OCR Interpretation

The Butler weekly times. (Butler, Mo.) 1881-1918, March 20, 1913, Image 6

Image and text provided by State Historical Society of Missouri; Columbia, MO

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89066489/1913-03-20/ed-1/seq-6/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

? if
' !
-V-fc " 4--
i r t
it S
V (
i 1
L -
Vvumiudl (MMIfiR) ""MM?
II innnifi i
i For Making Pure,
Home-Baked Food.
Fine and Wholesome Biscuit,
Delicious Cake and Pastry
Building Up a Soil
The Fertility Depends Very Largely Upon
Humus Supply
By C B. HutchUon. An'l Profewor of Afraoomjr. College of Agriculture. U. of Mo.
LNo Alum
No Lime Phosphate I
The first thing that is worn out in
oils is the vegetable matter or hu
mus. The longer soils are tilled and
the longer they are cultivated, the
more rapidly will the humus be ex
hausted. Unfortunately, most of the
methods of handling soils, as com
monly practiced, deplete the humus
content very fast. The continued
growing of grain crops, especially
those that require considerable stir
ring of the soil, like corn and pota
toes, rapidly reduces the humus sup
ply; for when a soil Is stirred fre
quently the conditions are favorable
for its most rapid decay. Naturally,
in this decay considerable quantities
of plant food are set free, and this is
one of the immediate benefits from
cultivating corn. When this practice
Is continued year after year on the
same land, the supply of humus ulti
mately becomes so low as to reduce
the productiveness below a profitable
It is, of course, true that the con
stant removai of crops from the land
removes large quantities of immedi
ately available plant food, and this has
i The following table shows the re
sults of rotation at the Missouri Ex
neriment Station:
Yield of
Corn, 1905,
Rotation. Bu. per A
Corn 17 years .....11.8
Corn, wheat, clover 17 years.... 50.
Corn. oats, wheat, clover, tim-
othy-17 years 54.2
Corn, wheat, clover (manured)
17 vears 77.6
From these results it will be seen
that where corn is grown continually
for 17 years, without manure, tne
vteld has been reduced to 11.8 bush
els per acre. Where the land has
been simply rotated to corn, wheat
and clover the yield standB at 50.7
bushels per acre. The increase is
due first to the fact that the ground
is cultivated but once in three years,
thus being less exhaustive than where
cultivated each year; and to the fact
that clover, being a humus and nitro-ppn-hiillHins
croo. is inserted. Where
the rotation has been the less ex
haustive, of corn, oats, wheat, clover
and timothy, the yield is 54.2 bushels
Pasture Feed for Hogs
Good Forage Reduces Grain Required for 100 Gain
Thirty Per Cent Alfalfa Is Considered the Best
By L. A. VW-avcr, Instructor in Animal Husbandry in the University of Missouri
Owin:.; lo llic his:h tiriccs of gwun,
111.' .iotlncMoii of pork with pritin
alonv is net. nearly so proiitiible as it
once was. It takes live or six pounds
of grain in i!ry-loi feeding to make, a
pound of pork. Rt suits of investiga
tions at tiie Missouri Experiment Sta
tion indicate clearly that pork can be
produced most cheaply by feeding
Brain in combination with forage.
In most of the work done at the
Missouri Station straight corn was fed
when the forage was a legume such
as alfalfa, clover, cowpeas or soy
beans. With non-leguminous foragps
such as bluegrass, rape and oats, sor-
one-half bushel of oats. Six to ten
pounds of clover sown ar, this time is
also good to add to the mixture. 1 lie
rape should not be turned onto until
14 to IS inches high. If not. pastured
too closely and the season is favorable
it will come on again, thus furnishing
pasture for a long period.
With three trials, an acre of rare
and oats pastured ten head for 107
days. The grain required per pound
gain was ".28 pounds. The pork ac
credited forage is 380.7 pounds, or at
G ceiits per pound it gave a return of
$22.84 per acre. These figures indl
cate that rape is one of the most pro-
Fattening hogs on rape and oats at Missouri Experiment Station.
ghum or rye, the corn was supple
mented with linseed oilmeal, the ra
tion being made up of six parts of
corn to one part of oilmeal.
Alfalfa Forage.
Where alfalfa can be grown success
fully there is probably no forage crop
that will give better results for swine
feeding. An acre of alfalfa will pas
. ture during the grazing season from
ten to twenty shoats. The important
point to be observed is not to pasture
too closely. Best results are obtained
by so pasturing that one or two cut
tings of hay may be taken off the field
in addition to the amount foraged off
by the hogs. At this station alfalfa
with-one -year's trial- pastured twelve
bead for lt8 days. The amount of
grain fed was about one-half of a full
feed. It required 3.07 pounds of grain
to produce one pound of gain, as con
trasted to five or six pounds if grain
had been fed alone in a dry lot. The
gain accredited the forage was 697
pounds, which, with pork at 6 cents,
gave a return of $35.82 per acre.
Clover Pasture.
Red clover probably ranks next to
alfalfa. It will not feed so many hogs
per acre, and does not furnish pasture
for so long a period as alfalfa. Re
sults at this station, however, show It
to be one of the best forages In two
trials, one acre of clover pastured
leven head for 130 days. The amount
of grain per pound gain was 2.97. The
gain accredited to forage in this case
-was 672 pounds, or, with pork at 6
cents, the. return from an acre of
clover was $34.32.
In pasturing the clover care should
be taken not to turn in on it before it
is ten to twelve inches high. It should
not at any time be pastured too
closely. . v- .'f ;''
' :' Rap ' Paatura, ;
Xba "annual" forage crap which has
given best results at this station is
rape in which has been sown a few
oats. Rape may be sown as early la
toe spring as - the ground can be
worked, or about the same lime that
oats would be own. If la rapid
growing, succulent crop; and banc it
it well adapted tor swum pastnr. The
-Dwarf East Is wiety sown, for
this purpose, Good rwults boon
drinks in
tuteodr by sowing Ht or stt 1
- abrJ f Cm drill ud ttn drC
fUable forages for swine and should be
us-ed more often.
Bluegrass Pasture.
The best results are obtained wit'i
bluegrass before August and after the
fall rains, since bluegrass goes into a
resting stage during the dry weather
of late summer. To successfully finish
hogs oiiJ)luegrass requii'es tue feeding
of more grain' per 100 pounds live
weight than on clover, alfalfa or rape
and oats pasture. The grain ration
should be 2V6 to 3 per cent of the live
weight of the hogs.
There have been four trials with
bluegrass. During the first two
straight corn was fed. During the last
two trials the ration consisted of corn
six parts and oilmeal one part. This is
considered better than corn alone. For
the four trials one acre of bluegrass
supported an average of 12.5 bead of
hogs for 142 days. The amount of pork
accredited to the forage was 252.5
pounds, or a return of $15.18 per acre,
figuring the pork at $6 cents per
Economy of Forage Crops.
The average amount of grain re
quired to produce a pound of gain
with Ave dry-lot experiments, where a
well-balanced ration was fed, was 6.11
pounds. With the four forage crops
mentioned above, -the average amount
was 3.49 pounds. In other words, a
saving of a little more than 30 per
cent or the grain was effected by the
use of forage crops.
The advantage of feeding the crop
on the land should also be considered
in figuring the economy of forage
crops. .
While the kind of grain to feed is
important, the amount of grain is of
equal, if . not greater, importance in
determining the economy of gains. It
has been 'shown, at different station
that the best forage crops are ittle
more than a maintenance raUon II
gains are to be obtained, then,' it is
necessary to feed some grain, gxperi
ments indicate that the greatest econ
omy of grain is obtained when one and
one-half to two pounds of grain are
fed dally for each 100 pounds of live
weight The best, general role Is to
food the hogs enough grain to cause
a daily gain of three-fourths of a
pound ' for each 100 pounds - live
much to do with the decreasing pro
ductiveness of such soils. The most
important reason for this condition,
however, is the reduced supply of
humus, which lessens the available
plant food, allows the soil to become
hard and compact and increases the
amount of surface washing.
How Restore Vegetable Matter?
Since humus, then, is of much im
portance, and since the decreased pro
ductiveness of worn lands is largely
due to the depletion of their humus,
naturally the first step to take in
building up these worn lands is to re
store the vegetable matter. Likewise
the man who is thinking of the future,
and who is determined to make his
soils better from year to year, instead
of allowing them to wear out, will
manage his soil in such a way as to
conserve this important ingredient.
This . vegetable matter must be re
stored either by the application of
manure or the turning under of other
organic matter, such as weeds, grass,
cornstalks, etc., or the growing of spe-
use of manure is, of course, of first
importance, for it will not only sup
ply organic matter, but will at the
same time add considerable quantities
of soluble plant food.
Some system of live stock farming
where the crops produced can be fed
and the manure carefully saved and
returned to the land will be found
the most economical method of farm
ing for maintaining the humus. Where
the manure supply is limited, how
ever, as is the case on most farms,
the use of green manures will be the
cheapest source of vegetable matter.
Any kind of vegetable matter turned
under will help. As a general rule, a
man should never burn off any crop
residue, but turn them under to add
Since humus is so rapidly removed
from the soil by cropping, it is neces
sary that some means be provided for
replacing it. The first essential to
the maintenance of the vegetable mat
ter is the adoption of a systematic ro
tation of crops that includes a wide
use of such crops as clover, cowpeas
and soja beans. Even a small grain
crop, alternated with corn, will main
tain the humus supply much longer
than where corn is grown continuous
ly, but where legumes are used the
supply , of humus Is much more easily
per acre, and where manure has been
added in the corn, wheat and clover
rotation the yield is 77.6 bushels per
Growing Leguminous Crops.
Crop rotation alone, however, will
not maintain the humus supply, nor
the fertility indefinitely. This is only
the first essential. The rotation must
include a wide use of leguminous
crops, both as regular and as catch
crops thrown in for pasture or green
manure. Such crops are usually
known as humus-building crops, be
cause in order to build up humus in
a soil nitrogen is necessary, and these
plants have the ability to secure it
from the air. They do not depend
upon the soil nitrogen for makiug the
vegetable matter of which they are
composed. If these crops are removed
from the land, however, the humus
actually added to the soil is small, al
though since the soil is not stirred
while these crops are on the land
they tend to maintain it.
To build up the humus rapidly in a
clal crops forgreejL.manuring. The jroHt-is-necesBary-that these crops
be pastured or fed and the manure
returned; or, better still, that occa
sionally crops be turned under. It is
seldom advisable to turn under a reg
ular crop of green manure, but catch
crops should be used for this purpose.
Cowpeas or soja beans may be sown
'JLlhe corn atlthe Jast cultivatlonor
sown after a regular crop of oats or
wheat, and either pastured off or
turned under to add humus. Peas
may also be planted with the corn
with a pea attachment to the planter,
and the peas and lower blades of corn
removed by sheep, or the peas and
corn pastured off together. The peas
may be harvested with the corn and
used for silage or fed with the fodder,
though a greater fertilising value will
be had if the peas are pastured or
turned under.
It can readily be seen, therefore,
that to maintain the humus supply of
a soil absolutely, and especially if the
humus is to be built up, it is neces
sary to make a wide use of legumin
ous crops to be pastured, or turned
under, unless feed or manure is
brought in from sources outside one's
farm. The grain fanner who makes
little manure and sells the bulk.of his
crops, from the land must resort to
the turning under of leguminous crops
if the humus supply is to be main
tained. .'. :':.-;
Scotch Query,
A bluff, consequential gentleman
from the South, with more beef on his
hones Jhan brain in his head, riding
along the Hamilton road, near to
Blantyre, asked a herdboy on the
roadside, hi a tone and manner evi
dently meant to quis. If he were "half
way to HaaUitoar "Man." replied
the boy, "I wad need to hea whar ye
frae, afore I could answer
'Exchange. -
realises the golf ba-
Uaale and . actualities, he he-
Mouse Plane Important.
' The care in the home nd all other
forms of household work are greatly
facilitated by right planning and the
use of suitable materials for the con
struction and furnishing of the home
An adequate and convenient water
supply and other conveniences are es
sential, not only for comfort and for
saving labor, but also from the stand
point of home hygiene.
Pawnshops ta Berlin are controlled
by, the government. The rates of in
larsat are low.; and the profits are
CsedLfor charitable purposes.
S. M. Jordan's Corn
Growing Bulletins.
The Farmers Bank of Bates County
have a supply of printed copies of
Mr. S. M. Jordon's Corn Growing
Bulletins Nos. 15, 16 and 17. These
bulletins have just been published
and give some very fine ideas on the
subject of preparing corn ground for
planting and manner of planting the
It gives Mr. Jordon's ideas which
he has learned by experience on this
subject. All three of the bulletins
give information particularly suitable
for the time of the year.
We are glad to supply anyone in
terested in this work with a copy of
the three bulletins.
Our Service Means Profit to You
Men 0
We can save you from
25 to 50 per cent
on "Ford" car supplies.
A complete assortment
carried in stock.
Have a few special bargains in
Tires all first quality, guaranteed
Batteries, Oils, Grease, Cement, Gladrag,
Metal Polish, Body Polish, Top and
Cushion Dressing, Etc.
Phone 395
North Main St.
Look These Over
Oliver Gang Plows
Emerson Gang Plows
Economy Disc Harrows
Hoosier Drills
Studebaker Wagons
Royal Fence
Best Ever Gang Plows
Goodenough Gang Plows
Emerson Disc Harrows
Moline Plows
Henney Buggies
Etc., etc.
Come in and let us figure with you on these.
Don't tail to see us before buying Furniture. Our
stock is complete and prices we are making very
low. Large line of Rugs to select from.
Figure with us on your Spring waata.
Farm Mortgages
Where to buy them
The market for mortgages is in the agricultural region, just
as the market for stocks and bonds is in the big cities.
Here in the great corn belt of the middle west we are in
touch with to-day's business-man farmer. His mortgage on-his
producing farm is gilt edge. It is secured by definite land of
known value and the man and his responsibility are known.
, We have been In the business of selling Missouri first farm
mortgages for over forty years and in all that time never a loss to
the investor.- If you want a safe sure investment write or call on
, . . .

xml | txt