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EMPIRE OF THE MOORS ALF way down the Atlnntic coast of the Moorish em pire, and about opposite Charleston, rises out of the. sea the little port of Casablancu, which Is known as the "White HoiiHe" port In every lunguago that Is spoken along tho coast. It Is white and bountiful, If you lie in tho oRlng of a clear night. Like all the rest of Morocco, and, Indeed, the Mohamme dan world, C'asuhlunra is best seen by tho pnlo moonlight, and to wind ward, writes Stephen Honsul In the New York Times. Nearby saleo, at the very name of which our New England ancestors who went down to the sea In ships were wont to shudder, and with good reRson, is nov closed by a sand bar, which even tho daring Ilarbary cor snlrs would not dure to cross In their light-drawing feluccas, but tho Moor of the bad country Is still a plrato, thnigh the times have driven him In land from the sous. I'ntll recently he preyed upon tho pnsslng caravans as a century ngo ho Bwooped down with his hawklike galleys upon our be calmed sailing ships. The Kahyle horsemen who rush with so much fury and reckless daring up to the French butteries and rlflo pits, -do It not only becRuse they have a hatred of the Christian which their church sanetl ties to a virtue, but because they are starving to death and want to get at the men who have taken tho bread out of their mouths. Held Plaint and Passes. Ten years ago these dashing horse men, whose gorgeous costumes and be Jeweled weapons mado them most beautiful if somewhat barbaric ob jects to behold, wore the lords of the plains and the marshes which lie be tween tho western Soudan and the port owns of southwest Morocco. They were the master of transportation in this i 'art of the world, and had to be reckoned with. If you cared to take a caravan flight In ostrich feathers, gold dust, slaves, or salt, they would pro tect you or pillage you, whichever was the most profitable. Sid lloubkehr, who was and Is the most prominent man In this part of the world, used to rebato and cut rates just like all the other masters of transportation, and just like you and I. He would give a caravan protec tion at his price or he would pillage It to secure the just tolls which were bis, as he never doubted, by the divine right of might. lloubkehr and his colleagues and rivals got all they eould get out of the Job without dis turbing business or destroying val ues, and would still be doing a profit able and philanthropic business were It not for tho recent opening up of the Western Soudan by the French, who have diverted to their own In terests and profit all the former cara van trade from Morocco down to Tim buctoo and the Niger. So without wishing to lie unduly alarmist about the situation of the besieged garri sons In Mogndor and Casablanca it Is clear that their assailants are not only fanatics, but hungry fanatics who hnve been quietly put out of a most profitable and gentlemanly busi ness, which permitted them tho ex travagance of often paying one hun dred good dollurs for a carbine, which In New York would have been dear at twelve. These dashing bordmen were bound to the Imperial government by Tha 8ultan on the March, the slenderest of ties; they were wholly Immersed in their profitable business operations and In annexing to their own households the most beautiful slaves culled from the past Ing caravans. When the tax-gatherers ventured Into their domains they burled them alive, but when the late ultan, Mulal Hassan, who was a fight er, appeared In their neighborhood, be ing conservative, clear-headed busi ness men, they paid him large sums tn go away and not restrain trade. Typical of this same Sultan Mulal Hassan's attitude toward what Is called progress and Improvement In tho western world Is an anecdote, the authenticity of which I feel I can vouch for. There were and still are some dangerous rocks in the harbor of Rabat, and tho owners of the const Ing steamers engaged In the Morocco trade were anxious, for obvious rea sons, to have them removed. Iluvlug failed to Interest tho local governor In the matter, the steamship men got to gether and Bent an envoy to Fez, who requested that tho companies con cerned might ho allowed to remove these dangers to comaerco at tbelr own expense. Sultan's Wily Answer. "Certainly not," was tho sultan's Immediate answer, "the rocks were put there by Clod for some good pur pose, let no man dare to remove them." What the sultan doubtless thought was that foreign men-of-war could get Into the Atlantic ports of hi h empire quite easily enough, and at all events be did not wish to appear In the eyes of his sullen people as facilitating the exits and the entrances of tho hated : 1 8J A Moorish Soldier. Christians. The policy of his little son, Abdul-Aziz, has been much more lib eral, and from the western view point more enlightened, and is, sad to relate., one of the contributing causes to tho present alarming situation. He recent ly consented to tho request of tho con sular corps and the shippers that har bor Improvements should be under taken In Casablanca. Whereupon the suspicious Kahyles of tho adjacent mountain fastnesses rushed down to the "White House" city and killed 12 or 13 Europeans, mostly Spaniards, who were engaged upon tho work. In making concessions to the Euro pean spirit of progress and enterprise, for which his people are not ready, the unlucky and probably most incapablo young sultan has raised a storm which may cost him his throne. To-day, If he stands with his people, he is threat ened with a foreign expedition, while If he stands by tho treaty ho runs even greater and nearer danger at the hands of tho various pretenders to the throne, by whose activity the sultan's life has been made very miserable ever since, or almost ever since, lly a harem conspiracy and tho weakness of his father tho young prince was called to the dilllcult post of ruling the Moors. Present Ruler Unpopular. Abdul Aziz's accession to the throne was a most unpopular one, and this fnct probably accounts for the fact that early In his reign ho surrounded himself with foreigners who, with some exceptions, were not generally men of a high type rope walkers, photographers, bnlloonlsts, and sleight-of-hand men wero tho representatives of western civilization who for a long time appealed most powerfully to the young sultan's appreciation of our cul ture. In view of tho rising tide of dis content and the disaffection even of the people of the capital, and the growing strength of the various revo lutions In progress. In the last year the sultan has dismissed his staff of foreign adventurers and goes to the mosque as regularly as his father did but probably tho harm has been done. In Morocco, as well as In othor countries, a reputation for orthodoxy Is hard to retrieve. One brother of tho unlucky sultan, Mulal Huftd by name, of whose char acter and leanings upon the questions of the day little Is known, has been formally proclaimed sultan In the great mosque at Morocco City, An other brother Hassan, It Is said, has been exercising rights of sovereignty In tho Riff highlands, west, of Tetanu and on the Mediterranean coast for two years past. In the Bus country an other brother, who bears the name of Morocco's greatest sultan, Mulal Is mail, is threatening rebellion with a force of fanatical horsemen estimated at 15,000 at bis back, while in the western provinces still sluutor the never radically suppressed rebellions of the RoguJ and Uou Hamara, the benevolent "Father of the Asses." who, with his claim to divine descent and revelation and his wondrous gift of eloquence, exercises a remarkable In fluence upon the mule drivers and all the other nomadic folk of the empire. Nations Have Hard Task. Such In outline Is the situation by which France and Spain find them selves confronted because of the recog nition of their special Interests In the disturbed country, and tho police man date which they received at the con ference of the powers at Algeclras. In the light of recent events It would seom not at all unlikely that their diplomatic victory at tho conference will entail upon Frnnce and Spain the loss of many thousands of men and nuiny millions of francs, which neither can afford to throw away. Tho talk of an expedition to Fez. a flying col umn of lO.OOD men, in which the boule vard sheets Indulge, Is tho sheerest nonsense, or the wildest madness. It would require 150.000 men, all picked troops, to capture Fez, and It would re quire many thousands more, and re quire them Indefinitely, to hold the holy city and mulutuln something ap proaching law and order In the sur rounding country. Portugal was for several hundred years In possession of nearly all tho Moorish ports on the Atlantic coast, Including Casablanca; Indeed, the sec ond title of the ruler of Portugal to day Is "King of the Algarves," which refers to the royal pretensions to Moorish sovereignty, all substantial basis to which has long since disap peared, together with the Hast Indian dependencies Fate of Portuguese Army. It was In 1578 that I)om SebaRtian, the chivalrous hero of Portuguese song and story, equipped an army for the purpose of overrunning the wholo country. A duke of Lelnstor and many other gentlemanly adventurers Joined Diiffl Sebustlun's standards und begun the Journey to the capital, which so many conquerors have undertaken but in which no single one has succeeded, at least not since the day when the green banners of tho Prophet of Islam wero first flung to the breezes from the battlements of Fez. Dom Sebastian and his army of 20,. 000 men, together with the uncounted adventurers who had come together from nil over Christendom to follow so gallant and so generous a prince, met their fate In the vnlley by Alkesar, which Is watered by a shallow river generally Identified by historians nnd geographers as the Llxus of Pliny. There 20,000 men were rut to pieces by the Moorish cavalry, and those who died here by the sword wero the for tunate members of the army. Accord ing to some accounts, lom Sebastian and the more notable of his followers, wounded or captives, wero taken to Meklnez, where, after they had graced the triumph of the terrible sultan, Ab-del-Melet, their conqueror, tho greater number of them were hurled alive In the city walls. In these sumo wallu are visible to day many hundred brick ed up cells In which on this occasion nnd at other times of fanatical fury, Christians were Immured whllo living as a punishment for refusing to recite the futlha and so become renegades to their creed. , The Battlefield of Long Ago. It Is a dreary scene, this long for gotten battlefield, hut one that the fu ture Invaders of Morocco may remem ber with advantage. I canio upon It j on one of my Journeys In Morocco, and made It an Indelible Impression. It had been a very hot day, and wo 1 were at first delighted to bo wot to tho skin as our horses waded, or rather swam, tho Llxus. Then tho cold Returning from evening breeze began to blow, and the damp fogs to rise from the grave yard of so much Christian chivalry; Indeed, our teeth were chntterlng and our hearts cold before, In the mystic light of the rising moon, we rodo up a mound In the middle of tho battle field which, according to the local leg end that muy be true, was built out of tho corpses of the Christians who wero slain that day, and was also the coign of vantage from which, when the battle was fought and won, the Eniln of the Sultan proclaimed the hour of player and of thanksgiving, the greatness of the One Ood of Islam and of Mohammed his Prophet Ceded to England. After this disaster Portugal gradu ally withdrew from Morocco, and In 1660 what remained of her conquests were ceded to England as part of the dowry of the Infanta Catherine of Bra gan'.a, who became the wife of Charles II. Another piece of real estate Includ ed In the dowry because the King of Portugal was Just at that moment snort of cash was the Island of Bom- bay. The English vise mea of the any thought money could be made out ol Tangier, but no thought was paid tc Hoinhay. All of which goas to show how uncertain are real estate ventures In an international as well as tn a lo cal sense. Out of the occupation of llombay has grown the Indian empire and much wealth and I believe much honor to the Ilrltlsh, but out of the occupation of Tangier, from which so much of wealth anud pelf was ex pected, came only hard knocks and final defeat. In Tangier the English held on grimly 20 yenrs, and It was here, fighting with the Moorish caval ry on the beach, that handsome ".lack" Churchill, who was to hecomo the conqueror of Malplaquet und oth er fields which Illustrate the history of the Ilrltlsh arms, Drat blooded his One of the Gates of Fez. Innre. Churchill served here two years and then was so fortunate as to securo a change of garrison to a place whnre there was not so much thnukless fighting, but the English government, reluctant as ever to give up a corner of land that has once been painted red, hung on to tho wed ding present of the luckless queen for a generation. On one occasion the earl of Tevlott, the British governor, with most of his officers and a largo portion of the garrison, was surprised by the vigilant Moors, and but few escaped with their lives. After 20 yours of constant warfare, harassed day aud night by a tireless and trucu lent enemy, the keepers of John Uull's treasury counted up tho cost, and shortly after the figures were known Tangier was abandoned, and so the second attempt of tho conquest of Morocco failed. 8paln Had Enough. In 1S59 the Spaniards, under O'Don nell, Invaded Morocco, bent uwin ob taining satisfaction for undoubted in juries at the hands of lawless Moors, and perhaps with thoughts of perma nent conquest if all went well. As a matter of fact, nothing went well. From 40,000 to 60,000 men wero en gaged for two years, with heavy casu alties, and even greater losses from sickness. At the end of the second campaign, the Sancho Panza In (.'as tllllan politics got the upper hand of the Don Quixote, proclaimed honor satisfied, the terms offered by tho Moors all that could be desired, and retired In a blaze of false glory, out of which O'Donnell secured a duko dom and many Spanish regiments un pronounceable Moorish names. Hut the real results were none. In 1893 the Moors attacked the Spanish possession of Melllla, and the Madrid government, If hungry for ad venture, had every opportunity, und even Justification, for a punitive ex pedltlon, but very wisely did not an Expedition. aval 1 Itself of the opportunity. It has always seemed to me that, thanks to the travels nnd researches of the late Padre Lerchunrtl nnd others of his thorough and dellgent school, the Spaniards understand conditions In Morocco better than men of other nationalities. They showed It at Me lllla ten years ago, and I rather think the commanding officer of tho Span ish contingent In Casablanca Is show ing It to-day when ho retu-ei to ex pose his men outside the city to the furious driving charge of the Moorish ii regular cavalry Industry In Alabama. Alabama Is now producing as much pig Iron as Pennsylvania did a quar ter of a century ago. In 1887 tha south made a trlRe more than 800,000 tons. Last rear It made 3,600,000 tons. The south has about one-half the known Iron ores of the United States. A great steel Industry has sprung up In Alabama within the last ten years, and It Is said to pro duce better steel rails than the north, and at lower cost WHAT ONE MERCHANT DID Correspondent of Home Trade League Testifies to Value of Publicity One country merchant writes the Home Trade league as follows: "Since I have adopted tho city Idea of advertising naming new goods with prices, and at tho same time making known what I desire to dis pose of at or about cost to make room for new goods my sales havo not only Increased very largely with regu lar customers, but I havo secured many new ones. Not only this In stead of tho farmerB' wives spending from a half to an hour. and a half look ing about the store to seo what there Is In stock they may wnnt and taking tho clerk s time who otherwise would have a chance to sell goods to several other customors, they come In and ask for the very articles they have seen advertised and which they hnve already decided they do want from seeing the advertisement In this week ly paper, and Die result Is I have been able to dlBpenso with one of my clerks to whom I was paying $500 per year." This merchant further snya that this saving of clerk hire expended In this same kind of advertising during the yoar will, he Is confident, Increase bis trade 60 per cent, and that ho can already name 28 customers who but very recently have been buying their goods almost entirely from Chicago catalogue houses. This experience without doubt can be duplicated by thousands of other men In business throughout tho coun try. It Is to bo feared that the aver age merchant In tho smaller towns has allowed himself to get Into a rut, and It Is one from which he must swiftly emerge If he baa any dcslro to "stay IS THE DE8IRE TO GET SOMETHING FOR NOTHING. AN IGNIS FATUUS TO AVOID One Cause That Has Led to the Down fall of Many Fallacy That Ever Tends Toward Evil. A mnn who won tho confidence, re spect and admiration of the peoplo of bis state was elected to tho United States senate, Soon It la discovered that ho was "owned by tho railroads." bought by favors and instead of repre senting the Interests of the people who sent him to his high place In tho nation's councils, preferred to rep resent the corporations that mado It possible for him to ride over rail roads without cost. It Is only a dem onstration of human inclination to get something for nothing. The member of a stato legislature was accused of showing special atten tion to legislation favorable to tho railroads and corporations. Ho was charged with riding on passes; and In fact It became known that his prin cipal supporters, too, rode froe over the railroads. Another Illustration of the human desire to secure something for nothing. The mayor of a city regularly occu pied a box at the leading theater; banded out a free street car ticket to the conductor, enjoyed free drinks at the bars another example of the man who wanted something for nothing, and at last his greed caused him to enter Into dishonest deals that landed him In tho penitentiary. On certain dnys of the month at numerous supply depots conducted by county and city charities, long rows of men and women can be seen awaiting their turn to get a small supply of flour, sugar and other neces saries of life. Sonio are helpless, de formed, aud their looks Indicato want and misery, but there are othors who have no appearance of need. Hero again we find men and women leaving pride nnd self-respect behind because of the desire to secure something for nothing. On special sules days In the retail districts of every large city great crowds can be seen about the en trances of tho great department stores, crushing, fighting to get to the bargain counters, all bent upon getting something of value for little or nothing. From the highest walks of life to the lowest the all-prevailing and dom inant trait In evidence to show the weakness of the Individual Is the struggle to get something for noth ing. It is based upon a knowledge of this fralllty of humankind that some great business enterprises are built. Wonderful bargains are advertised, and the masses rush to buy, without cslm reasoning in the matter of any comparisons of value. Good business judgment Is cast In the background by the madness to get something for nothing. The gct-rlch-qulck operator uses the same methods to lead to his trap vic tims with dollars as do the railroads, the big department stores and the others who have certain objects to gain. It Is always the promise held out to give somothlng for Inadequate compensation, without Its equal In ex penditure of money or labor that al In the game." The methods of a gen eration ago, It must he remembered, are not necessarily adapted to the conditions of to-day. Ily tho persistent and persevering use of every device for publicity the catalogue bouses have built up their present enormous trade. It Is not rea sonable to suppose they can be dis lodged from tho position they occupy a position, as has frequently been pointed out, that threatens tho well being If not the existence of every Bmall community throughout tho coun try unless they are opposed with something like their own weapons. A favorite phrase much In use to-day Is "Get business!" and to gut business you must go after it. Is It reasonable to expect It will come to you un sought? Take tho experience of this Home Trade league correspondent as a guide. He had the goods. He wanted to sell them. His proceeding was simple. Through publicity, which in his case simply meant attractive and truthful advertising, ho brought the goods and the peoplo together. Re sults were never In doubt. To Bum up, successfully to compete with tho powerful cataloguo houses of tho cities tho country merchant must In a measuro adopt their meth ods. They have won by publicity. Meet them on that ground. Match advancement with advancement. You have tho medium In your local paper. Let your advertisements Bay some thing, and mean what they say. Let tho people know what you havo to sell, and dopeud upon It, they will come to buy. lows the frauds to succeed. There Is magic In the "something for nothing" deal. It Is a bait that catches people in every rank and walk of life. It often is the cause of the downfall of men who havo all tho abilities to suc ceed. It Is a fallacy that tends to ward evil. Thero can nothing be gained without adequate compensa tion. "Tho something for nothing is an ignis fatuus that the wise will avoid. D. M. CARR. 6HARP PRACTICES. 8chemes by Which People in Country Districts Are Defrauded. One of tho winning games that Is widely played Is the giving of prizes for tho sale of baking powder, flavor ing extracts, etc. Numerous con cerns are Interested In this lino of business. Premiums are offered to club raisers, and an outfit for can vassing Is sent fur a dollar or so, or perhaps furnished free If some person will vouch for the honesty of tho ap plicant. Rut a "bond" Is required ns security for goods sent. The offer Is bo attractive that many are Induced to order a lot of the goods to get the premium. The goods are of the cheapest and most trashy kind. The soap, the extracts, the species are all of an Inferior quality often adulter ated and unwholesome. Tho person who orders them realizes that the lot Is worth llttlo. If they aro not sold by the agent, It matters little to the concern sending them out, as the per sons vouching for the honesty of tho "agent" will be Informed that they will be hold for the price of the goods, and to save trouble, the agent will send the money due, and make the best of a bad bargain. It Is a good thing to avoid all propositions that offer much for little. Give Charm to Town, Attractive streets, well paved, good sidewalks, clean appearing buildings, signs arranged well, all go to add a charm to a town. One of tho things thut often gives strangers to a town a bad Impression Is the loose manner In which storekeepers and others tako care of the exterior "f their places. Often not a sign about tho place Is to bo found to designate the character of the business carried on, and this can only bo knobby a peep through the open door. The windows are often arranged in such a way as to glvo little knowledge of the goods handled. During the summer time awnings hanging low over the walks, so tho passer-by must stoop to avoid them, are found In many pluces. Just a little care Is needed to Improve along these lines. An attractive sign docs not cost much and Is a good in vestment for the storekeeper. Clean liness In front of business places makes a good Impression. In fact strangers will seldom enter a store If the outside appearance Indicates slov enliness and carelessness. The up-to-date merchant will always be found with a wcll-cared-for establishment It Is quite often you can tell the busi ness Importance of a man In the com munity by the appearance of his store. Make business ulaces attractive as possible. It may cost you a little money, a little extra labor, but It will pay tn the loug run. Pays to Keep the Town Neat The streets of a town overgrown with weeds never makes a good Im pression on the stranger. Good side walks, well-kept streets In the resi dence and business portions of a place, always spesk well for the hab its of Its residents.