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i , ... - I.-IJPL.. - t . ..... . . .. , " " .' ' '':'-':---HMi i ' 'f" '' ': - - " V f ' y ' ' :' . v ' ' - . - - J mrnafm i'ii 1 1 li ii i Miii r gurni t VOLUME I. MEMPHIS, MISSOURI, - THURSDAY FEBRUARY 19, 1891. NUMBER f 4 LEGISLATION. F-lAVES A NATION MORE 1 CHATTEL SLAVERY. X- e ' - Hiem,ti c Are to Klaiue for - t '.!-. llllon lli" Should (ry:uile . l"i 'ect Their l.llterlirH Ttiey Can Thny Will. ;.i ., ar' the- laws that .our state .1 i. . ,al legislatures have been mak-.- ,,-! last quarter of a century in . .. . ts of a iiiiiiiii'il class to en w and to rob the many. Class ' . : ve a nation more entirely ami than ran the manacles of very. In proof of this, wit- has lieen done in America -.,,-, , e past quarter of a century. ,,i has been done in America has b in every other nation on the re the laws have been made d to enrich the few and rob : '. e the many. e exception clause was placed ,-, . k of the first legal tender . money, the first deft arrow . : by the nuniev mongers who r , . . meriean congress, at the heart j public. Then men in high in to gamble in money as do i -.: ;ards or dice at the gamming : w, ot-gat saloons. w little did tiie masses know of national sames. wherein this money was on the boards . . sin to be the winners; and the ;; ise sweat and toil were certain . forfeits, must be the losers! . ho heart stone of our great na- . . - bereaved: when hearts were i : mourning for loving and be- s last during the war. then it - irtftil. crafty, designing men .. . . . ortins from England her class , adopting them into the con- - laws of America. Then it v he class laws wore: engrafted i. . . -gislative jurisprudence, which ible eoneentraU'd capital to . i hold unorganized, uneducated .. : h the same relentless grasp !:,- cs the Citicen of Krigland or f Russia to demand and ob :..: te money of their subjects. ; r ease, the law is supremo. ' st obey the laws as long as llowed to remain laws. Cut. titry, if tho voters will it so, ti:' ' lay be in accordance with the V , ie majority. The power to . . . nniake the laws is direct in ! i: ... of the people. tic governments, where rulers . ' rthright. where tyrants have . :. ! aws, and standing armies hold ; in subjection, there i? no le masses except through open r;- nd revolution. 1'nder Ues- ' . s of govi'i nmcnt, the masses a. -ated and unorganized. They vast standing armies trained. l- equipped iii the artitices and s; ties of war. who are hired by l' wer to shoot down the masses ; ; htest suggestion of disobedi- oppressive laws which they . -e ;;i making. Their nation ; ! a despot. They inut obey tb: o matter how arbitrary or ir eoiiiitry, where the laws i- expressed wish of the major ity -s, it s'loiild be ditlci'etit. The p. ave the i;iaking of the laws . ate to decide either the hap t . - ie misery of so many millions h w icings liave eiiti -listed with : : it grave responsibility. No -timate the magnitude of its j - ;l goodoreil. It is as high as t !; ', s: as broad as the universe; :V- , ... as time. r- . has the shadow of an excu.-e thoroughly informing him . s !," rdiiig the statute and c: - ial laws for which ." -is individually responsible, ..... ! involves either the happiness f every American citizen. A - sion is a great as a sin of - . i -. i. i. Omitting to repeal the ru in of class laws under which ur . is so hopehssly enslaved, mid -m with just laws for the equal :-. '. the people, is as great acriuie lactmg of the laws which en i - nation. . i l who, through an infamou: ' .-- . class laws, have separated our y. prosperous, contented peo- .; great nation of lords and serfs ,v; t irniug the homes into vast in : ates; who are granting all tin : ?ted in the government to , rporations: who are flooding i. . y with men out of employ r-: r.: i are constantly enlarging and i! .. . - our almshouses and pemten ' ,i ' told our jioor and criminals: .. ' i i" of salaried oilicers to lifdd tin "t i ; :.- ; subjection: with trained mili t .i : iress acts of violence from lab- - pic; with I'inkertoii thugs f. .. arporations to shoot inoffen si' ' women and children at the : uspicion of revolt the men v. . '. loratoU the class laws into our :;:. : . .-ongressional laws, to bring ir r :. e results, are no more to bi ;.! ; in the voters w ho stand care- i, - . . ooking on and seeing it done, : . ', -. ;ever raise a tongue, a pen or a vt.re b. ighteous indignation and re '1' : '; iot is in tire bauds of the ma! in.r i of America who liav; at- t iv.e eir mayiritv in years, and. if i i . w, the laws might be the ex i-r . ish of the majority of her citi- 'i - .e they not? '.' 'i -, c millionaires springing up all uv ; i: country like niushroons in a $;:''. ... ht of deeds of darkness? S';h ' e pittiless. soul loss corporations r,f ':',. '.i.-.i to thus tiiauaele the hands of -t c.re the homes of tin; tillers of I- joiug so fa-it under mortgage 'iie abandonment of children to Vi ; i Parities and corrections; why the i -f )-- . ! of the husband, through tin: v. nc "-e, places in the almshouses and r.'i -i.'- '..aries? S-ii: iv because men are not in earnest. 1'i'-v u j not think. They do not real i --.;;-.-:i'- responsibilities. They do not s-e vc e.ein lies their only trueremedy Ti-e." s governed by party prejudice. Tie-; --re led, like bullocks to the slaugiit' r, by party politicians. They a:e S"ii:.ig, not only the birthright of ihe'n-".es. but of their wives, their -S-iMi :!:. and of future generations. u will the work of education When shall organization begin to jjiin in grand array, in long columns of ran'.-' atei file, the honest, steady yeoman ry of f;- r great nation; armed with the lashi.'ig icinseters of divine intelligence, and with the noiseless artillery of an in-.(.-;..- :it. hallot. demand an uncondi tional s-irrender of the tyrannous class jav,-n ih, t have so ruthlessly usurped their rSuhts; consumed their products f nd laM in waste their Iiomes, their lives sne ihei.- sacred liberties? W'h'ju shall the work of organization I , -(.'in? 4.nnic D. Wearer in Poincrny's sia, uiw Thowjht- A PERSONAL QUESTION. li, what dead soldier's pocket on the IvutU- field was ever found a golden coin? 1'oint him out to us and we will point out to yon one single human being who Kves by labor who has been bene fited either directly or indirectly by the system of United States bonds. Where ii ike oidier's widow who holds in her Sjt'':.n ft golden souvenir from the pockets of him she loved and who fell on the battle field? Not one. instead, they are all thrust down deep into the sofos of the u-urers, while she was com pelled to go out washing to help pay in terest ou the untaxed bonds to help save a shelter over the heads of herself and the dead soldier's orphaned children. --An i ic I'. II 'en nr. TllOSK VILE COMHINKS. 'I think" says one. the runners "nave The hardest low to line. ".Mont y is scarce" 'tis all arranged Hy tliose combines vou know (.Hiai-k mi' Hcincs are now applieti To keep the Jieople still. Therefore. John Sli'-rman pl.t ou UIo His anti-combine hill . The ami-trust bill -all jiretetise. Now what do they j i'p.i.-e. A prisourell for the olleiise '. A suit of striped clothes! All this is sham, a llimsy hoax, 'Tis cute misoliievous stuff. A balm for leeble minde.l folks Their votes are ijood enoutrh. Still they everylndy tieece And mammoth pot-hots nil. Those vde combine daily increase. Oil! where is SShenn.io's bill : They say these thill" are uuite uufairj Vet fail to prosecute. Causing better men to wear The combination suit. Tim money trust, no calls t meet. Their foe they called Inflation. Lo, Windom hastened to Wall Street In search of inform at ion: The constitution now dolled Though pl'iin as a. b. c. Those inoiiy fcanibh-rs maV decid In this land of the tree. There is no money trust says oiw With a derisive grin: There i Indeed : so full of t,iveJ 'Tis a tremendous sin. I'u'.Ui-ky day. for our dear land When Haz.ard crossed the ooe.in. To belt) the treacherous. -hidd-u land" Heal out this bitter potijn. This faction sang a siren song While their poor victims deep. They aroused ! they see the wronif. While many wake to weep. The castle s built -the corner stona In Washington was laid. This Uctopus will swallow us I'nless we check its raid. The most Important, is the tool That shapes the legislation : For they must use their wits to fool. The sovereigns, of the nation They have a patent prtM-ess now, Charles Uudly did contrive With lots of cash, they pay this tras Arranged iu blocks of live." We have, and hnvt had now and then Statesmen, wise and true. Al:'.s ! we've had too few of tht-in. To fight the private crew. Yet still they strive with means most fair For fireside and nation. And for this they hear the hiss (.'rank '. free trade! inflation! There are problems now on hand, And many names they bear. The finance", and Cod gives laud; Kai h one should have a share And all communities should have A fair lepresentatiou. Thf t"in states-now please arise And give an explanation. This problem is no trifling thing. Xauiely: transportation: This great combine now falls in line With present legislation. Their friends are seated on the throne. There tlie jrreat trouble lies. God given soil for those that toil. Built up their enterprise. To ail the many public foes Cine problem they must solve. Th j.o's on hand a:id many knows It all their wits involve. Demands uiv heard, and how can the: lu thi:i land of the free. St-rvc and make two masters pay. The people and nr un pul . Solve it to your heart's content. And tetter sleep o' nights: Your iiini.'V cra?.v. tv dubious wavs, Will all your comfort blight. li.-mi-liibel . life IS short at best Uii-ltes ate enly lent -La.anis eii.lo.ved a rt-t While Dives, was in torment. -Mi. S'ji'lti I'l'iiiiu'l iu IfitJ-htmlfftf Arrter it Here Is tlie Admission 1 'resident Harrison urges tin passage of a national bankrupt law. This a litre position for the head of th'. government and of the republican party to take. From the day the war closed and the destruction of greenback money began, we have charged from desk, plat form and documents that the republican party, if continued in power long enough, would bankrupt the country. Now comes the president commending this way out for all except bond holders, bullion-baggers, national bankers, professional money lenders and others who have tilled their pockets and hiding places in for eign countries with gold, as interest on their bonds, and are now willing to turn the empty nests over to the geese of hu manity who have laid the golden eggs for thieves to steal. Greenback men: Do you note the de mand of . the president? A national bankrupt law' Let us compel the thieves and fatted favorites to disgorge and there will be no need for such a iaw. National bankruptcy as the fruit of the administrations of republicans and dem ocrats. They have repudiated ail their promises to the people, aud no v propose national bankruptcy. Why not propose to create full legal tender money and the immediate payment of tf"! national debt, and thus the restoring of the healthy business pulse of the country. It is high time the Farmers' alliance was on the way to restore the country to power, greatness and general prosperity. -idrtui ct Thowjht. KANSAS' NEW SENATOR. The Flrat Senat if of the New Civilization H: Able Speech of Acceptance. On being introduced to the legislature which had just elected him. Judge I'effer said: I see before me the representatives of Kansas. You are commissioned to do the people's will, and I 'am here in re sponse to your call simply as one of the people to say that we, the people, have commenced the building of a new, dis tinct and independent political organi zation applause based upon princi ples founded deep as humanity princi ples that are the common heritage of men. Labor is the common lot of mor tals; transportation is one of the necessi ties of the people, while money is the oil which lubricates the machinery o. civil ization. I' pon these fundamental ideas we propose to build the grandest politi cal structure ever erected among men: amf upon these we have formulated a creed. We are opposed to the government issuing money to bank ing corporations. We are opposed to the people's money getting to them freighted down with interest charges. We. believe in the people making their own money. We are opposed to national banking institutions for the reason that they aid combines against the interest of the masses. We believe in the govern ment, which is simply the agent of the people, issuing their money directly to them, without going around Hobin Hood's barn to find them. We believe in equal and just taxation. We are opposed to the taxing of one industry for the sup port of another. We are opposed to high tariff duties upon any article of common use, no matter what. We be lieve that free trade, absolute in many articles, is ofttimes the very best form of protection. We believe in raising reve nue to defray the expenses of the gov ernment, and after that in the adjust ment of duties. Let us get out of the adjustment all the good that we can for our own people, remembering that we are Americans, not Fnglislinieu or Ger mans, or of any other nation. We be bieve in distributing the burdens of tax ation for the benefits of government equally among the people . s far as it is possible. THE MIDDtE CLASS WILL RULE. About three years ago it was written by a distinguished senator that before the davfti of the twentieth century the great middle classes of this country would have disappeared. But I say no, it cannot be so, and if my reason bo given, say that a Just !od iu heaven criesof "Amen," "No, no, senator,' would not permit it. The great middle classes have no thought of disappearing. They are now asserting themselves; they are establishing reeruitiug stations in all parts of the country. Next year. 1S?C, they will marshal the grand army of the people and prepare to take pos session of the government, and by the time that too nineteenth century closes in upon us. these United States of Amer ica will be governed by the people that are in them. Some years ago 1 came to the conclusion that it was desirable that the connection between the "grand old party" and myself should be broken. For years 1 had been a member of that party with all its grand memories, and it was a hard struggle for tno then: and now 1 dislike to speak of it in harsh terms of censure, but ll seems to that that party has gradually departed from Its old principles of ltistico to all. We feel here in Kansas that we must have a change. We need a new party. JUDGES AND JUSTICE. The East Might do Well to lake Lcmiidi from the Katisatf Alliance in a Few lliint'. The election out iu Kansas of a Farm ers' alliince candidate to a judgeship who has no legal education, ami the re port iu connection therewith that the Alliance will send him to the law school of the Ann Arbor university to study law for a year, forms the subject of a good deal of sarcastic comment in the eastern papers, lteyond dispute this result of the enmity to lawyers cherished by the Farmers' alliance is rather un precedented so far as the forms are con cerned, but it is not by any means clear that the cultured east is always so free from the election of judges with little knowledge of law as to be able to point the linger of sarcasm at the untram meled west without danger of a crushing retort. It is quite possible that the alliance people could reply rather forcibly that the election of a capable and impartial citi zen as judge, even though uninstrticted in the law, is quite as likely to produce as good an article of justice as the sys tem in New York, which elects judges not by their legal attainments, but by their willingness to yield assessments of from st.ouo to si 3.000 for the politicians of Tammany to sustain themselves withal. Apart from the comparison of systems there are reasons to doubt whether the east can claim superiority to having judges without legal knowledge". The case of occupants of the bench who were compared to necessity because they knew no law are somewhat numerous, in Pennsylvania cities the courts of the first instance whose jurisdiction includes a population probably equal to that within the district of the Kan sas judge are placed under the guidance of aldormem, wose le gal knowledge is sometimes an equally minrs quantity. In this case Kansas seems to be ahead, for there the course is taken of putting the judgeelect through a year's legal training, while l'eiisylvaiiia aldermen are often left to acquire what legal knowledge they ever attain at the cost of the litigants before their courts. The English system, lrora which our legal ideas are mainly drawn, constitutes many of its colonial governors as judges, with the power of revision? It is re lated that one of the chancellors whose duty it is to review these decisions told a governor without legal training who asked his advice on the discharge of this duty, to "Decide your cases on their merits, but beware of giving your rea sons;" and the chancellor claimed that the advice was justified by the fact that every decision returned by that governor without an extended opinion was sus tained, while of those which tried to ar gue the case the majority were over ruled. Another illustration comes from a famous case in the time of Fred erick the Great, in which that monarch got into a fearful quarrel with his judges because they would not decide a suit be tween a mill owner and some landed proprietors as he thought it ought to be decided. According to all the precedents of law the judges were right and were to be commended for sticking to their decision in the teeth of the royal wrath; but according to natural justice the old king's view of the case was equally cor rect. In the present day we only need refer to the list of meritorious cases thrown out of court, by some purely technical plea, to justify the inquiry w hether justice is only to be obtained by those trained in the technicalities of the law. At all events the Farmers' alliance people need not be stampeded by the discovery that they have elected a judge who has to be sent to a law school. The centers of commerce and finance can furnish plenty of subjects for whom tlie same training would bo eminently salutary. Pittxhury (I'a.) Vlsiiot'h. I'liiln Talk. The Nebraska supremo court sets aside law, and tramples on justice. In the hour of monopoly's peril, this gang of lickspittles called a court, serves its master well. In violation of all fair precedent, this court gives a man whoso election is contested, the power to veto all investigation proceedings. It de cides that before there can be a joint session to consider the contest, Jloyd, whose seat is contested, must, as governor, sign tbe call conven ing the legislature. If ho refuses to sign tlie call, there can lie no session of the legislature, and his election cannot be contested. By what principle of equity is a contestee allowed to prevent investigation pro ceedings? By what precedent is a man on trial allowed to prevent the process of trial? The constitution of Nebraska says that a "governor holds over until his successor is duly elected and quali fied." No man can qualify for governor unless fairly elected. If there is a con test, that contest must be lirst settled, for the result of the contest alone can determine whether or not he had a right to serve as governor. Why ilid the court render such a revolutionary decision? The answer is plain. Nebraska is one of the worst monopoly-ridden states in the west. Heretofore, to hold an ollico in that state, one must be completely al lied with the railroad ring. Suinfm formint. Male and Female Teachers, There is often a great disparity be tween the salaries of male and female teachers in large cities, partly because male teachers are few in number and generally occupy the higher places. Throughout the state, however, male and female teachers are employed on something like equal terms. According to tho report of the superintendent of public Instruction of Pennsylvania, the average salary of female teachers it. $30.31 per month, and the average sal ary of male teachers (one-third in num-hej-) is :('.. sti per month. Philadelphia Ledijer. Knew III Father. Tommy "Did you do much fighting during the war, pat1'' Pa "I did my share of it. Tommy." Tommy "Did you make the enemy run?" Pa "You're right, I did. Tommy?" Tommy "Did they ketch you, pa?" The dally surplus of births over deaths In the United Kingdom is 1,500. POWERFUL POWERS. ADDRESS TO THE NATIONAL ALLIANCE BY ITS PRESIDENT. He I rpn Keroriioi in Alone)', I. and. Transportation ami Volins lie Vull Mot Ilavo the Alliance Made a I'nliticnl 1'nrtv, Hut Would Have un Independent j 1'arty Aluilj liy All Llmr Orjfani.atioiiM. ! Brothers of the National alliance: The industries of a country may be con- i sidered in two departments. Those i that consist principally of manual labia- or that occupation which may be suc cessfully followed with but little system atic thought, ami those which depend for success chiclly ou systematic and continued mental training. It is true that the best aud noblest type of man hood and womanhood consists in a judi cious combination of these qualities. And the mental giant who towers above his follows by his strength of mind, his clearness of logic or tlighls of genius, if he tloes not turn these qualifications to some pract icnl use. is no more V be commended than the stupid-brained, hard-muscled athlete who. though an adept in the sporting ai ls of his class, lias little more sense than the brutes whose strength and agility he emulates. TK- actual worth -A industry or labor may be measured by tin: actual produc tion of the necessaries or com forts of life which it brings forth, or the benefits to mankind which arise from it. A man may think as acutely and act in as skillful and shrewd a manner to rob a safe or a railway train, or to gain tin; advantage of his fellow men in trade or bargain as the honest farmer or mechanic iu their laudabl.e avoctiotis. l!ut while in the one case the whole effort is to get possession of that which rightfully belongs to another, by violence and fraud, the other tends altogether to increase the actual wealth of 1 he world. The one earns, while the other profits by his earnings. The actual producer. I think, is the true worker. And industrial organiza tions properly speaking, are those whose members make it a business, by their own labor and thought, to change the powers and substances of nat ure into that which may be of service and use to men. The merchant on the contrary, while there is labor connecieil with his call ing, depends mostly for his profit and success ou what is called skill in trade, which, while it sometimes refers to using good judgment iu regard to the time and price of his purchases and sales, oftener refers to a faculty or skill of buying at a lower and selling at a higher price than justice wo.ild permit or honesty admit of. But the fact that many of our people are engaged in occupations that are in themselves mixed with evil, does hot render those engaged in them necessar ily worse than other men, nor remove them from claims to our consideration. But it does, and should render them inel igible to membership in distinctively la bor organizations. The man who earns enough bread for himself and family by the sweat of his brow, and in addition earns the big profits of the successful merchant, the usurious interest, for the prosperous banker, the exorbitant rates for the railroad company and the sur plus of taxes to he squandered l,y the corrupt officeholder and politician, has some interests that are not shared by any of these recipients of his earnings and which can only lie sustained by such combination of strength as can only he obtained by systematic organizations of those whose interests are identical. It would naturally follow from these considerations that each separate branch of indusly should have its separate or ganization. The blacksmith has pecu liar interests in relation to raw material, tools. etc. which are different from thecar penter, and both of these from the shoe maker, and so wiih aU the different trades aud occupations. And all others differ from the farmer in this, that w hile people may for a time go 1 arefooted or without shelter, the products of the farm are absolutely necessary every day, and all the time for the very existence of every member of a civilized community. But while trades unions and Knights of Labor assemblies are necessary in the cities, and the Farmers' alliance and other kindred organizations are neces sary in the country, there are" interests which are common to all these, and for which some general organization is abso lutely necessary. The question of business M-oporation on a scale of national magnitude, is a very important one, and to be made pro ductive of lasting benefit, wiii require such careful consideration and such lose and practical study as I have been unable to give to the subject. I would only suggest that until such an arrange ment of the industries and business of the country is maile,' that the produc tions of the labor of every individual will add Something to general comfort aud prosperity, there will be room for improvement in that direction. But it is in the relation of these organ izations to government that the greatest necessity for co-operation exists. No ef fective arrangements of a national char acter for the conduct of the business in dustries of the country can be made, and prove a benefit, without being in- effect laws of the organizations w hich adopt them. And so to prevent general and continual conflict with the laws of the government, the government -itself must be controlled by these societies. How this ran be accomplished, I think, is tlie most important question which should be considered at this session of our alliance. Two general plans at once present themselves to my mind for attaining this object. The first, that which has the sanction of the political history of our country and the prejudice arising from our own political education. A new political party. The other, independent political action, which has been partially, but surprisingly, successful in a number of the states during the past years. To the lirstjproposition 1 am decidedly opposed for thw following reasons, viz. lirs..: Such a political party is not prac ticable for industrial organizations. iSuch societies aim at reforms. And al though a party formed by them might, and would at the first, be formed on such principles as at the time were ad vocated by all. no such platform could be adopted unless ou such vague presen tation of principles as would be of little practical benefit as an assurance of wholesome political action, that would not in many parts soon become obsolete, and of no effect. Witness, the two parties which have divided the government during the last thirty years. Each of them was formed on principles which were definite and practical at the time, but long ago they have been lost sight of, and instead of the contention between them being on principle it is a strife as to which can the most successfully apply all the .de ception and corruption attending modern politics to gain the spoils of office and the management of the public treasury. It is not possible to confine a political party to any one class or condition in so ciety. From motives of principle or pol icy, men of all classes would vote with the new industrial party, for it would be large and powerful enough to be sought after as the possible winning side. You could not reject the vote of a man be cause he does not belong to your society. The result would be, your new party would embrace bankers, lawyers, pro fessional politicians, men who are not interested in you, or your prosperity, exceutln so far s your political tri unipn may give them a power and Influ ence over you and then having a foot hold in your party, they would soon gain the ascendancy the same as they now possess iu the old parties, aud you would realize you only had the old party machine under a new name. In fact the essential underlying principle of a political party is, that those who vote with you may be your political masters snd compel you to vote as they dictate, or pi.nish yon with political ostracism aud the party lash. I believe in pledges. 1 believe men ought to be willing to pledge themselves to each other to vote for good men or good measures; but not to vote for men or measures because a majority of any party or class of men may demand it. But the important question is: How may political independence he made suc cessful? I answer: Every new party is formed by independent political action, and all that is necessary for its success is that its principles should be held by a major ity of the voters of the country or local ity and that they be enabled to nominate and concentrate their votes on such men as are true to those principles. Now as success lias been achieved iu this way in several instances, and that without the aid of any definite plan, but arising as it were on the spur of the mo ment, it does seem reasonable that by following out a definite, plain syste'ji for such action every year that success would be the rule and not the exception. What is the reason that iu every great question of reform, or every measure for the public good which may be sug gested and brought forward it is so diffi cult to get people to vote together? It is because they are arrayed against each other in existing political parties and those parties will not sanction such com bination to sustain the principle as would be effective, but insist that their numbers must be arrayed against each other on partisan lines. Surely some better way to reduce righteous principles into legal enact ments may be devised. Permit me to suggest a plan for your consideration. Let this alliance discuss and agree upon such measures as it shall deem expedient to form a basis for polit ical action for this year and next. Place this by correspondence before the other gn at industrial organizations, and with their concurrence let a convention be called at some central point for the pur pose ol comparing views and finally adopting as a national platform a con cise set of principles which can be cor dially supported by all. Then publish them to the world and let the remainder of the year bo spent in disseminating these principles and preparing for THK OKEAT STHl liOI.K IX 1H92. The subjects on which those principles are founded should be those which are, most vital to the prosperity of the peo ple, the honest laborers of the whole country, and which can be so impressed on the majority of the people that they can be adopted and carried out. 1 think they may all be included in the following list: Money reform, land reform, transportation reform, ballot re form, and the suppression of any vice tolerated by law to the peril of our na tional government. Time wiil not permit me to give you more Than a glance at each of these sub jects, but 1 hope that during our session they may be discussed in such a manner as to lead to a definite line of action on the subject. But if during the discus sion it .should appear that practical unanimity cannot be arrived at on the subject, it for the present should not be adopted for political action. And in presenting my views briefly on this sub ject, it is not in any dogmatic spirit, but rather as a learner to draw out ideas from you, my brothers, to strengthen or modify my own. Money is a creature of law. The in trinsic value of the material of which it is manufactured does not add to its value. The piece of paper 3x7 inches, which is issued by the government and which is named ?l.noO, will purchase just as much and will pay just as large a debt as the 100 S10 gold pieces, while the metal could be bartered for the labor andmaterial to manufacture $1,000,000 of Hic paper money. So, wh'4' the SI, (mo bill will fill a contract for Sl.oooaSL 000,000 worth of gold or diamonds would not pay it if the creditor choose to re fuse. Nor does the "promise to pay" add one iota of value to the bill. Let the stamp lie reversed and just "one thousand dollars" tie printed on the paper without any qiitlitication ami the gold be stamped "promise to pay" and their relativ e value, as a circulating me dium iu this country would not be changed. But if the gold were stamped receivable for all debts except taxes," the paper would soon be considered worth the most. - The fact is. what the government la bels as money, it is bound to receive as money, and what will pay the govern ment will pay any subject of the govern ment, unless otherwise prescribed by law. But money, when manufactured by the government, is of no use to the peo ple except it be put into circulation. There- are two ways in which this miglit be accomplished, either of which would be far better than the present sys tem. The one. to estimate how much per capita would be necessary to furnish a sufficient supply for the business of the people, and then to issue that amount of currency and apply it to the expenses of the government, iu the meantime re mitting government tax and duties in a corresponding amount. The other, to issue such an amount as will be just enough for the best interests of the people and loaning to them on good security without interest such money as they need in their industries, limited in amount to any one individual. Tlie advocates of the lirst plan seem to overlook the fact that no adequate amount could thus be put in circulation without making a complete change in our revenue system necessary, to be fol lowed in a short time by a recurrence to the old method: or adopting yet another untried method of supporting the ex penses of the government. The method of loaning to the working people without interest I think the most feasible and least objectionable. If money was thus furnished by the gov ernment on a term of few years to indi viduals, but perpetual to the people, and absolutely without interest, tlo hoarding of money would be stopped, except it be in the case of a few misers, and all the money in the country would soon be in circulation. In fact, the very design of money is opposed to accumulation by in terest. It is only intended and needed as a medium of exchange, and should no more be subject to accumulation than an order on the baker for bread or on tlie grocer for sugar or coffee. If a man is unable to wor.k he ought to be supported by law. But if he is able to work, the property which he may have and which renders him not only in dependent of aid by law, but the less dependent on his own industry for sup port, should never be made a means of oppressing his fellow men. This may be avoided hy the government making perpetual alternating loans to the peo ple. So long as the industries and trade of .the country are conducted on the principles of competition the power that controls the money of the nation controls the nation. And when the people's government manufactures and furnishes to the people a fixed amount of money per capita, sustains it at that ratio and keeps it all in circulation, then, and not till then, will labor and the products of labor receive certain adequate reward. On tjie question of transportation but one solution of the difficulties seems te be left us. Anticipating the attempt ol the people to enforce their demand to bring tlie railroads under the control of law, combinations and consolidations have been effected to aim at and bid fail to practically apply a policy which shall enable the companies or company ( for 1 think they are virtually now but one) to dictate their own terms of operation and rates for service, or to subject the peo ple of any locality or of the whole coun try to pc alternative of being deprived of railroad service and thus starve them into subjection. There is III T ONE KFFIICTIVK I8KMKDY for this and that is for the government, which has always admitted its obliga tion to furnish ways of transportation for the people, by giving to corporation? and individuals privileges by charter to provide and operate such roads, to take them into its own hands and furnish that service for its people which the corporations have failed to render. How this should be brought about, whether by purchase or confis cation, 1 shall expect to hear discussed by others before we close this session. Suffice it to say that it is not consistent with true patriotism to pel mit an insti tution so necessary to the people to be run and managed iu such a manner as to not only impoverish them, but to en danger the safety of the government itself. A premeditated connivance of these companies with foreign invasion, or domestic insurrection might easily place our government at the mercy of its enemies. And the same disposition which leads them to rob the people would lead them to rob or destroy the government if they conceived it would be to their advantage. Land reform is attended with as many difficulties as any question with whici we have to deal. How to preserve the rights of property, the obligations of th( government, and the natural rights ol tillers of the soil, may well puzzle the wisest philosophers. It seems to me th only clear way for government to recog nize the (iodgiven right to the soil oi those who till it (not have it tilled) and that this result should be brought about in the least injurious and most equitable manner possible. Ballot reform may be resolved intc two questions: Who shall vote? and How shall they vote? In regard to the first. I think it is time to -onsider whether the ignorant and vicious population, which exists in a greater or less degree in all our cities, shall be allowed not only to vote, but to control the votes of others, while intelli gent women all over our land are de prived of all share in a government which affects their interests to fully as. great a degree as that of men. And why the foreigner, ignorant of our in stitutions, ignorant of our language, and perhaps opposed to all restraints of law aud order, should be permitted to vote after a residence of but a few months oi; payment of a paltry sum for his paper; which, perhaps, is furnished by some scheming politician, and taking the oath, the obligation of which lie dues not recognize; w hile our own sons, who at 10 years of age are better qualified to exer cise good choice and sound judgment in voting, are required to wait live years before they are treated as full citizens or allowed to exercise the rights of free men. The principle embodied in the Australian ballot system no doubt would be a great improvement on the present plan if properly guarded. But in many cases where it has been adopted the best features have been so changed that it cannot be much improvement. The ob ject aimed at should be to insure the sec recy of the ballot. To make some degree of intelligence in the voter necessary. To render bribery unsafe and to remove the voter as far as possible from partisan prejudice and to facilitate the success of independent nominations. And now. my brothers, how is it with our own organization? Is there not something more necessary to se-cure uni formity of constitution and plan so as to give greater efficiency and permanency to our society? Should there not be more systematic and definite information provided for, so that we may know the feelings, plans and action of all parts of emr brother hood? If the secret work has advan tages of power and permanence, ought it not be adopted? And if that is concluded on, should there not be, in addition to the peculiar work, or system for each state, a general mystic bond by which brethren from all parts of our country should be recognized and wel comed by each other. Should there not be some prescribed active work for each of our officers to perform? Are we not by our lack of system and our indefinite, loose organi zation as a national society, laying our selves liable to be absorbed by other more compact organizations, which al though having the same general objects in view would not bo so congenial to our brotherhood? I ask your earnest con sideration of these matters, and trust that yon will leave nothing undone which seems necessary to the efficient and successful execution of the great work we are attempting. Let us not lie, deceived. It is no time for boys' play and mock demonstrations. There was a time when the corporations and monied oligarchies looked upon us with unruffled contempt. That condi tion is changed. Three million voters cannot bo drawn up in line iu an army without attracting general attention, even though their discpline may be im perfect and their lines disconnected. The enemy is already marshalled for the battle. We must conquer or suffer igno minious defeat. Be not deceived. This people must bo redeemed. If we prove unworthy of the trust we have undertaken, God will rais up other instruments to ac complish II is will, for He has purposed great things for the nation, aud He will accomplish them. But we, how shall we answer for our lost opportunities? How shall we answer on that day when nations and societies are put on trial as well as individuals? Let us acquit ourselves like true men; lot us encourage each either; let us close up the lines; let us lift up tho banner of freedom on high; let us pass the word down along the ranks, "The Peoples tiod, and Uur is alive I, and. ' let us shout the battle cry, "United Wo Con quer," and our foes will be scattered. Light will break forth as the morning. Liberty will triumph. Our country will be redeemed. Farm Mortgages. The Hanker Monthly, which surely would not over-estimate the matter, iu speaking of the farm mortgages in six of our best states, gives,, the amount car ried by each as follows: Kansas, $235, 000,000; Indiana. $643,000; Iowa, $3G7, 000,000: Michigan, 300.000,000; Wiscon sin. 357,000,000; Ohio, S 1,1 -'7, 000. 000. Here are mortgages on the farms of only six states aggregating $3,431,000, 000, the interest on which at 6 per cent, amounts to over 8200.000,000. Now the whole production of gold and silver in the L'nited States per year is not half enough to pay the interest on the farm mortgages of six states. And yet these same bankers are demanding the des truction of the treasury notes, the de monetization of silver, and the establish ment of a gold standard. Nor are our bankers alone in this demand, the boss politicians in both parties are trying to bring atout the same state of affairs. And the farmer, what is he doing? Well he is economizing, cursing the politicians and voting tho old party tickek-r-Zivfttj Ana . 2 ' .j GEN. SHERMAN IS DEAD. THE OLD WARRIOR PASOES PEACEFULLY AWAY. Siirrunndeil by 1 rieiels, lie Makes Ills I. it t March to tlie Sea Ills Iiereael Futility I'reparoil lor the Vigtresting Event disposition ' the Kemains. j.Vew York dispatch.) Gen. W. T Miurman. one of the greatest heroes of the late war. has completed his lat march ami pusse-l though the lines, llisd- ath. which occurred in New York lily, was peaceful and painless. So quietly did the soul of the gailant warr'or have the body the watching friends were scar, ely aware of it de parture In a"-ordance with an oft expressed wish of the General, the remains will be interre 1 in St. Louis. William Tecumseh Me rman was torn in Lancaster, (diio. I'eb. m, lv'o. He was the sixth child, and wa adopted bv Thou as Kvviiig. and attended school iu Lancaster until ls.'di. when he filtered the military a a 'eniy at West Point, graduating from that institution iu lslo, standing sixth in a class of fortv-two members He received his first commis sion a - a Second Lieutenant in tlie Third Artillery. .Inly I, 1S4 . and was sent with that command to Horida On .Nov. .'in. ls-il. he w as promoted ;o a First Lieu tenancy. iM is.;, on his return from a i-hort leave, he began the study of law, not to make it a profession, I m to ren der hilieeif a mole intelligent sol dier. In lsp;, when the .Mex ca:i war broke out. he was s,-i,t with troops to California, wh-r he acted as adjutant general to Cen. st - ph; n W. Kearney. fn his return, in ls.o, he vva- married to Kllen Boyle Kwing at Washington, her father, his old friend, then being Secretary of the Interior. He was ap pointed a captain in the commi-sary de partment Sept :'!, i km i. but lesigne l in 1 ."..'! and was appointed manager of a l ank iu San l-'ra ne:seo. but subsequently took up li s residence in New York as agent for a St Louis firm. In ls'-5!i he practiced law in Lt avenvv:.rth, Kan., and the following year became Super tendent of the Louisiana Mat-- Mili tary Academy. It was while he was acljng in this ci.nuer-tion that Louisi ana seceded from the I'liion. and (leueral Sherman promptly r signed his oftii . (in May l.l. lsui. he was i om-mi-sioiied Colonel of the Thirteenth Infantry, with instructions to report to (ieneral Scott at Washington. Sher man was tut in command of a brigade in Tyler's division. On Aug. .'!. isi'ii, he was made a Lrigadier Oeneral of Volun teers, aud was s -tit to be second in com mand to General Anderson, in Kentucky. On account of broken health. Ociicral Anderson was relieved from the com mand, and Oen Sherman inccooded him on Oct 17. Just after the capture of Forts Henry and Doiielsou. in lsiV.', Oen. Sherman was assigned to the Army of the Tennessee. In the great battle of Shiloh, Sherman's division served as a sort of pivot He was wounded in the hand during the light, but refused to have the lield Ooiiera! Halleck de clared that "Sherman saved the fortunes of the day on the ih. a'.d con sributeil largely to the glorious victory eif the 7th.'' Ccnetal Sherman w-'s always conspicuous for judgment an,, dash He was made a Major i ieneral next, and on duly 15 he was ordered to Memphis. u account iif brilliant services in the Vi.-ksburg campaign he was appoint. ,! a I!i iga iier Oet..tl After Oeneral (ita.it ha I been made Lieutenant .'eni-ral be assigned (ieneral Sherman to the command of the Military Division of the Mis-issippi. On Feb. l;i. ism. (ieneral Sherman receive! tl.e thanks of Congress for his services in the Chattanooga campaign. On April 10 he received his orders to move against Atlanta. His forces then consisted of !'..( MK men, with !.'."i4 guns, while the Confederate- army, under .lohnst in. was composed of ii'-'.oo;i men. Sherman repeat edly attacked the enemy, who gradually fell hack. On July 17 Sherman began the direct attack ou Atlanta. In a num ber of severe sorties the Union forces were victorious, and on Sept. 1 the enemy evacuated the place. Sherman immediately moved forward to the win ks that covered Savannah, and soon cap tured that city. His army had marched 300 miles in twenty-four elays through the heart of Georgia, aud had achieved a splendid victory. Sherman was made a Major Genera', and received the thanks of Conuress for his triumphal ivarch. I'poii the appointment of irant as General of the Army. Sherman was pro inotcel to be Lieutenant Genera!, and when Grant beiaine President of tho l'nited States, March 4, 1 SV., Sherman succeeded him as Genera!, with head quarters at Washington. At his own re quest, and in order to make Sheridan General-in chief he was placed on th; retired list, with full pay aud emo'u mevts, em Feb. S, lsS4. For a whi'o after that the General resided iu St Louis, but some years ago moved to New York, where he became a great fa vorite. There was hardly a night that lie did not attend some dinner, enter tainment, or theater party, and he be came well known as an eloquent after dinner speaker. The General lived very quietly with ids family at his house in Seventy-first street, i.ear Central Park. The General's wife died a few jears age, and two of his daughters are married. One of his sons is a Jesuit priest. Two unmarried daughters and a son, a law yer, comprise the General's household iu this city. Divination In Mongolia. He was a native of eastern Tibet, and was known as the I.ab jyal-se-re. He passed his time in prayer, thus warding off all calamities from the country, tlie ptople, and their fecks and herds. Especially was his wonder ful foreknowledge of use to all those who wore about to start on journeys or to undertake perilous expeditions, for he could foretell all that was to befall them. Taking a few presents, and accom panied by the two Mongols who had offered me their services, I went to the t Jf gen's tent, and having given him a long blue silk scarf calleel a kaia tho indispensable accompaniment of any present or request together w ith the other presents, which comprised a con vex aud concave looking-glass, a raor and a piece of soap, I begged that he woulel deign to disclose to me the fate of my expedition; should I be pble to cross the terrible Pre ch'u anel eastern Tibet, or should I be obliged to retraco my steps and fail in my attempt '! He took up from beside him a little gold box in which were dice, held it up to bis forehead while he muttered a prayer, opened it and looked at the dice. Then he took a book, and turn ing over the leaves till he reached one whose number correspoueled with that turned up on the dice, he conned it for a while and then delivered himself ot this remarkable prophecy : "You want to go through Ch'amdo? Well, between this place and the Dre ch'u yon -will perhaps have trouble and fall in with brigands, or perhaps you will not. As to the Dre ch'u, it it a terrible stream to cross, and you may cross it, or you may not. But as to traversing all eastern Tibet and reach- not tell ; it is beyond my ken. Be care- fnll he careful !" Centum. GALLANT POUTER r.D. COMMANDER OF THE '.'A v RELIEVED. He Faei lVacsfuily Away at H V. s!i liigton Hum Heart Ironlile t . ( au.n - Ski tell or His Ilriltiuut Servlc o Country. Washington disputcb. Admiral Iiavid 1). Porter, tin .siii i naval oflicer ed the l'nited St! - i : commander-in-chief of the Fnit Si s navy, diet! at his I ome in tii i .- ;.'. l.l this morning of fatty deg ratio-i of the h -art. His death would : ii .ve been a surprise had it oceurre - jr-y time w ithiu a year, lbs has b . m r. ously ill for many monliis. ye ;i lat the end came swiftly and : '::',-. with hut a "few minutes of . - Twelve jears a'io 'the Admiral i -i veie stomach trouble, which . ill-' weakened his system, and from i h he hover recovered. Five years , - ! Wa'es, then Surgeon Gcn.-r ,. t!. l'nited States navy, made an . tiou, and told the old sailer ' ,-;. were symptoms w hich pointed t . ... ure of the action of the heart. . i -.. Porter was an optimist, lie lau ' : .1 said to I)r. Wales: '-Nonsense, ; I.. :; is as good as yours and 1 e-tt i: ' even to I he last hours of his !- -l:ess Admiral Porter exhil ited ie:.i hope that there was a cure iu fo. Iii id. La-t summer he l.cjau marked signs of rapid ,.'e. line. .-i. - ory became visibly weaker, lib i? .i was sapped, and his nerve - .: '. to lo-e their vitality. Fiom u. which was manifest upon hi: -'resources then he never fully io i. lie was brought to Washiimtdi - 1 .s summer home at .laiiiestown, n " - a port, alnio-t a dyintr man, and ,i. .ia-es during the winter had been in ;.-f semi-c una. For the past liv .r. '. s. in con-eqiieiK ; of the nature o .. ; case, it had been n ssary to i patient in an upright po-itin '" i that time he had cither en ; meat arm-chair iu his tut : - r had half-lounge i upon a ci ... . j the sofa. It was not until eig -k this morning t hat young Mr. I - r r tie-cda startling change come ,. father. There was a Hutterii . -breath and pulse, a slight move the body, and in tiftcon miuut ' :ui 1 ad come. There was no strug ' ..!-. was liomeivement to indicate a ness. The iieumbered heart ha Mr. llichard Porter, at the time ' held one hand of the Admira ;-s sister. Mrs. Lieutenant Loean, . : Tin-re were in the room at the - , , sides Lieutenant Tlieodoric I .: i t the navy, son of the Admin ' . v t nant 1. C. Logan, eif tie i'- . : the nurse, .lames MePoiia'd. : S it.-. h nian; and William Wilkes, a c ji- 1 servant who has been with the A .ui'r i.' for twenty-five years. .Mis. Po' i , . i was ill iu bed, overcome by the i -i .- in tentions to her husband, aud ' i.., : never aba intoned hope of his r. was ueit summoned to the el . although she was ill the', adjoin;- ' Tho interment will take place i- ir ton in a lot selected by the .'. .i.t-i-.i about one year ago. He tt- u v.. there, accoinpauiel by one of :: . : and his daughter, Mrs. Lo pointed to a lot near to that oci t y the remains of Gen. Sheridan, .. t. eastern t-rrace, overlooking 1 "j: -mac and the capital. He said r -. a stake theie, for there is where ..n 1 -j3 shall rest. - For weeks Admiral Porter ; ..o i;oi been permitted to see his friei Very hmg ago General Sherm : :' .! and left a message of sympa . v. !! saiil to Admiral Porter's datig r: "f would rather not s;'e Porter i could see him as he always wa '. ; have met him. I will be the nr. and perhaps I may go before Po -: . Anyhow, it's nothing to die, and i -.' as natural as it is to be born. ; In the eleath of Admiral lav. Porter the country loses the last ei naval eotuiiiamlers who sustain eivil war the tinest traditions ot navy. Though far from being ale- record of gallantry, the names of ; l'oote and Porter have1 a pre-en.i-their own. lavid 1. Porter wa: Chester, l'a., .luneS, lSia, und thiii , few months of completing his Tsth had his lirst xperipnee in the service In IST. being then 14 yeui In lsiU he was appoiute-d midsli the 1 nlted States navy ami att: lieutenancy iu isll. He serve ! d : entire Mexican war. had chaig. naval rendezvous at New Orleans . engaged in every action e,n tl Afterward he commanded for sol steamships iu the l'aeitie Mail between New York iinJ the of Panama. At the beginning civ 11 war he was appointed to the e i of tlie I'owiiatau, on service in t In Farragut's attack on New Orlea -ter. now promoted to Command iiKinded the mortar fleet. Farragu destroyed tho enemy's tleet of tifo sels. left the reduction of Fort Jac Fort St. Philip to Porter, while he : i ill t) the city. The forts surreu. . April. IsO'J. Porter then assisted J . In all the tatter's eiperatlons betw, Orleans and Vicksburg. where beef e lumibifiled the forts and enabled i to pass in safety. After his s . Vlckshurg, Potter received the tl Congress and 111 1 commission of lt mini!, elated July 4. lssa, tlio iiat fall of that town. He ran past tho 1 of Ylekshurg and captured thel'on forts at (irand Gulf, which put hist communication with Gen. Grant, spring of 1M4 Porter co-operated w Hanks In the Hed Kiver Base , r in the samev year was trausferrt : North Atlantic squadron and red Fisher. Hear Admiral Porter res vote of thanks from Congress, wl the fourth that he received during . . Hear Admiral Porter was prcmot Vice Admiral on July "J5, 1661), s while as Superintendent of tin Academy and was then transfei : Washington. On Auir. 13. IsTO, h -pointed Admiral cf thfi Navy, the ' grade iu the service. Iu 1SS2, Pevr lished "Incidents and Aue'cdt.tesof 1 War." and in 1SS7 "History of the the War of the Rebel lion," a work -stantial merit. He was married ti Anne Pat'-rson, a daughter of Con !. T. Patets in. He leaves on soi navy, erne In the Marine Corps, bes titliers in private life, and two daud - v. r. : t- ;-!.- la'-. ! . U e i. :-'t. 1 ; s t i Casliier Spauhling Writes. At Aver, Mass., President II . has received a letter from the Cashier Spanieling iu which he that he began taking the bank's about four years ago, and that it lost in speculation. Examiner G -stated that the loss to the First N liank was apparently about $,'7,0 al Two Sailor Suffora'ed. A fire broke out on the Kritishs . u r Calliope, lying at Newport, from : ' a Two of the crew were found d ' 'a their bunks, having been suffocat t-y the dense smoke. Two Unknown Men Killed. At Fall River, Mass., two un'.-.:. ". n men were killed on the Old Colon) ; rj. k on the outskirts of the city by a t: Losses by Fire. Dr. A. E. McXeall'3 Excelsior i' Mills at Bowen, 111., were burned. $30,000; small insurance. Gen. Ton Rrann Commits Su'cida At Berlin. Gen. Von Braun comml ted suicide by shooting himself with a io- volve-r.