Newspaper Page Text
n tn nrv n n n nrs M(D)K J VOLUME I. MEMPHIS, MISSOURI, THURSDAY FEIlUUAItY 2(1 1891. NUMBER 4. SOVEREIGN'S ADDRESS TO THE IOWA STATE ASSEMBLY KNICHTS OF LABOR. The State .1l;i-.tir Workimin I'elivors an Able So t li in WIi'cli lie Treats or Mm KeaNoiiN AVliy I.ulmroi s ami I'ri ilui-ers . Should He Oreanicil. To tin' ollieers sunt members of the Iowa State assembly, greeting: Once more tin- Iowa Knights of Labor meet in delegate assembly to consider the demands of labor and the claims of humanity. Once more we arc culled upon to legislate f'ir tin- welfare of our order and dotine our future course in tin struggle for social adjustment. All iuir ia-t elTorts have been to adapt social organization Jo natural laws and the inherent rights of all mankind. And. to the edification of our order, it may be truthfully said that our greatest weapon of assault is education. Kduca tion is the only power that can dispel partisan prejudice, revolutionize bad irovernmcnts. dethrone tvrants and give to the world its jeweled honors and a homage to fairness, magnanimity ami brotherhood. Through tin- power of education, in tolerance and superstition are passing away. The prison cell for the inventor, the poison hemlock foi the philosopher and the fagots for the thinker are t o more. I ly this same great agent of evo lution and fellowship the Knights of La bor and kindred associations will vorU a relaxation in the hatred and selfishness that have so long dominated the consti tution of society until ail labor is re deemed from oppression and arced. Our sanctuaries are the school houses of economics, in which we educate our members in the powers of government, responsibilities of citizenshiy and the in herent rights of the common people. The motive that actuated the prime movers of our order was education, to the end that there might bo created a healthy public opinion on the subject of labor, and but for this feature it would not command public respect or establish the necessity of its existence. Nor have we been with nit reward. The last dec ade has seen our educators on every pub lic rostrum and our principles permeate the libraries and literatureof the nation, while many of our important demands have been engrossed on the calendars of legislative councils. And before another decade shall have passed away our orde will put the decalogue and the golden rule into politics, and the telegraphs, tel ephones and railroads of this nation will be owned and operated by the general government tor the hem-lit of the whole people. The monetary prerogatives of the nation wiil be taken from private banks and restored to the general gov ernment, the burdens of taxation equal ized, and niitigati d to public necessities, and the homes of labor given higher con sideration than the dollars of Shylock. There is no cause for di-couragenieiit. The principles of our order are shaking the social defects of the civilied world: they spu ad out over the sea of mora! philosophy, civil government and human 'liberty: tle-v are defacing the thrones of Europe and erasing the imperfections in .our republican superstructure Even the cai.t and hypocrisy in the polities and religion of the ag- are giving way to the spirit of progression. ltut h t tie-future mark no cessation of agitation a:id '. .-.ration, the phil anthropy of tin iforld beckons us on ward. Let u- only demand opportunities :for i' e. ai and social improvement tocor . re? pond with new and improved mot hods of production, but let us demand the abolition of all those laws anil customs upon which rest the classification of so ciety into higher and lower grades, and let no member be lured to the contented footstool of monopoly under the guise that our high standard of civilization is a guarantee of justice and equality. Civ ilization is necessary to the welfare of labor. Art and science and literature could not flourish without it. Hut civil ization ami justice are not synonymous terms. Civilization means culture, politeness and refinement, and nothing more. Therefore no man need be honest to be civilized. The highest civilized man may be the greatest thief, in fact culture and even religious pretensions; and all that go to make up a high stand ard of civilization are the most perfect accomplishments of our great modern thieves. Civilization may flourish or wage slavery, child labor and trusts. Colossal fortunes may be massed from watered stock and produce gambling: There may be courtesy -md civility in the house of greed and extortion. All legalized thieves are civilized thieves, iioroe died in the zenith of her civiliza tion from legalized thieves. Humanity to-day is groaning on the rack of legalized injustice. Savagery, with its roving band- of free booters robbed the innocent, divided the . spoils among marauding chiefs, con ferred titles of nobility, proclaimed th . divine right to rule and built its thrones . on the bones of its vanquished. l!ut the system has been changed from the brut ality of savagery to the polite and re- lined methods of civilization. Civiliza tion clips its coupons, gambles in bread. lies to the assessor, opens its bank with . prayer, robs its depositors, sends men to heaven on -' per cent, per month, and .digs a veritable hell for the poor. Civilization has no spear. mailed armor or battleaxes. but it marshals lobbies against legislatures, converts wealth into non-assessable bonds, over aws the people w ith 1'inkerton thugsaud robs labor through taxation and usury Civilization freed the chattel slaves hut tin-re are now more white slaves sewing cotton than there were black slaves picking it thirty years ago, and "more money and brains are now devoted to filching wealth from, labor than art combined with labor to produce it. Civilization without justice is a failure. Hut revolution is at hand. The farmers of the west are aroused to the suprerm. necessity of a change and are concen trating their forces in lines parallel with our own. And I appeal to tins order to extend the right hand of fellowship to them and court their closest possible co nneration. The cause is common and the interests mutual. We need not only o reform ballot system but we need re form voters to use it and in this struggle. we enjoy the support of the organized farmers. Let us in turn consult their Interests in our future work. At the recent session of our general assembly hold at Denver. Col., our gen eral master workman recommended that the local assemblies discuss the tariff nncstion, and gave as a reason the fact that every four years we are called upon to cast our votes on one side or the other of this great question. 1 consider it in the line of duty to repeat that recom mendation to the locals of this state as sembly, and will give as my convictions, after careful study, that high tariff is robbery perpetrated under the guise of patriotism and exalted sentiment to de velop me wi-ucriiess. isu& it, iieips ISut it helps to oako the wilderness when developed the property of the few. Labor had better Jiftve an undeveloped wilderness than a plutocracy, because a wilderness never made slaves and a plutocracy never made anything else. But the wilderness iweds no restrictive markets or discrimi nating assessmenia to insure its develop ment. And it is a significant fact that those who clamor the most for high tariff as a method of development are the first to tell labor that its poverty is .caused by too much development and pver-production; or recommend, as did the leading high tariff organ of this state, that the farmers destroy one fourth of their corn by lire- in order to create a home market for the balance, while eastern coal miners produce the elements of fire at starvation wages. Mr. MclSride. of Ohio, says in England the average annual production of each employe is S-J '.' of which the laborer re ceives .v.".m; and capital $:.'00. la the I'nited States the average annual pro duction of each employe if ST'O of which the laborer receives sCUti and capital :?:i74. In England the laborer receives three-fifths of the products and in the I niti-d States less than one-half. This fact alone should convince the laboring portion of our people that it is our re dundancy of soil, and our rapid produc tion over other countries that has en abled us to live in spile of high tariff as sessments. It is charged by the subsid ized press and the enemies of our order that we raise the standard t-f discontent, mar the relationship between capital and labor ami endanger the pu die peace by our exposure of conditions. Wendell Phillips once said: '"If you will convince the people that a wrong exists they will lind their own remedy."' The people will certainly lind no remedy for a wrong of which they know not. A physician can not treat a disease until someone com plains of illness. The people are the physicians of society, and are licensed by constitutions to treat every social and political disease, a id through the ballot box they apply the art of surgery to civil codes until the last virulent tumor is re moved. ISut until through organization, education and well directed effort, the ulcers that eat away the vitals of social equality are exposed to public view and their existence acknowledged by a ma jority of the people no remedy can be ap plied. The exposure of the auction block and the whipping post with their train of persecution and torture was the crystal mug force that purged the social atmos phere of chattel slavery. And had not the festering cankers of ehattelhood been opened to public view by the elo quent tiarrison and Phillips, and a long line of other philanthropists who conse crated their lives to the cause of free dom, chattel slaverv would be in the icight of its glory to-day. So remedy an ever come to unknown wrongs and unexposed conditions, and those who use the press or the rostrum to condemn or ganized labor for its complaints or raise the cry of falsehood and slander when icttial conditions are exposed, play the same part in the struggle for industrial freedom that those did who drowned the voice of ratrick Henry with the - ries of treason, cr those who mobbed the propa gators of universal freedom for their ex posure of chattel slavery. The cause of poverty is found in the monopolization of natural bounties, pri- tte control of railroads, contraction of the currency and the unjust apportion ment of burdens and rewards. The fac tory girl may in a single dav add i line hirts to the material wealth of the world, but the 3; cents paid- for the labor means poverty and rags for the maker. Labor produces .SI l.ooo.Ooo of wealth in this nation everv day, vet labor starves. The cauee is the restriction of opportun ities and the inequality of rewards. Co where you will and the laboring man is the poor man. Say what you will, charge labor with Intemperance and ex travagance all you wish, but the fact still remains that a dollar and a half per day will not provide a comfortable home and educate the children of the toiler. Remove the cause, break the shacki Is of greed, insure equitable distribution, in- rease the opportunities to labor and make the rewards of toil more certain ind the remedy is applied. According to the tenth census the av rage yearly earnings of American labor (creased from a little more than 100 in s70 to a little more than 8300 in IssO, yet the wealth of the nation increased during that period more than a, billion dollars per vear. In is.io the farmers of this nation owned three-fifths of its wealth, in 1SS0 they owned but. one-third of its wealtii ami to-day tle-y own but about one-fifth of its wealth, yet the farmers are still paying the eighty per cent, of taxes paid by them in lsr.O. In 1S0O there were but few children under 15 years of age in our factories, in 1ST0 there were TW.ln"), in 1SU there were 1. ll$,35ii, and it is generally con ceded that the number will now far ex ceed 2.000,000. Not alone has civiliza tion be.u outraged by the introduction of infant slavery in numbers nearly equal to the chattel slaves of thirty years ago, hut the low wages paid them- issoeistcd with other degrading methods. has reduced the average earnings of ail labor, skilled and unskilled, to less than a dollar per tlav, and consumption ot products thereby reduced until even the farmers of proud Iowa have sold their products at a loss since 10, except when other western states suffered universal failure, and the mortgage indebtedness on the homes of Iowa now aggregate nearly three hundred million dollars. Hut labor is told that the, blessings of our Creator and the industrial habits of man have become a national calamity, and if the Lord had made the coal beds deeper, the minerals scarcer, the rocks harder, the soil less productive and endowed the human mind with less inventive genius, labor would be in greater demand and poverty less. Such argument is com parable with the cuttle lish that roils the water to conceal its identity when hotly pursued and driven to extremities. Let us review the other side. A few years ago the Vanderbilts began operating in railroads with a very limited capital and their wealth is now computed at two hundred million dollars. This enormous sum is beyond the com prehension of the human mind except by illustration. It is said the Lord placed Adam in the Garden of Eden six thousand years ago. If at that time Adam had been placed on a salary of sixty dollars per day and his life and his salary continued to the present and he had hoarded every cent of his income, the year A. I). lts'.tl would find him sixty eight million dollars poorer than the Vanderbilts and lie would be compelled to hoard his salary three thousand years more before lie could equal their present great wealth. In short, poor Adam, after a struggle of nine thousand years on a salary of S;o per day and without spending a cent could go into the rail road business with the Vanderbilts on equal terms. Hut the Vanderbilts are only a few stars in the diadem of millionaires whose great fortunes have been filched from the laborers and farmers of this nation. Yet it is only three years ago when the maximum freight and 2-cent fare bills were pending before the Iowa legislature that the railroad managers and presi dents with a corps of attorneys thun dered against the doors of our capitol and sent up a wail of poverty that brought a flood of tears from the hearts of the most hardened. Railroading was declared to be un profitable in Iowa. The poor house stared the stockholders fin the face and gaunt poverty haunted them in their dreams, and they threatened to reduce wages as a means of influencing their employes to petition the legislature for mercy and charity for the roads, and a leading newspaper in this city deseerated the holy Sabbath in its haste to print supplements for the country press con taining speeches of leading railroad mag nates declaring that railroading in Iowa was unprofitable. Hundreds and thousands ' of those speeches were scattered broadcast over our state. But who cried slander then? Who had the courage to say it was defamatory of this great state to say that one of her greatest industries was being operated at a loss'.' Who recommended the railroad managers to destroy one-fourth of the surplus by tire as was recommended for the relief of Iowa corn growers'.' No one. All were as silent as the tomb. Yet w hen the farmers of Iowa report to tin' bureau of labor statistics that it costs 51.') per acre to fertilize corn land it is slander; SI. l:! per acre for plowing ground is slander; L'l cents for planting an acre of corn is slander; 11 cents per acre for seed corn is slander: -if 1. 11 for cultivating an acre of corn three times is slander; for husking and cribbing an acre of corn is slander, and all the other items of expense which swell the average cost of producing auacre:fj corn in Iowa to 810.7:! is slander. And when a thousand reliable farmers j say the general range of farm produtcs have sold below the cost of production j since lss,"i. and that there has been no profit on the labor of hired men on the farm, atstS.50 per month, the average . price paid, and a governor has the cour age to repeat it in the house of monopoly, i the same men who printed and circulated the poverty speeches of the railroads j wring their hands and tear their hair in I spasms of anger at the insult anil fairly ; rend the air and make the earth quake 1 with declarations that the fair name of this commonwealth has been slandered. In this recent cry of slander I am re minded of the man who niurihed his mother and then asked the court to ac quit him of the charge on the ground that a mnrder'trial was a slander on the community. When the Wall street Shylocks want more tlesh and blood they cry poverty, and immediately the capitol at Washing ton is in a deluge of tears, and the na tion is thrown into a furor of excite ment, and the secretary of the treasury rushes to New York with open arms to give comfort and succor to our poor fam ishing pets. The national treasury is opened unto them and all the sub-treasuries and mints are notified to transmit exchange on New York by telegraph and all the people are asked to do homage to this modern moloch of greed. Twenty six million dollars were issued by the na tional government W relieve the poor national banks from poverty during the panic of 187.'!. and later their taxes wcrfc reduced 812. 000,000 per annum. All in the name of poverty. Hut let it be said that agriculture is depressed and labor in need of better conditions and it is met in anger and hate w ith charges of v ile and malicious slander. These facts are sufficient to indicate the duty of this organization. Let labor vote for labor and tyrants will grow pale. Let labor carry its cause to the ballot box and society will not sqvoeze the manhood out of :.'o.i)iio work ing people every year to maintain a .lay Gould. The purchasing power of money will not be further increased to further oppress the debtor class. One half the people will not go begging for an oppor tunity to buy and the other half for an opportunity to sell. One half will not make themselves miserable because they can find nothing to do. Private in terests will not be the only motive for operating distributive agen cies. When labor votes for labor society will increase the opportunities to earn as Inventive genius increases the wants and necessities of man. Distri bution will keep pace with production. The millions of little children will be taken from the dark and unwholesome rooms of the factories. The play grounds will resound with the merry frolics of childish innocence, and the graces of re fined society, the blessings of the school and the virtues of the home will adorn the heart of the youth. There wiil tie eight hours for work, eight hours for sleep and eight hours for recreation and improvement, and the man who earns or inherits a dollar shall be protected in its enjoyment, and the man who -neither earns nor inherits his dollars shall never have a dollar to enjoy. ' Mean l.rotherliood. The organization of the industrial as sociations means brotherhood. Fratern ity is a prime consideration and perme ates all orders. Good will is a normal principle and is utilized for the good of ail. Following this out, co-operation becomes a fundamental principle. Through this they learn the secret of associative power. The social principle is cultivated and appreciated, and with all combined they press forward tr the prime ideal which prompts their action. Thus brotherhood develops, and men work together, hand in hand, for the good of each and the welfare of all. This is all just and praiseworthy. We reach out the right hand of fellowship and give, it a hearty welcome. It har monizes with all humane impulses and makes the world akin. Thus the. most generous feelings are excited as we plod on through ways and by-ways of life. Tla: National View. Thk republican party is seemingly hopelessly divided upon the financial question, but it is hardly ea'e to count upon its being in the same condition next year. The democrats, although apparently united upon this subject, are really almost as badlv divided as the republicans, and it is extremely doubtful if as many demo cratic senators would have voted for the free coinage bill as recently did, if it had not been for the peculiar surround ing circumstances circumstances which they used more for embarrassing the re publicans than because they really de sired free coinage. It is well to con sider facts regarding this very import ant matter. Eureka (Kns.) Alliance L'niiat. Turner's Emmieiiatnr, in a late issue, fires the following chain shot of burning questions into the ranks of the old party politicians: "Will some old party organ answer this question? Iid not congress pass a bill in authorizing the issu ing of S500,0U0.O(H) in greenbacks? Again, in 1S03, was not the secretary of the treasury authorized to issue $000, 000,000 more? At the close of the war was there not 8250,000,000 in greenbacks that were not appropriated? If so, were the bonds issued and sold for the pur pose of raising money to carry on the war, or were they issued for the purpose of absorbing the greenbacks and creat ing a bonded indebtedness for the toiling masses to pay? Answer from the rec ords, will you?" "Xotiiixo is more terrible, than to see the rich living off the poor. One can hardly imagine the utter heartless ness of a man who stands between the wholesale manufacturer and the wretched women who make their living or rather, retard their death by the needle. How a human being can consent to live on this profit, stolen from poverty, is beyond my imagination. These men when known will be regarded as hyenas and jackals. They are like the wild beasts who follow herds of cattle for the purpose of devouring those who are injured or those who have fallen by the wayside from weakness." Bob Imjersoll. Senator Sherman said in a recent newspaper interview that the desire for the free coinage of silver was only a temporary craze with the farmers, who imagined that it would benefit them. He also said that Mr. Harrison would cer tainly veto the free coinage bill, if it ever reached him, which he did not think it would. Time will show how much of a prophet Mr. Sherman is. St Paul Xeb.) Entcrprlisc THINK FOR .YOURSELF V ' THE YARDSTICK ARGUMENT IN MONETOLOGY. Americans May ISo Smart I'eoplr, Rut It Man Cost Thrill uli Immense Sum uf Money to Let Coriioralioiis Kim the Country!! Finances. Hy the word monetology is meant the science of money. If a new word has been coined, it is because there is use for it. The word finance includes too much else to stand for the science of money We might, of course, use the three words whenever we had occasion to refer to the subject, but it does not consist with our ideas of economy to use three words where one will do just as well, it not better. The subject of money has lately come to the front as an object of study, and it is of suflicienj, importance to hav e a name all to itselfa home of its own in the language, from the precincts of which it may warn off all intruders. In one of the brief obituary notices of the late Gen. Spinner, which finds a place in the columns of almost every paper in the land, is found the statement that he was always favorable to the single stand ard of money, not being able to see why we should have two different metal standards any more than two yardsticks of different lengths. This is what is termed the. yardstick argument for a gold standard. It matters not whether these words were taken from, or put into the mouth of the dead general; the fact that they go forth with the authority of his name is sufficient to warrant almost any man to conclude it to be decisive of the quetion at issue. If the great war treasurer of the United States deemed that argument sound and sufficient, who may care or dare to question the fact? There is only one kind of hard, disa greeable work that one can have done for nothing, and that is one's thinking. If you get your boots blacked, or your clothes washed, or your hair cut, or any thing else in the nature of service done, you mifst, pay for it, but thero are peo ple always ready to take all the facts that you have gathered, w ho will ar range, classify and weave them into a garment, warrant it to fit you and en gage that the cloth shall not shrink nor the color fade, and all without any rharge for these line made-to-order opin ions which you are allowed to call your very own. It is well to be sus picious of those who propose to work for less than living wages. It may appear upon investigation that those who take in thinking to do for others, take; in those others as well. "As a man think-i-th so is he."' The man who has let, out his thinking has let himself; and so long as the lease holds he will have a master. The people of the I'nited States have been accustomed pretty generally to let :ut their thinking upon the subject of monetology; ami it is safe to estimate that those who have so cheerfully done this severe labor have paid themselves for their efforts with a sum equal to the amount of the national debt when it was largest. It becomes a practical and in teresting question whether or not we an afford to pay at this rate for having uur thinking done. Had we not better go into this business ourselves and earn the liberal pay which it affords. A good place to begin is right here upon the yardstick argument. Remem ber that thinking is not play, and that in case you take the trouble to follow the argument it becomes your bounden duty to know for yourself if it be sound jr not, and to point out any defects which may be discovered. The builder "jf an argument should never be allowed to use- defective material without rebuke. Any true measure when properly used will determine the length or weight or quantity of the thing measured: for example-, all yards of cloth will be of the same length, and all tons of coal the same weight, all bushels of corn the same size, and the measures, uilless jhanged by law. will be always and everywhere the same. A true unit of value, by means of which other values .ould be measured, would consist of a cer tain amount of a number of things that ire supremely valuable because indispen sible to man's existence, these things would also be the products of human labor. Maw has njver applied himself to the task of dividing a true means of value. We have inherited from the remotest antiquity, from barbarous and savage progenitors, the habit of doing our trad ing by means of the precious metals, silver and gold, and since 1S73 we have used gold ulotio us real money, making silver a sort of assistant money, good enough for ordinary use, but powerless to do the work of money upon supremo occasions. The universal use of gold as money, the only exchange for all things, does give a semblance of valuing power to gold, we learn the relative value of dif ferent things by this means and the val ue of individual things as expressed in gold, that is the barter ratio of the thing to gold, but not its real value. If the real value of a thing be determined by its just measure, its expression will not change so long as the thing valued remains unchanged, but if the standard he variable, its nominal value will change just as often as the standard varies from its normal condition. Probably no one thing is of more con stant value to man than wheat: its use is almost universal, there is nothing which can be substituted for it, and Its produc tion requires the. expenditure of a defi nite and almost invariable amount of human effort. Had we a true measure uf value we should know exactly what is the value of wheat. Our only measure is gold, which does but tell us its barter ratio to gold, it is a well-kdown fact that, with real value the same, this bar ter ratio to gold has 'varied as much as 50 per cent. What kind of a measure is it that varies its capacity as much as one-half? How long would a yardstick be used that was at one time thirty-live and another time thirty-seven inches king, to say nothing of changes equal to half its length? Hut gold not only does not measure well, but it does not measure at all in the sense that a yardstick measures. If, when wo bought cloth, we exchanged a yardstick for each yard of cloth, and if, when yardsticks were scarce, each stick would exchange for a longer piece of .ioth than usual, then would the meas uring performance of yardsticks and gold be alike. This making of gold, by law, the uni versal and only exchanger, makes Us use indispensible to every exchange; that is, that at every trade there must be present gold or some representative of ?old some paper freely exchangeable for cold, and therefore, as good as gold, for the act of exchanging pro-supposes the existence of things to be exchanged. The quant ty of gold then becomes of prime importance. If wo must have it when it is scarce, then wc must pay dear for it. This is just the trouble now. Gold is scarce; we are paying dear for it, aud, as the demands of trade are in creasing while the supple of gold does not increase, it is daily becoming more vnd more valuable. The demand for free coinage of silver Is not made for the purpose, simply, of producing confusion by making a double standard of money; that is, two equal moneys a silver and a gold money but lor the pieci ng out of the supply of gold, which is manifestly too short. It is better to have a coat and trousers that do not exactly match in pattern, than to do without one or other of these useful articles, or to vainly; try to make one garment do the work of both. Gold must very soon cease to be money at all, or else accept the help of silver upon equal terms. Anil even this will but a little postpone the day when metal money will be clearly seen to be ineffi cient, inconvenient, extravagant, and therefore, a hindrance rather than a help to society, for industrial people are beginning to think upon the subject, and they have a way of thinking very fast once they are fairly started. E. M. Bur cliarcl, in Xtiaial View. RESOLUTIONS Atlopteil by the Knhonal Farmers' Alli ance, Ht Omaha, Jan. MH, 18'Jl Against Itolh Old I'artlos. Itextttvcd, That we declare in favor of holding a convention on Feb. 2-', 1S9?, to fix the date and place for the holdingof a convention to nominate candidates for the offices of president and vice-president of tiie United States. We declare that in the convention to be held on Feb. 1S'.i', the representation shall be one delegate from each state in the union. llesulreil. That we favor the abolition of all national bank's and that surplus funds be loaned to individuals upon land security at a low rate of hiterest. Hesulretl, That we are unalterably in favor of the Australian ballot law. Jtrxotreil, That we demand the fore closure of mortgages that the govern ment holds on railroads llexnlrcil. That we discountenance gambling in stocks and shares. Itestilrcil, That this is an administra tion of the people, and in view of that fact the president and vice-president of the United States should be elected by a popular vote instead of an electoral col lege. Resnlretl, That as the farmers of the United States largely outnumber any other class of citizens they demand the passage of laws of reform notjas party measures but for the good of govern ment. licunlred, That the alliance shall take no part a partisans in political strug gles, as affiliating with republicans and democrats. Jtesulrel, That the National Farmers' alliance demands that the inter-state commerce law be so amended and en forced as to allow all railroads reasona ble income on money invested, and we demand that mortgages on the Union and Central Pacific railroads be fore closed at tim e and the roads bo taken charge of by the government and run in the interests of the people with a view to extending both these lines to the east ern seaboard. efi,lrfil. That we favor the free and unlimited coinage of silver and that the V'jliiiuc of currency be increased to $50 per capita. We further demand that all paper money be placed on an equality with gold. Hexntreil, That we, as land owners, pledge ourselves to demand that the government allow us to bor row money from the United States treas ury on real estate security. llisulreil. That all mortgages, bonds and shares of stock should be assessed at a fair value. iii , so n'?, That the senators of the United States shall be elected by v ote of the people. Jiexiilecd. That laws regarding the liquor traffic should be so amended as to prevent endangering the morals of our children and destroying the usefulness of our citizens. liesulreil. That we favor the passage of the Conger lard bill. Jh'xiil red, That we believe that women have the same rights as their husbands to hold property, aud we are in sympa thy with any law that will give our wives, sisters and daughters full repre sentation at the polls. Hesolrrd, That our children should be educated for honest labor and that agri cultural colleges should be established in every state. Hexnlred, That we favor a liberal sys tem for pensioning all survivors of the late war. THE OREGON PLAN. How the Grangers Would Solve the I'lnan ial Problem. The State Grange of Oregon, and the National Grange have adopted the fol lowing financial plan, which is clipped from F. M. Nighswander's letter to the Eugene Guard of Jan. 10: First Fix the amount of money for circulation per capita of population at S50. Let it be as now, gold, silver, gold anil silver certificates, greenbacks and national money same as the hundreds of millions now printed and given the bank ers on their bonds. Second Let our national government loan this money to the state at 1 per cent, interest, the same as bankers pay for it now. Third Let the state, loan it to tho counties at 2 per cent., 1 per cent, thus going to the state treasury. Fourth Let the counties loan it to tho farmers on their farms as security, to the amount of one-third or one-half their value, and at 3 per cent., 1 per cent, going into the county treasury. The farmer would get his money on mortgages for one third and in many cases one-fourth that he is paying now. That would reduce the burden of his debt three quarters. Think what a relief that would be to thousands of homes. Hut there is still more good in this plan. The one per cent, the county gets for the use of the national money goes toward paying county expenses, and that reduces the taxes of every farmer and tax payer in the county. The one per cent, that the state receives goes towards paying the state expenses, and this again reduces the taxes of the people. The national government still gets the same one percent, for its money that it is now getting from one specially favored class of our people. Many opponents of the alliance are opposing it because they fear that it may hurt or damage their party machinery. Rlcss your life, dear innocent, the party machinery has been run by a set of men who have as little concern about your welfare or the people as the czar of Rus sia. You have been humbugged by them so long into believing that you had something to do about it that you have never stopped to inquire and to realize that you have only been playing monkey to pull out . the chestnuts for the politicians. No doubt you enjoy playing monkey and being patted on tho back; but do not become offended if those who are tired demand that govern ment shall imply and mean more for the people than offices for the politicians. There are questions at issue which must be settled. There are measures for re lief and efforts for benefit that must re ceive attention. Address yourself to these and help benefit yourself. AJIl anee llernld. The people forget that the govern ment is the people, and that they have the right to be the government. The government money, created and paid out as full legal tender is the best of all. That its place is not in tho fire burning, that bonds may bo issued thereon, nor locked up in vaults in order to give pawnbrokers a chance to get higher rates of interest. That to take legal tender money from tho people, destroy it, give bonds therefor, and compel the people to pay interest on these bonds is the turning of a hog to destroy the child that would direct to better feed. Wall street is a greater enemy to the people than ever was the rebellion. AT REST IX CALVARY. HONORED BY CONQUERED AND CONQUERORS. The l ast or the Great Union Captains Committed to the Grave One Hundred Thousand I'pnplo Do liim Honor le M ription ol the Scene. Lay him low; lay him low, 'Neath the clover or the snow; What cares he? He can not know Lay hint low. "Mid the thunder of cannon, the pomp of war, and in t lie presence of the civil and military dignitaries of the land, the Sherman funeral train rolled into St. Louis. The display moved the multitude, a hundred thousand persons gazing on the spectacle in solemnity and silence, per haps the most impressive feature of the grand display was the appcaramc of tho remnant of tho battle-scarred legions who in their prime and vigor "marched to the sea." To-day they are old and gray, but the old spirit prevailed. Some walked as erect as the day they left At lanta, many were stooped by the weight, of years, others hobbled on crutches or limped painfully along behind the bier of their beloved commander. The old guard mourned but never faltered. Other trains had arrived loaded t their utmost capacity, and about the Union Depot thero was a great crush, M AJIIII (lK.vtH.ll. while between that point and Washing ton avnue the sidewalks were utterly inadequate to accotnmoJate the crowd, which spread into the streets and left only sufficient room for the movements of the troops. Tiie gathering was, how ever, very dissimilar to those on tho festive occasions. Nearly all present wore badges commemorative of the dead hero, a deep stillness prevailed and ail were impressed with the solemnity of the occasion. The division upon which most interest centered was the first, composed of the famous Seventh Cavalry, under Colonel Forsythe, and the artillery and infantry of the regular army. The flutter of the gay red and white swaliow-tailed guidons and I he flash of the swords and y. How capes of the troopers as they wheeled into Pine street in double columns of companies.every horse keeping alignment and proper distance, would have called forth thundering applause on an occa sion less solemn. Hut the crowd never for an instant forgot the occasion that had caused it to gather. The grim can non, with their large, fine horses and their perfectly equipped artillerymen, excityd scarcely less interest than the cavalry. The recent Indian troubles in the Northwest had sharpened public in teresyt, and the troops who had seen ser vice shone resplendent in the eyes of the spectators. The bugle corps of the Seventh Cav alry led tho procession, being precei e 1 THE SHKHMAN FAMILY by a platoon of police, who cleared tho way. General Merritt, grand marshal of the procession, aud his aides, s one twenty officers of the regular army, rode at the head of Custer's cavalry. They wore side arms, heavily bound in black. The thinned ranks of companies H and K GENERAL SHERMAN AT SniLOR. of the cavalry showed the havoc at Wounded Knee, but the six troops show ed 400 men In line The artillery and in fantry passed quickly in view, and then came the caisson on which rested tho body of General Sherman. 'Ihe second division, though less mar tial in appearance, presented a picture no less impressive. The Loyal Legion was in the van. followed by the Society of the Army of the Tennessee. The third division consisted of Grand Army posts. Sons of Veterans and allied orders. The old warriors turned out strong, fully 3.000 being in line. They came from Illi nois, Iowa, Kansas and over half from Missouri. liehlnd the Grand Army wa a small body of men that attracted universal at tion. In the center was a banner with the wonfc: "Southern Historical Society." It was the ex-Confederate Society of St. Louis. The members, prominent citin-ns of that city, marched with bowed heads behind the man vyho, of a'l others, did i most to overthrow the causj for which they fought and lost. The fourth division was under com mand of Governor Francis and was made up entirely of militia. The imiosiiig cortege reached th .; cemetery. Tho bottom of the newly dug grave was covered with evergreen and iiKeses. The American Hags lined the sides flags that had a history. The floral offerings were most magnificent. They came from all parts of the country. The soldiers formed in line cast of tho grave, while the family and friends of the General immediately surrounded it The eight sergeants transferred the SUt'.ltMAN IX W.V i casket, from the caisson t i the l ank ! the srave. In the shelter of an adjacent tomb Father Sherman, the dead soldier's favorite son, hurriedly donned his priest- f J . ,i "lTn,-.W ! i ;i ill! i f 9 " L-.rM KltOM TilE CAISSON TO THE CUAVE. ly vestments and prayer book in hand, returno 1 tothe head of the grave. When ' the bearers p'aced the c .sket on tho supports above the grave the bugles blew a call and the baud played th ' first few LoT IX AI.VAHY CKMETKitY. bars of Pieyel's Hymn. As the sound died away Father Sherman removed his hat, and. opening his prayer book, began the impressive prayers for the repose of the soul of the dead. Wh-;n the service began the battalion of infantry stood at present arms facing the. little group about the grave. In the midst of tho services a hoarse, low voice gave tho command "Carry arms order arms" in quick succession, and the sharp click of the musket larrel and the ring of the butt as it struck the ground gave singu larly impressive atcentuation to tlu solemn words of the young priest. Father Sherman concluded with tho in vocation: "May his soul and the souls of all the faithful departed rest in peace. Amen! In the name of the Father and of tho Son and of tho lioiy Ghost. Amen!" Then, in quick succession, three vol leys rang out over the grave and echoed from the surrounding hil's.. Three sal vos from the artillery, which was sta tioned outside the cemetery, followed, and the funeral cer.-monies of the last of the great Union captains was over. A mission has been started in New York for married men. Ihe first step taken by those in charge should be to relieve the llenedicts of the "pale cast of thought that has sicklied" over their faces while endeavoring to make them selves believe a RS.'ooii was a lodge room. An oculist also should be brought in to fit their eyes to a dancing, dodg ing keyhole. VI null 1 .1 n - l; a I I A DEAD HERO nOXORD). NEW YORK'S TRIBUTE TO SI MAN'S MEMORY. Brief but Touching Services at the I r.,..:'T Itesidence litiihlincft Draped will F-u hleius or the Nation's Grief The K..uis of Ihe Fuacral Cortege Thronged People. At an early hour the people befa.- ' assemble in West Seventy-first str. ' -posite the residence of General She-m : From almost every house along the - . i the American Hag boated, the g U number being in deep mourning. .1 were few v isitors. Only the most in i:t:.-t friends and a few old soldiers we -' ad mitted, and the latter were obli Show certificates that they had sel the army. Kev. Thomas Sherman, whose ; has been "so anxiously awaited, a lie wa ; welcomed home, not by loved father, but by hs brother Sherman, and his sisters. Mrs. Th; and Miss Hachel Sherman. He go then to view his father's remaii afb-r a short, sad talk with his b and sisters, retired for the night 1 tii ' hours till morning in rcst'ess During the morning a large shield was received at the house in West Point cadets The shield w feet in height aud four feet bro: was made of white and blue immc and bore the inscription, "Willia cumsoh Sherman, from his West boys" class of 1S40. " A short Catholic service was pi rf about the casket of General Slu To this none were admitted b members of the family and noa tives. The services were very and consisted of prayer and si After these, services the raske closed. President Harrison did m upon tho remains ,f t! e General, family sent an invitation to hit the President kindly replied thatl f erred to keep with him the r brances of the General while a'ivt The caisson, draped in b!ac drawn hy four white horses, was up in front of the Sherman house, horses were mounted by regulars. ; army officer was in charge, f caisson was an orderly leading the charger which bore the. military pings of the General. A black covering almost hid ti e horse frotr l.itt the boots and saddle were i conspicuous. The services over, tl move toward the formation of the j sion was began. A squad of the Sixth Cavalry i to the left of the house in the mid the street The caisson came up v, of the house. Generals Howard, S Johnston, and other military digrr formed in two lines on the wa made a rassaie-way to the caissc the pallbearers left the house, a band out toward Central Park playing a funeral mareli. The ca the General was borne slowly funeral carriage amid uncovered , The procession began to mov Eighth avenue, but the rogress w . slow. On the side streets Were hu' of carriages waiting for a place immense procession. The order column, following the relatives at., iiy, was as follows. l'ltekieiit aiij Vice President of the States. Members of til's Cabinet. Joseph H. Choate, acc"-.;punyiLg tx-P. ,1 s I- r. er .in K. 1. MliyLM. Chauncey Bf. Pepew, aoxmipanving e dent Orover Cleveland. Committees uf the Senate and House of . seotatives. Lieutenant Governor Jones and Mavor Uilitary order of ths I or.i Legion of the :. States and officers of the armv and na The Gian.l Armv of the lieputilie. The Corps of Cadets, United iStatei Military Acalemv, Lien tenant Colonel Hot-kins.'comnian National Guard, under command of l'l Gen -ral Ixniis Fitzgerald. The lripad eisted of the following organizations : liegiment. Colonel "James Cav-ana; iith the old battle !!ag carried will General Sherman at Bull Htm; '.'th Hegiment. Colciu 1 Will iam Seward ; -2d liegiment. Colonel j. T. Camji ; 71st liegiment, Col. Fred. Keeper; 7th Keg , Ianiel Am'leton ; Kth IU-g., Col. Human I'owd. The First Battery. Captain Wendell; s Hattery. Ca)taiu Wilson, aud 'troop .i Captain ltoe, with troops of the rogular army forming the funeral cortege. The Signal Corps, commanded )v Capta hip, was mounted, mid followed th Twelfth Kegiiuent. Ielegations and representatives of ve Sons of Veterans, and other organ tions, assigued, under ihtrge of General iiavid Moiris, The bulk of the mi itai y oseoi banded at Canal street The b( cort continue I with the remai .lersey City, whete they were met i First Kegimoiit.Xational Guard, St New Jersey.and placed aboard the t , tra'n on the Pennsylvania Kailrc . St. Louis. The family and comti of escort also boarded the train. It is estimated that tin re were persons in the procession. The .' . along the route were densely tin with sjiectators. Church bells tolled in New York and Jersey Ci business was generally suspended. ...-'a! !'"r JCf s Outwitted by an Innocent. There is a $rod story told of tl) witting of a gambler and a coe ate, who was looking on, by a parent innocent. The game, was Xapoleon, is played iu this ner : Five cards are dealt an players in turn declare the nnrr tricks each claims to make. Wi declares the highest number against the rest, and the first ca is trumps. There were iu this case onl players, and to tho "innocent' i h :'U". ' i iO V'f dealt ace, king, queen, knave of ami ace of diamonds. He nat backed himself to get five tricl chances in favor of his doing so enormous. He intended, of cou make clubs trumps, but the re with which his wagers were ac.jp the onlooker who saw his oppc hand, aroused his suspicions, and the stake had risen to a high at lie made his solitary diainon trump, aud found his adversar five clubs, and so made every tri , iufi .-hlly , be) v, iir - - ..ith They Die Abroad. The death of King Kalakana In a foreign laud, 2,500 miles from his K.n.f dom, recalls the death of his" 3 re !e cessor, Kamthameha II., in I.c '., nearly sixty-six years ago. Ka s meha II., succeeded his father, 1 r 1 o hameha I., the Great, in 1819, w)tn the old native religion was begi ii.ie to gire way before the whites. A n; ri can missionaries arrived in 1820. r-o soon thereafter the king abolisL I '- tabu and idolatry. On Novemb -182:$, the King, who had long de mi to travel, sailed for London on a 11 f ish man-of-war, accompanied by his q" 1, Kamehamalu, and a suite. They e;v received by CSeorge IV., and attrt . -i much attention in Loadon. Ear in July, 1824, they were attacked 1 a malignant form of measles, and oe : in 14th the king died; the queen aied shortly afterward. The man-o:' wtr Blonde was detailed to carry th re mains cf the king and queen to tbelr kingdom, and on May 6, 1825, it ar; i vcl at Honolulu, where the dead sover- ie i. s were Varied with Christian ceremt uit a.