulletins. The Farmers Bank of Bates County have a supply of printed copies of Mr. S. M. Jordon's Corn Growing Bulletins Nos. 15, 16 and 17. These bulletins have just been published and give some very fine ideas on the subject of preparing corn ground for planting and manner of planting the seed. It gives Mr. Jordon's ideas which he has learned by experience on this subject. All three of the bulletins give information particularly suitable for the time of the year. We are glad to supply anyone in terested in this work with a copy of the three bulletins. Our Service Means Profit to You HE Men 0 We can save you from 25 to 50 per cent on "Ford" car supplies. A complete assortment carried in stock. Have a few special bargains in Tires all first quality, guaranteed goods. Batteries, Oils, Grease, Cement, Gladrag, Metal Polish, Body Polish, Top and Cushion Dressing, Etc. Phone 395 North Main St. Look These Over Oliver Gang Plows Emerson Gang Plows Economy Disc Harrows Hoosier Drills Studebaker Wagons Royal Fence Best Ever Gang Plows Goodenough Gang Plows Emerson Disc Harrows Moline Plows Henney Buggies Etc., etc. Come in and let us figure with you on these. Furniture Don't tail to see us before buying Furniture. Our stock is complete and prices we are making very low. Large line of Rugs to select from. Figure with us on your Spring waata. GENCH BROTHERS Farm Mortgages Where to buy them The market for mortgages is in the agricultural region, just as the market for stocks and bonds is in the big cities. Here in the great corn belt of the middle west we are in touch with to-day's business-man farmer. His mortgage on-his producing farm is gilt edge. It is secured by definite land of known value and the man and his responsibility are known. , We have been In the business of selling Missouri first farm mortgages for over forty years and in all that time never a loss to the investor.- If you want a safe sure investment write or call on THE WALTON TRUST CO. ; BUTLER. MISSOURI , . . .