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rho Jhnmn nf Hut mmnaonm ohw kBt Jarpes CreelroaQ-L.,.. 2 i ts r i-r 1 ,n i v- . - i v iJ jfj n ' i ji - - i. . v us ui ........ a na) i bin ii unci imaabed it agalnat Indiapeueabli ii ball ii.ii the graj tof against tba combined power of can i ja ; ' lit I Magnificent! glorioue! v t the came tin- largest ami costliest battleship in the CWi 1: I". pagneut, i-ndof J .IttyM M'T.;lJ!tfTI JK ' JM, . . mid smashed it against Indispensable' ' L I' I cs- "" 'K jj 7J MP We have set our Rnvernment 7, miles from tba F f T? 'W .taraJ ,V ." - MgyC- 90 fs? ontlnent, we have developed un Interna J-1-' y"- ""-) rjSgi " l(y fif '.. i pi'-n-d tioiinl comm. ree amounting i,. it,,,.,, and a half bil """"'l.'J t WKUBmmoP er2& '' .d we uum-t .... being .i .- , J-WK' t.IL 4 P W J -lit pt a nun- and f I hi- m.-jn m-id mitten- t si. swiftly an. i.,,il. 'L. V riVrt -5- jtrjf SF .- .ici.wiiv of irfsKr-. L'"ST . l dSBM natlona that w have to h um our mails to alien ablpa 7 " ' BPff4 EkSc? PE- eel mual depend i Duga for s fcrZ-TntTT.' "V" ' '" y o " ' t "- - & fact nlread) nlne-tentba of Han fun.iKii i y t: - f ; ' trade la In fi lilpa. depi di un gov If . aL ,y 7i ' f?" rL- VaV can m e re b an t America beyond VeneX.. an7Z.ma "noV, .V, 'eM Ind.ea .hipping In the foreign trad., roae from 11SJIM Ameneao .team.htp goe. to ltr.HI. ArgenUna. Cblll or ' , r"nr,'1 ,h,'"n. r,7fi;7".lon' n"f"r" lhe "" ." r'n , ' '7f Peru I I preaalva mm of protection i.f hipi araa adopted .miy i. per l,m UI The moal ,,,,.,. , ,,, , 0l ,r:,,.K from nnv of I h(" "'-00ft-000 f?tSf2 ,"""'r'" l'"1,!? "SS 'LjTSnt the great Atlantic porta "i the I'nlted Mtata ti sn ! F " y'"r within th- (rear foreign hi.ips had Doen ftimosi u Annua In by nv of Kurnni Inv Ivlr "in" " '" ' T A I Who ran think pel led frnm Ami'rlran International commerce ,n , rBWaAa f t. American I'w rvwh, r.v nnrvwhi r, il,.. fan..- of the American 'i'.,' , S'-'V,i ' Wig" Jm"'mm -hip and the American merchant waa apread The Am rr.ii.-d St.... and v, r , , , -g g g . J ., pen.lei.ee and the lean flag waa curried to the remote! pnrtx of tie- artl.. nat I.. 1... it,.. i . Nil . . . II cm fiirc Muni M II It ' f 1 1 :i II " r t ' Ii I II l 1 1 . 1 1 ' anaoiuteur no WTT; L . . .,. .,, ai... the armed atmggle between France T.. wa.V.-eo, ....... "':,n "'"-. 7I-a,w ..""3PB. -r.'TTfr-eea. that atruKKle Rrltaln which opened the nineteenth century broug !'-,'".' a , . . a i' i ..i i . I i , , . i , ' aai.'-.. .-c. KI4 a v. soli I li rJ : ad llri.un uh.l, r r- TSt YALC t x fruu I f, (AY Iterr.u " " W SPtniiH 3 s, iirn Ma .. AI flral ih.- eontl ..... i I ii Icon and I na :, .. . ' i V Incren ed fr.-ii-ht eharees j ktl i tiie oi our ii..,,. in n There ih a brave. MoaMfoua and I aV H f- Th. n the American romantic advomure? Ki'. ad.' 'oarage. . ny undei keen enterprlae and ihrewd atibatnn- . - -' . . . - -w . . - lr.ed citizen H..I aee.,ii.,,liKhmeiit than the Mnrv of --..- -rZ "" I - '"W .'" - llrlton Hit the ...i.v niatelile,,,, xhipH and Keamen -jiZw-' - ""-J-' ' -" ---'.r -.--ZT.- . II e.n.m Am. Tie rui.. ' ' : ' ' ' " 1 I to, lav KHOOHLaND-Lvsr TO rlMLHIClr, TlSa , h.-mt 1 1, in to know wi.ui I'l Bcnngna toriea ol pride ol lead In war. ma ! compete with Qerman French aubaldloa of ft of 121,817 a voyage a voyage In th.ee years the regularly c roaming tba alx Alan for the ..ant nr the most distal merchant Meet ery arid ba. ki lt is almoa being built for and die. n few the American uierce Our hearts beat high when we think of our noMf n.i. i. oi uBiuennipi . cneer as tin- mighty I'tali launched We watch with a growing thrill of pride the digging of the Panama emml We are a great nation now We sit In the world council of the great powers W nr.- the protector of the American republic! We caved the Chltteae empire from deatrUCtlon. We brought Our foreign trade has ex bllllona of dollara annually tgn. M per cent of our coin with other cnuntri.' wan carried on by American I" pat cent of our imports and gone No more American vessels are ih. foreign trad., and, aa ahlpa wear out y.ars under present conditions will pee ti.-.g disappear from International com pence to panded t Hut I men e rhlps. and today only exports ia borne under the American (lag Mora than C:i per cent of llrltlsh foreign trade II carried In Britlah ablpa We have si.ent I undrada of millions of dollara to hull.! a great navy, We have added an empire to our national territory and hoisted our ling In the Philippines Hawaii, Porto Rico and the Panama canal zone vet nine tenths of all our foreign commerce is under foreign flags, and It Is eetlmatod that American shippers pay 1200,000,000 annually In ocean freight rales and fares to our rhals In American trade Not a new American ship being built r..r thnt trade, the remaining few are rapidly wearing out and our Hag being hauled dnn on some of these Hut beyond the dwindling of the American ship build Ing trad(., beyond the surrender of S20ft,oo0,no0 In freight charges to our foreign rivals; beyond even an honest and Whottaome prlda In OUf flag at sea; beyond tbe mortifying lack of an ocean mall service possessed by other nationa there nr.. .-un (rarer conaequencei to th.- disappearance of tba American ship from inter national trade We send forth imd uncivilised wi Thnt fleet Is powc cent, of the eoal struggle for mericnn merchant . s of blood run fa that no foreign yacht can queen's eup from American hip; but what is that to the once continuous ..nr merchantmen throughout tha world, t. American ships that could outsail all rl sen trade and. when turned Into mean the American Rag a t.-rror in nil waters armea American merchant stilus thai two tsrnieo sen commerce In th pendeliie ll u..s armed American merchant ships that hi ibi pride of England iii the war r ISIS In Hi" beginning It wns only nnturnl thnt cl Amerlcai should become ship builders and sailors COlontatl let on the shores of the Atlantic, with age, trackless Continent behind them and before the greal ocean, beyond which Iny the elvllliatla market! of Europe, were, out of the rem nai lawn to the seu. Pad forests of the finest timber growing Ige of the wilt water nnd they were an I practical people A year after the P t llillgs. The) to the getlc n sea rolonlati settled at lalem and Boaton tba armed in snip up. m aeeechi In 171 i the Dabini 1769 the c i ira- :ude .Med 1 1 zed The snr- ' tern and a of ! . wn i nor inn .liny. I of n cr rid t rleea sent at licet to BbOW both the olrllbted lie immensity of our armed power WltbOUl coal Vet all but 13 per to keep our battlaahlna nine Is tarried In foreign merchant ships It Is n matter of record thnt the small army provided by the I'nlted States fcr the lust Intervention In Cuba wns taken there In foreign ships, under foreign lings. ran American war material sent recently to tbo Philippines was carried In Japanese ships under the Japanese flag; and that, too, while there was widesprend newspaper talk of a possible war between the i'nlted ItStea nnd Japan It was Washington who declared thai "to an active, external OOfflmcrce tie protection of a naval force Ii ing of the Hay. the llrsl deep . Its, wns built at Medford New England had at least a thousand la : . mile Commerce with Europe grew iionists built ,'isn vaaaela, with a total torn aggregating :'o,ooo tons And there were shipyard New Hampshire. Massachusetts. Ithode Island. Cum cut, New York, New Jersey. Pennsylvania, Mary; Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and C The Hiilish shipyards could not compete with lea. The Mrltisli forests were largely depleted. Wbl American I had n glorious supply of white oak. II vi white pine yellow pine and nil the materials, save fastenings, necessary for the construction of ships. Ing right at the margin of the ocean English shipwrights swarmed across to the colnnlea. in ITL'1 the shipbuilders of the Thames uttered a public outcry against the departure of their most skilled work men to America. The mother country steadily worked to bleak tbe American shipbuilding Industry Llut all In vain At the time of the revolution tbe tonnage of Ameri can ships nus 398,00" tons, almost a third of the entire llrltlsh tonnage and American trndo with tbe lltitlsh In In ago In ctl- tndi rgia. oak, etal row- lion Hint we hnvo sunk to such nn Insignificant rank on salt water today'' The colonies lot loose their seamen upon the com merce of their naughty enemy. Their merchant ships had long carried cannon and gunners righting was a part of commercial seamanship in those piratical days In 1 7s 1 the thirty . misers of the continental nnvy had dwindled down to nine while the American privateers amounted to 44l. with S,?8S guns, nil manned bf mer chant sailors and directed by private owners These armed merchant ships not only scoured the sens In all directions, sweeping llrltlsh commerce away, hut they even hung on the Ornish r. ast and captured the very linen vessels The linen Beel passing between in land ami England imd to be, for the lirst time, con voyed by men-of-war. So gallantly did the American privateers outwit or outrun the king's cruisers and prey .n the king's com merce thnt before lhe end of the war iliey had captured or destroyed something like 112,000,000 worth of Britlah property, to sny nothing of the ternlic loss occasioned by the general Interruption of llrliish commerce. And it Is not dtfllctlll to understand! nslde from all other things, thnt tba merchant ships built of American trees. In American shipyards and manned by American sailors, made the purse sensitive llrltlsh nil the more eager to abandon the struggle with America. What could the I'nlted States do to-day. under slml- inr circumstances, with practically no deep sea merchant marine and With a steam navy thut has to depend for any unusual effort upon foreign ships and foreign crews to secure an adequate coal supply? It is not u fact Hint the American members of The llngue InteruUonal conference continue to plead with oilier great nations to respect goods carried In neutral ships during war? And why? becuuse only hi per cent of American International commerce goes under the American flgg and We must depend upon the tings of Other nation to protect lhe other !0 per cent. In 179-1 the tariff weapon was used to protect Ameri can ships, When congress abandoned the 10 per cent, reduction In duties on cargoes carried in American ships nnd. Instead, added 10 per cent, to the dutleB on mer chandise Imported In foreign ships. American shipbuilding nud ocean commerce grew by between ItreSt bv a decree .( all nen paying iiritish Prance and ureal hi tan slopping. Just as American Decatur and Rogers smashed rbarous coreetr power r the r of Morocco nnd the bey of leaving the waters of the MeaV sen safe for American ships between Nape Itritnln compelled the of Enrol. can ships to the n llag The carrying trade of was in American hands ugnr trade wns ookadt of the II indies The ur ships at sea lors Into their th.- claim that n natural ,f llrltlsh birth was still a I and 1S07 there wero s serving unwillingly navy. American iner re confiscated on nil sorts oi .i. -texts. They were stopped and searched by Iiritish naval 0OBV i .. i Lmartcac waters ureal Hrltaln in lHOfi ,1. elated it MoetsadS of the European const n,i ii,.. ri,-..r i-'llie Napoleon answered MonkadlM the coasts of Bnglaad, Ireland. Scotland and Wales Later on he ordered the confiscation trnl ships accepting Iiritish protectlo duties These were pnrolyzlng blows to American shipping. President Jefferson answered the wholesale seizure of our ships and sailors by persuading congress to forbid Ameri can vessels to engage in foreign trndc. In 181". when the United States nt last responded to Iiritish outrages on our shipping by declaring war. tbe policy of Jefferson had allowed the American navy to shrink to IS vessels carrying SM guns. This small force captured 154 llritisli ships rained with their cargoes at $6,g00,000, Hut the debt which America owes to her merchant ma rine In that second war for independence can he partly estimated by the fact thai the armed American privateers numbered '.17 With L'.S'.Ht guns, and captured 1,100 of the enemy's ships nnd cargoes, valued at $:i9.O00,0u0. In spile of the vexations efforts of (ireat Britain to in jure our maritime interests. American shipping contin ued to increase. It was not only the mngulllcent packet ships of the North Atlantic and the wonderful clipper ships of n later day that gave renown to the American shipyard aid sailor, but tbe swiftness of American ships nnd the courage and initiative uf their merchant nwncra In every sen even In the rich Asiatic trade--gave such an impetus to American Hen enterprise thnt In 18C1 our shipping tonnage nimost exactly equaled the whole ton nage of (ireat Hrltnln To-day our entire tonnage, Including our coastwise trade, from which nil foreign ships are excluded, Is only one I bird of tho Hrltisli tonnage, although our foreign trade has Increased frr.m E01,1(4,276 in 1861 to J3,,'!lu. 171,601 In 1907. Our foreign trade has Incrensed to more than six times its size In 1801, while our ships in for eign trndo bavo shrunk from 2.49t,S'.i4 tons to 940.080 tons. American shipowners to-dny frankly neknowiedgo that it is the high price of American labor, both in construc tion and operation of ships that has driven and Is still driving our ling from foreign trade. M 4 A.