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;.-:;s zzzzszs& I Al i rlcgn limit l bulbil ' h people mi Holland skating along the 1 ' mrsi bo utonl ibid II he km w the Iroi i um pirt the canal ami i analls. d rlv rH. play in the Suropean natloni 'minis, as the; were originally roa traded, cannot compete with rail muds, but ns the latter nave spread over th- land, tin waterway bare been altered to mi el the new condl Don- Their chb i mlai Inn In Ihi ie days li to ( (inner- the center of pop. ulatlon ami Industry with the eoa ti to make them seaports and thla ban been accomplished to an extent thai I . ourptising to th uninformed "he preaaure ol International com petition I; raalnl) responsible for the trial development Every manufac Curing country, dlstrlcl or city, if li Is to prosper, mull be able in meet this competition and lo aaaemble materials as cheaply cf poasiMo from all j;in of the world, nnd be provided with facilities foi placing lis goods cheaply and readily upon the i hlef domestic and foreign markets The countrlei ol the conttnont, recognising this nave adopted the policy of prodding with "" (U i 1 il ! , , 1( T II'' l I contrary, with th- ( i C)l Mil iif um. ( snsls In geotland in 1r isb government i- considering the viaabtlD (if hanaina it nnli stance has spent the moat en canal navigation iier, extensive plana fur waterway development, adopted in 1V7'( provided for a svstcin by which the ' "terwnyi abould be nil connect Sd wltl) "'fli other, and with the chief cent. rs of population and Industry Tnej are mainly owi or controlled by the State, but when In 1 103 a law was passed providing for the construc tion (if m v. waterways. It lnitliri Uu Uei ne0 lary parties or local!- It advance at least half of the total cost. The Interests making this contribution are permitted to recoup themselves (yon toils or duos, nnd from a monopoly of providing townee or traction Three canals, one from Cette to the Rhone, one from Mar elites to tin- Rhone, nnd one from the coal fields to the Olse river the Canal du Nord are now- being con- tructed under these conditions The most Important of the oommer dai waterways or Franoe is the Seine river and there Is an Immense i raffle Upon It between Havre and Itoiien nnd Paris At large expense It has been eanallxed and provided with locks and lateral canals, while nlher cannis con neel the river through its tributaries with the Loirs, Mi,- Rhone, the Rhino. the Meuas and tin- Bcbeldt. Another elaborate system ot main nnd later al canals thai carries a vast tonnage to Paris connects tie- capital with Dunkirk and Grav. lines, and between Paris and the Belgian and Gorman frontiers th.-re is a perfect network of waterways The western and south ern parts of the country an- nearly rs well provided With canals The t'anal iu Midi, which tunning from Ilor CaaUl to CettS, connects the Hay of Weeny with the Mediterranean, en able tiie former city to supply the whole of southern France with the products of foreign lands, and of the French colonies which It Imports. In connection with this Canal du Midi, the French government has long under consideration a most interesting nnd Important project nothing less than to convert the waterway into n ship canal by which sea going vessels nnd the Wafablng of Franco could pass from the Atlantic to tho Medi terranean without being exposed to the violent storms of the peulnstilar -oaat and without passing through the Straits of Gibraltar. Tho peoplo of Franco never lose sight of tho possi bility of war with Oreat Ilrltaln. and this ship canal plan appeals to tbom especially because It would relieve their navy from the necessity of I ! I mi J e Ej steaming under the tbouaand guns thai arm King Qeorge'a troatandoui fnrtroai (in the rock So the projeet eemi almost equally Important from a commercial and a military view, and doulitletl Will bo carried Out Mtogother, France baa m arly 3,040 miles of canals nod WOO miles of nav I Ifable rivers, and in the Inst It years i the rate ol Increase hh regards ton 1 nagi ami Km mileage hm been more 1 rapid on the waterways than on He posset iu'i cimimerclal waterwayi (if tie' li: ti magnitude The librae i navtgflbli for imall river steamboat agannr iM nwt1 wfiHTi an far us Basel, tost across the Swiss frontier, and small sea-going steam ers asn-nd It as far ns MaBUbctm This mighty river baa been unproved by the Germans at a cost of mere than I IX, 600,000, nnd lis waters bear an Im mense trnftlc iu coal, Iron ore, Iron ami steel manufactures nnd other heavy freight The Rhine valley, dotted with picturesque ruined rastloa nnd saturated with legend ami ro mance, is also on-- of the busiest dis tricts In all Kiiropr, for it Is densely populated and contains numerous Im portant Industrial cities Canals con nect the lthlno with the Mouse, Saone, Seine, Danube and Kins rivers Tho Rhine-Rhone canal follows the course of the river from Strassburg almost to Havl. and Is generally used Instead of the river. The Elbe Is second only to the Rhine in commercial Importance it Is navigable throughout Its whole course in Germany and along it lie some of th" chief sliver and coal mines salt field:', sheep pasture:, and beet root areas In the empire More over. It links Berlin, the capital. With Hamburg, th- chl f port, by the can all Of thl Havel and Spree river lyitomg, Tho Wcser, the Oder, the Vistula nnd Other rivers lire of great Impor- tanci as commercial highways ,-md go to make up Germany's grand total of nearly 6,000 miles of navigable riv ers, of which nbout 1,400 miles arc canal land, Oermnny's cnnnls nre many, ihelr total mileage being something like 1,600, and large sums are spent on their Improvement. The mo t Import ant Internationally Is the great North Sea and Baltic ship canal, which tra verses Schleswlg llolsteln, saving two days' time by steamer between Ham burg and all thl Italtlo ports of Ger many This canal was begun In 1H87 and was opened to traffic In 1805, and Is a source of much prldo to Emperor Wllllnm Tho I.ud wigs canal In Ilava ria united tho Danube with the Main, thus supplying a continuous water way from tho North sea to tho Illack sea. The 1'lauon canal connects the Elbo with the Havol, and thero are systems connecting the Odor with the Elbe and the Memel with the Pregel. r Hi COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE CANALvf - III .Hi ! W'll "IT"-- '' A waterway expert has said that tl are too ninny .small craft on the Ger man cnnnls to keep tha cost of trans portation down as low as it might be, but the government's charges for lock rfi-r ha. built , cunals ami 4 bar, Thoi ! po nation ( I Hoth the ) , r i nnvlgalil.. i length in I . A. .... I trlbuUrtei , ) ,, , nf How Vegetarianism Hurts Us By M. A. LANE, SC. B., (Former Research Fellow In Physiology, University of Illinois.) I Sometime! despair for the future of the human race when I 000 Mini poor man or poor woman trying to w o r r y a i n g through an ail-too-limited and nut over Joyous Ufi on a diet that Is tit only for guinea pigs, rabbits mi l klne. I have no (pinr rei with tho vege tarian or wltl: tils "principles;" in fact. I don't know and have ncn r been able to fin I out lull what bli principles arc Hut I'm sorry for him. I once knew a young man who was trying to do the very hardest kind of work the mixed kind, which is physical and mental, too on a diet that B healthy rabbi I would hesitate about adopting unleil guaranteed that tho quantity would be absolutely unlimited. This young man would make a broakfnst of n hit of bread, a small plate of boiled rice, and a glass of water; be would luncheon on a small quantity of butter-beans, or some other equally Insubstantial airy nothing, and then ho would top off tho day with a piece of cake and a cup of ton -always weak tea, too. Occasionally ho would go on what might bo called a veritable "feed Ing bat," and would wildly i dissipate on two bananas for breakfast, boiled rice with green com and an apple for luncheon, and a ,.4fr ' 1 I an -01 n FTV At 5 Wir.m il" mail sagggrr-kj'-jl- Xmm,: if'V MiiJIfl . --.lMK13m1V.Bm risjrf .- ', . re small so that rates are very lable and the total of heavy iraf- huge ough i loss and effective study tntlon, lieluluiu mi nn excellent system of canalised rivers, -jh in num- I are Used partly for trans and partly for Irrigation M ii l and the Sch-h.lt nre throughout their entire lelglum, and many of their have bees canalized in ad- natural advantages, canal systems that unite tad Louvain with the Rupel, with Charlerol ami Mom ' with CondO, Than, lOO, there nre two ! line ship ranis which by unit lug (ilu-nt and BrugM with the sea coast have restored to (hose cities much of their old tlni" commercial Importance Mention of Holland Instantly ere- "lentil cutlet.' with two bnnanas for dinner! And after this desperate plunge Into the Hush pots of Egypt ho would always feel as guilty as If he had Just robbed a safe nnd could hear tho police coming to take him In. You couldn't persuado that young man that be was slowly but certainly killing himself. Had you stood him up before all the physiologists of th world, to he assured by them not only on their reputntlon us men of science, but 00 their decencji and honor as men, that that sort of n diet was naver 'Intended," by any scheme of nature or I any de'.ty Imaginable, for tho human machinery of digestion, he would prob ably have come out of tho seance w ith la vague Idea that somehow or other ! they were Just trying to too' him for some hidden and vicious purpose of their own. It would he a good thing If nil men and all women were early in their youth put through n course Of study--1 magn actual study, from KhO thing ami not from tho book, which is worse I linn useless, not even being usi.ass on tho vast differences between tho digestive apparatus of tho plant-eating animal nnd that of the meat-eating, or omnivorous, animal, such as man. Tho young vegetarian mentioned abovo was very brave; ns bravo as anybody could bo In such circum stances and on bucIi a diet, but he would often look with longing eyes on tho steaks nnd chops hiB companions consumed at tnhle, while ho himself was sturdily punishing himself with rico and other wholly unsavory dishes. Also ho was rather dim of eye and not specially active on bli feet or at Bruaaeli i liruss'-ls a i j 1 1 i i ( 1 picture of canals, am! in deed thai little land of dykes and ditches Is complete!;-- cut Up into mall lalandi by IU extensive system of waterways. They cross and Intel lace ime another like tha threads of some large fishing not The North Holland oim.il was considered, until recently, to be the Boast of the kind In Europe Tha southern part of tho ' country Is especially favored by Bl I ture. for the Rhino, entering Hull, in.; 1 dhhbs up into numerous arms, the 1 chief of which are the Waal, tho I.ek , and tha Taaol, Tha Hauaa Joins th. Waal thus mingling Its waters with 1 thus, of trie lthlno, and all of these ! rivers carry an immense traffic Four j fifth- of the river trade of Holland Is ' carried on thl lthlno and the Waal The Scheldt has Its estuary mainly In Holland and carries ocean vessels to Antwerp Ids w ork. And nit bough he might not have minified It were ho charged with It. I know he was afflicted with a dis order of the digestive apparatus thnt ilwayi aooomnaaiaa vegetarianism Ho was, in fine, the victim of a prejudice that left him unequal to the work he was compelled to do, nnd w hich ho was doing at the expense of his health, happiness and success In the world In which he moved. GpOB what grounds does the prac tlce nf vegetarianism rest Its claims? The answer Is. on no ground! whnt soever, unless It bo those of the man who lias an "Idea" that If ho looks over his left shoulder at tho moon, or K-es a hlnck eat on the thirteenth day of the month, he Is dead sure to have bad luck. And yet It is only when It Is ridden to deatli ns a hobby that vegetarianism can be charged with Innnltv. When It Is practiced occasionally and for n li in Ited time, and at Irregular Intervals, It In , nines tha useful servant of scien tific Intelligence. There Is a "soul of truth" In vegetarianism, as thoro also tuny be, bo far as you or I know to tho contrary, In the belief thut If you see a black tabby on Friday tho thir teenth, you will lose regularly at poker for some considerable time thereafter. This soul of truth takes us bnckward n bit In the natural history of man. Tho primitive ancestors of Euro pean races, like tho Bavagc racos of the present time, were naturally fitted for. and thercforo "needed," a certain amount of irregularity in their feed ing. Sometimes game would be plenty, and sometimes It would be Bcarcc. When it was scarce, or not to be had nt all, those primitive ancestors of ours wore necessarily limited to a starvation diet. They were very hungry, and their hunger made them keen on sootr AAV Owing to the level condition ot the country, the construction of n canal In Hollaed Involves but comparatively little la! or and expense Many of tho canals are used constantly as substi tutes for public highway!, and in tho winter their froen suffices offer con venient roads (or thu skaters who throng them on tlielr way to and from market and ahOUl th'-lr various occu pations So complete Is the canal system thai by minus of It a resident or Rotterdam could breakfast at Delft or The Hague, dine at LoydcU and sup nt Amsterdam, or return to his home before nightfall, Since not only the surface but the lulls of many of Holland's canals are iboVI the level of land, tha drainage Is of the greatest Importance. This is effected by manna of pumps worked by the windmills that are lUCfa a characteristic feature of the Dutch landscape The banks of the canals are maintained by th. fam ilies that live along them, each being aaalgnad I portion to keep in repair. Emory I!. Johnson, professor of transportation and commerce In the Dnlvaralty of Pennsylvania, who re. Oantly made a study of European wn- tirway i, as the anaclal reprmntativi of ihe National River nnd Harbor con gress, calls attention to the way In which Germany, Ernnce. Holland nnd Belgium have oo-oparatad in estab llsbtng standard dtmon loni for th-tr Canal I and b argon, nnd connecting their systems. In thin manner the through shipment of mternatlorta t raffle has been facilitated "Another feature of the waterway policy of these European countries." iu- says, "is that care s taken to provide wa terway! with adequate terminal and harbor fBCllltiei, and to make such physical connections between rail roads and waterways nt all Inland hafbori ns lo gunranlee the easy and economical transier nf traffic from cars to boa's and water to rails li I t realised that terminal facilities and rail connections nre as essenllal a part of the projects for making waterways useful ns nre reliable channel., of ade quate width nnd depth The Rhino river, for Instance, has 02 harbors equipped aa fully as commercial needs require, with storage and transfer fa cilities At 41 of these terminals the direct transfer of goods from trains ' to bouts and river to rail Is possible, i Many of the harbors Include large basins, some of which are used for ! the transfer and storage of commodl i ties, while others nro constructed to ! enable big Industrial plants to locato on Watir frontage Each city con ' strm ts Is own hnrbor with but llitle, I If any, nld from the state, the asponaa being borne by the city, aided In sumo ! Instances by private Interests." the hunt, active, bright eyed, alert, vig orous and pushing. Then, Wttii a successful kill, there would naturally bo a little gorging of meat, EolioWSd by a long and lazy rest. Now, while we, their descendants, aro not quite as savage or quite as Im provident as were our primitive fore- 1 fathers of the jungle or the prairies. and while It Is true that we aro not distressed with alternate scarcity and redundancies of food, Wl Inherit tho stomncbs nnd the general digestive ma chinery of those active old fat hers of ours, and I reasonable degree of alter nate gorging and starving Is good for us. Unfortunately, however, most of us have to attend to business year In and year out, ami wo cannot lie Idle around the woods digesting off our gorges, win reus fasting Is not to be thought of by persons who work nt occupations very different from hunt lug. But we can do this; Wl can cut down, or cut out, our meat diet at Ir regular nnd fairly frequent Intervals; go without meat altogether for a wcel or so; be vegetarians, not rogulnrlj but quite irregularly, for short lengths of time. And then when we give tnaai Its Inning, wo will be better pre pared to npi-rcciato it, and to extract, from it thu health and happiness we need. The vegetarian is thercforo here with supplied with a "scientific princi ple" As sound and as negotiable as a golden eagle. But If ho adopts it hi will have to cut hlmiclf in two. (Copyright. 1911. by the Columbia Trees IrrnfHtiti ) Adamant "There are a lot of girls who dont ever Intend to get married." "How do you know?" "I've proposed to several."