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The farmers' union. (Memphis, Mo.) 1891-1895, November 10, 1892, Image 1

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.trv;iitatifln More Tcrrlnle than at I'lrat
ICi'imrtc'il Acres of Smoldering Heap
U'licrc Oiire VTm PronpiTous ArtUity
Jli-lJef uf tlic Sultercr.
The Fire at It Wan.
Milwaukee rorrrtmoiulence.
Jo one hutl a real nofon of the havoc
created by our P. rrilic lire till th fol
lowing Sunday morning. The wind had
died down and the day broke under a
clear sky. Miles away the billows ( f
ernoke could le seen rising alove the
city, and while they did not sweep the
business street, they gave to a distant
view the appearance of a heavy fog,
rolling unih-r the wind and Mreakin.?
cut in long, thin 1 aimers fro. a the
heart of the city. Near the Northwest
ern depot the extensive destruction
Worked by the lire became seriously
prominent. From the railway tracks n's
far as the ejre eotild see through the
pnioke almost the entire warehouse part
of the town was a n.as i f ashes and
broken brick and stone, with here and
there the skeleton of a wall or a chim
ney risinp dimly out of it through the
clouds. The lake was rolling viciously,
and the line of sc r hod breakwater
showed where the fire ha 1 bitten down
to the edge of the water. Fur a while
during the tiro even the piling of this
breakwater was aflame.
From the railro.nl tracks for bb cks a
prosperous part of the town lay sn oli
ing. At the limits of the lire-swept dis
trict thousand of people had enthered
and were kept from crowding in by tho
1 olieemen and four companies of mili
tiamen arme.l with rifles. Inside this
line the tired firemen werestill winking.
Joim of them had been fighting the lire
for a day and a half. They were grimy
from the smoke, and their rubber coats
were cased in cinders. A few of them
were sitting on piles of brick with the
nozzles of the hose in their blackened
hands. Many of them were so worn
c ut by the work of the night that they
slept heside the mcines while men who
owned offices in the district and bovs
who volunteered for the fun of the thing !
played on tho embers.
Miclit Aimini; the Iteiin?.
At every corner a flattened mass of
half-burned wood and brick was pointed
out as the site of a big warehouse. !
Nothing except tho brick coiners of j
Keideburg's vinegar factory was left.
A lot of galvanized iron sheets and a !
big hill of malt and grain was n monu- j
mint to Hansen's malthouso. The f lk i
who saw that building burn thought it j
was liner than fireworks. For a moment
ill" windows flared like Ihe isinglass i
front of a parlor stove. Then the lire
died out there and a ring of green gas
eous flame ran around the building. Jn
nnother minute the elevator walls parted
nml the mass of flaming grain tumbled
down in a tremendous catara -t.
The Weisel & Vilt r machine shop,
where a falling wall killed two of the
firemen, was only a lot of brick and
plaster, and Uubb & Kip's fac'ory, which
gave the second start to the lire, had
been nlsolutely swelled. At the gas
works the ruins of one end of the hold- j
ers was still blazing in spite of the Ho d
of water poured in by the firemen, and
the machinery was tangled ami I roken
beyond repair. In nearly every mass
of ruins men were groping for valuablo
papers and books and nt every corner
employes could be seen pouring wnter
on a smoking safe.
On the skirts of the burned district
the scenes are sometimes pathetic.
Little unprotected piles of bed clothing,
pictures, and small household be
longings hml been left by fie -ing thoti
Fandj. Once in a while a shivering boy
was seen standing beside the wreckage
o a home a broken dock, batteied
image, a lag o;' tnbiewa.e and some
poor clothing. In the middle of Buffalo
street a deserted truck stood loaded
with one trunk and a little locking
chair de-orated with a neat "tidy."
These things were the wreckage of
small homes burned out in the Third
Ward, where hundreds of cottages of
workingmen were swept away by the
The IMstrcsslnsr Frature.
Tho burning of these poor houses was
the distressing feature of the fire. Mil
waukee can stand well enougli the de
struction of big warehouses, for thee aro
many I ig warehouses th: re and many
rich men able to put up buildings in the
p!a:o of those ruined. The cottages
destroyed belonged to tho poor laboring
mi n. SSome of ihese men squatted along
tho lake shore years ago, and nearly all
the bouses represent hard saving and
long work. They went liko tallow
before the fire and left no monument
al ruins to mark their site. Family
alter family applied to the relief
organizations or crowded into St. John's
Cathedral and the Northwestern depot.
Prompt relief was given to them as
eoon as the excitement of the niht was
nettled, and there was as little suffer
ing as ever followed a big fire. The
hotels fed hundreds of hungry men.
1'abst's Hotel loaded up tho Chicago
firemen with coffee and steaks, and with
the other houses sent a patrol wagon
load of fo-d down to the smoke-stained
men who were slugging the fire near
the lake.
The people of Milwaukee had hardly
turned out of bod to sec the fog of the
tire rising before men were hustling
around to raise money for the unfortu
nate folks. Telegrams came in from
roundabout towns, from Oshkosh and
Madison and Jancsville and llacine, all
of which aro tributary for Milwaukee's
I usiness. These little towns all offered
'to help as far as they could. A telegram
tame In from Mayor Washburne, of
i hicago. The Mayor evidently thought
Milwaukee had I tten shoveled clean off
the earth, for he telegraphed in a good
hearted way about Chicago rising from
its ashes and hoping Milwaukee would
rite from Milwaukee ashes. These tel
egrams and letters were taken thank
fully but Milwaukee went about help
ing its own people with its own hands.
Mllwankro lulses 9.11.O0O.
Hundreds of businessmen poured into
the chamber of commerce building and
almost before President Iiacon could
make a talk $:il,2:tl had been subscribed.
It was headed by a whaling big check
for S3.00U sent in by the llemocratie
candidates for county offices, who are
not rich men; 1'hil Arm ur gave $.(MiO
and said he would give a lot more for
his old home; the Hi-ewers' Association
subscribed $,)i)l; Henry ('. Payne,
tho Eepubli an committeeman, hand
ed in $l,M't, and the same
amount was coniril uted by Cap
tain Fred Pnhst, the Wisconsin Fire and
Marine Insurance Hank, .loim I.. Mitch
ell, Hanker Ilsiey, Cudahy HrcJ.,
August I ill ieiii , K. 1'. Paeon and Mr.
Uosseanu. I ong after the meeting
money was rolling in and at 3 o'clock
kai: Ti!it cA-iiiorsn.
the fund wns estimated a' near f.".i,o,'0.
It continued to g:ow i n'tl the JliK'.COtt
mark was pa-se I. That's not enough to
build up one of the ruined warehouses,
1 ut it will make comfortable hundreds of
honi'dess Third Ward people. None of
these was permitted to undergo hard
ship. Every burned-out family was
taken care of somewhere and by some
body. Probably no town was ever so
badly cut by a fire to f.mio out, so
ci'cerful and happy as Milwaukee.
The real estate board, which raised a
considerable sum in a-'clitic n to its first
d nation of S",('0t turned the entire
amount over to the relief committee.
concluding not to distribute the money
on its own account. One of the most
substantial contributions for the relief
of the poor came from Frank A. I.nppen
A Co. The firm had sold furniture on
the installment plan to many of those
who were burned out ami had over
$2,iofi still due and secured by notes.
In spite of the fact that he was a heavy
loser by the lire, having had a quantity
of furniture burned in Hub V Kipp's
factor-, Mr. I appen announced that he
would give rece pts in full to those of
the sufferers who still owed him any
thing. The work of s'-arching for the safes of
the vaiious firms was commenced early.
In nearly every case the papers, which
alone would enable the losers to esti
mate correctly the amoi nt of their loss
were in the I inning buildings. To get
nt these a firce of several hundred
workmen armed with pickaxes and
shovels was turned loose. Several
safes were found, but it was impossible
to open them, as the locks had becon e
so wart ed and twisted that the bolts
could not be turne 1.
ItfliiiiMiii:; Mm rreifclit'iotifte..
The enterprise shown by the big suf
ferers is exemplified by the work of the
Chii ago and Northwestern Failroad.
Both the outgoing and incoming freight
remains of itEinr.nrim vixeoah wonts,
wnicn orcrriKo neahly a iu.ock.
houses were burned. Nothing but tho
bare walls were standing, while ins ilo
of them was a mass of smoldering
wreckage which occasionally broke out
into bright flames. Hy night of Monday
the buildings were nearly all roofed.
At one time they were forced to quit,
owing t a blaze which broke out in the
south end of one of the buildings while
they were putting a roof on the north
end. An engine was called and the
blaze was soon extinguished.
Insurance men aro doing their best
to settle the trouble for the poorer ot
the sufferers. They are anxious that
all small losses be adjusto 1 as toon as
possible and accordingly a special com
mittee will have such claims in charge.
One Incident which has received noat
tention owing to the excitement caused
by the big lire was the burning or seven
cottages in the southwestern part of tho
city Friday evening. The people whe
wore burned out lost everything they
possessed, and they will be included in
the list of those to be given relief.
Dr. James Richard Cooke, who has
Just graduate 1 from the Boston Univer
sity as a physician, is a blind man, but
has a record of !)? per cent, in his three
years' study, and on his final examina
tion obtained 9:S per cent, in anatomy.
He will devote himself especially to dis
eases of the heart and lungs.
It 'Would Atil I nnrnioiisly to tin Great
nnil Already 1 uii?ifuft I'owcr l"ot
i'Sed by i:)lr:d Corporation) t l
us Vioiiay ut lout of lue.
Coneoril1 n- t rrcnvjr.
rushing financial reform to tho
front lias compelled our Democratic
frietiils, even in the tSouth, to pay
more attention to this important issue.
In the several Democratic speeches we
have heard, it is true most of the time !
has been devoted to the defunct force
bill and personal abuse of Weaver, et.
nl. Colonel Livingston was the first
we heard discuss the finance question,
and strange as it may appear to our
friends, tli is erstwhile great champion
(d the sub-treasury forgot all about it
anil gave us "something better" of the
Democratic party, viz: State Ibinks of
issue. What are the advatages claimed
for State IJanks?
Tirst. Immediate relief. Colonel
Livingston stated that the (teorjdn
Railroad was rcidy, just as soon as the
10 per cent, was abolished, to issue
Sl.oi.HHN!!). This, to us, was a new
phrase of the programme. To the al
ready tremendous power conferred cm
onr railroad corporations to tax us nil
the trallic will bear on the exchange of
our products, is to be added the priv
ilege of the control of onr medium of
exchange, well knowing as they must.
hat "whoever controls the money of
the nation controls all industry of the
nation." If this is not centralizing
power, what is it ?
Who M ill doubt but that every rail
rord company in the nation will gladly
issue millions of dollars of money to
psy their help, construct new lines,
et.-., none of which, m:irk yon, can be
rnad; a legal tender, for Congress has
w'vely reserved that power. Is money
i-sued by a private corporation on its
credit better than money issued by the
general ( love rn men t on the credit, not
nnly of these private corporations, but
all the other weallli of the nation, as
well? Certainly not. The vital ob
jecthm to this plan is that it would
:.dd enormously to the great and al
ready dangerous power possessed by
ihe railroad corporations of the nation
r.t the present time,whieli is practically
on trolled br less than a dozen men.
liy others the indictment is plausibly
IVd out that under a State Lank sys
tem any number of farmers could form
a joint stock company and bv issuing
their notes secure a supply of money
which would pass curren; in all busi
ness transactions."
We -can rest assured that when xneh
a plan is formulated it will be surround-
1 by so many safe guards as to leave
the farmer out. They would require,
and rightly too, unenicumbered real
estate security, a scarce article with
farmers at the present time. That is
simply " thrown out as a bait to catch
gudgeons." It could not l made a
legal tender and would have but a
limited circulation. We demand a
national currency, a full legal tender,
wherever presented. President Har
rison in bis letter of acceptance, de-F.-ribes
the result by repeating history
tinder such a system iu our own coun
try. "The denomination of a bi:l then
was no indication of its value. Mer
chants deposited several times during
the day lest the hour of bank closing
should show a depreciation of the
money taken in the morning. The
traveler could not use. in a journey to
the Last, the issues of the most solvent
banks of the West, and in consequence
a money-changer's office was the
familar neighbor of the ticket office
and lunch counter. The farmer
end laborer found the money
received for their products or their la
bor depreciated when they came to
make their purchases and the whole
business of the country was hindered
and burdened."
We would soon find that the state
banks by farmers, through discrimina
tion, would, like our warehouse and
other co-operative companies, be
crowded out.
"Further advantages would be found
in the ease with which money could be
borrowed on the security of real estate,
tints remedying one of the principle
grievances of which the farmer com
plains." liven though that grievance
should bo removed there are still three
vital objections.
1. These issues would not bo legal
'2. It would still leave tho power of
contraction and expansion in the hands
of private oor orations.
.'. All interest accruing on this pub
lic necessity would go into the tills of
private corporations instead of the
public treasury.
"Then, too, the difficulty of obtain
ing enough money at certain seasons of
bile year, when it is needed to wove
(lie crops, will disappear." Our sub-
treasury plan provides for that in a
much more satisfactory manner, by
leaving the expansion to the producers
of tho wealth to be exchanges, and
not to speculators interested in cheap
"lr.ste-.nl of accumulating in New
York, Chicago, or o:her large cities,
(he tendency of state bank notes will
be towards remaining at home, ready
nt all times for every commercial pur
pose." Whv the tendencv to remain nt
home? Simply becc.nr.e of its question
able value away from home. Do you
want to exchange your labor, or the
product of your labor, for such a
money? AVe demand a national cur
rency, safe, sound and flexible. In no
particular will state banks fill the bill.
"The rates of interest, now so often
the chief obstacle in the way of the in
vestment, by the farmer, of more capi
tal in his business iu the shape of bet
ter stock, improved machinery, new
buildings, etc., will be lowered in all
sections of the country." That may be
i.o, but not to the same extent as hy
direct issue to the people. These state
banks will engage in the business for
the profits to be made out of it, and
not for tho benefit to the farmer. We
demand thrt all money shall bo issued
direct to Ihe people, without the inter
vention of banks of issue that may be
depended on to chargo us ail onr nec
ssitics will compel us to pay for its
se. We demand money at cost of is-
e and redemption.
'The farming industry, when re
lieved from the burden of the war tariff
and stimulated by an abundance of
fiound, cheap and convenient currency
will attain a condition of unexampled
prosperity." To this we heartily say,
r.men. The greeter tho relief tlje
greater the prosperity, lfareduciion
cf the war tariff of ( per cent, would
be a relief, then a reduction of 51 per
tent, would bo a much greater relief.
If a reduction in the rate of interest of
2 or o per cent, would be a relief, then
a reduction of 8 per cent, would boa
much greater relief. Kvery objection
raised to our land-loan and sub-treasury
plan can lie raised against the sta'o
bank plan, whilst all the objections, of
which we complain under our present
nystem will apply to state banks. II.
L. Loucks, Pres. K. A. and I. U.
I'atrlrK Henry's i:xcrpnce.
The well known speech of Patrick
Henry runs thus:
"I have? but one lamp to guide my
feet, and that is the lamp of experi
ence. I know of no way of judging
the future but by the past.
"Judging from the past, I wish to
know what there lias been in the con
duct of the Lritish ministry for tho
last ten years to justify those hopes
with which gentlemen are leased to
solate themselves and the House."
If Patrick Henry we're alive to-day,
he would no doubt be making another
speech about as follows:
"I havct but one laniM to guide my
feet, and that is the lamp of experi
ence. 1 knowjof no way of judging the
future but by the past.
"Judging from the past, I wish to
know what there has been m the con
duct of the two obi parties for the last
twenty years to justify ihosv hopes with
which prominent politicians and subsi
dized newspapers are pleased to solace
themselves and tho people."
AM nt U- .N
iiusr, .u:isi:t
Air: Maryland. My Miry lad.
Oppression's foot is on thy nccU. Americans,
ar.se. arlfe:
I.etii'it his itt I our (o intry wr :!? Ameri
r;cis. ;u.sc. urisc.
l!, all v.- hanly s .us of toil. l it fr.iru work
shop it the so I.
t.'ir.t-' ninl uiaUc o;ir foes recoil, Americans
arise, arise.
They say we'rt not in slavery twin 1; Amri
cans. an., arise:
Hut where can ft lower chains ho fo:ml,
Americans, arise, arise;
Than Uios- hy u liieh lh - moneyo i hands are
hin-l n r hard an 1 fast oar hau ls.
Ity inonoioliziiii; all our lands: Americans.
arise, arise.
In our distress where shall we tum? Ameri
cans, arise, arise;
Old parties lioth our prayers do spurn: Ame-ri-caii-,
arise, arise;
They say onr leaders all aro cranks, unconsii-
tutior.a'. arc our planks,
et w're. a l tiii: daily o our
ranks; Ameri-
cans. aris- ari-e.
I.et ever;,' freeman on our soj. Americans,
arise, arise.
In November vote for hcm-- and IJod: Ameri
cans, arise, arise;
Do your duly at tie polls, an 1 show the. got .1
Iiiik who controls
This n it .on's laws, as well as so ils; Ameri
cans, arise, a.ise,
National Kccr.om'st.
The claim is now b.iblly set up that
there never has been any "contraction
of the currency," that we have more
money per capita now than every be
fore. Tiiii issue was set fort'.i by
Charles Poster, the present secretary
of the treasury. He boldly undertook
to reverse history. For nearly a quar
ter of a century, the "contraction of
the currency" has been as much it fact
of history as the battle Gettysburg of
tho emancipation of the slaves. It has
been discussed in hundreds of speeches
in Congress. It has been treated by
historians and economists. It had been
reported and discussed by secretaries
of the treasury, and discussed by presi
dents of the United States.
It was always a troublesome and
very disagreeable fact to the money
kings and bond-holders in whose inter
est it was done. They attempted to
make the best of it by justifying con
traction as right and necessary. l!ut
finally they found in Foster a man
after their own heart, a man of small
caliber hut of vast conceit. He found
a very simple solution for the whole
difficulty iu flatly denying that there
ever was any contraction of the cur
rency. And now he is using all the
power and influence of the National
Government to spread and substanti
ate that falsehood.
Thousands of ((notations might be
made from Ihe Congressional record
and the official reports of the Depart
ment at Washington to disprove Fos
ter's claim. For the present, however,
one limitation will suffice. It is from
a speech delivered in the last Congress
by Hon. George AV. E. Dorsey of Ne
braska. Mr. Dorsey is a hanker, and
is thoroughly conversant with finances.
On account of his special fitness for
the place he was made chairman of the
Committee on lbinking and Currency
in the last House. Certainly no Ne
braska Kepnblican will dispute so high
an authority.
Mr. Dorsey says:
Everyone admits that there is an in
sufficiency of the circulating medium.
If we compare the amount of currency
in circulation at different periods cif
our history, as per the followiug table,
we lind that during the years that we
had the largest amount of circulating
medium per capita the greatest pros
perity was experienced by our people:
Circulation pet Capita Circulation per Capita
.Ian. 1. I Jan. 1.
ISM ?17."J 1ST3 IH7.-.0
15.01 issi -j hi
I SVC I V-T 13 127
lso isnt issc, loji
isj '.Mill IsfH 21 is
Mil 1SSW 1..6
l;6i rc'.m!
Tirr. estimate is based upon the best
avail i'de data as to our population,
claiming in 1SS!, 05,000,000 of people.
If wrt can restore to the country the
prosperity that we experienced from
lKt'e lo by cn increase of the cir
culating medium to $50 per capita, as
urge I and petitioned for by all labor
ing '"lasses throughout the country,
wourd it not be wise on the part of
thin Congress to take prompt and
speedy action? Advocate.
Surety for tho I m-mcr.
"People yet alive can remember ihe
way in which wheat used to be bought
'over the pile' in thi.i city, the farmer
bringing it in being obliged to accept
whatever was offered him because
there was no competing market, and
not even a quotation elsewhere "ivith
which to make eompari-ton. The re
sult WiW that the grain bought here in
the fall nniformty brought minimum
prices. It was held here during the
winter and shipped by lake at an en
ormous profit, the nominal price here
also going up when the farmers had no
more to sell."
The above is the stvle in which the
friends of the grain gamblers try to be
guile the people into npposi'ntr the
i Hatch bill. Of course the interlopers
Detwecn producer anu consumer did
their best then as they do now to seize
all possible profit. The only safety to
the farmer is to do their own "holding
over oy immense co-operatiue associa
tions. They would sometimes loose,
but oftencr gain. Chicago Sentinel.
0K Mo-es Lull wast lion, I -. i,
other day in a Lynn. Mass.. court for
ci ucuy o a norse. j be lull weight of
ins punisnineni may oe estimated When
it is estimated that ho bought the torso
i for 75 cents.
Aiany ICcnsons Why llm 4 overiimctit
MiohM Control All llio l.'oaili o: Hi
Country A .Millionaire Worili-I.uiKl-lorU
hiii I Coming.
, IC-tllro:t,l I'ropert y.
In an article iu the .tn-na, C. Wool
I a vis shows there would be saved by
government ownership of railroads:
On con-oliilati' ii of depots an 1
start "lll.OlUOl
On exclusive use of short routes... itllci.i
On attorney a!aries ani lr-:.l cx-
jwiie' . 1-.' 0 o iit'ii
On adrogation or p istes :ii.iiii
I n ahroKM.on of eon:tii..-s.oiis le. oj.o 0
On aliroutio i or l.i li prioil al-
ctals 4, 0 O'tl
On ai roi;at on of ir.nllc ?..-s-la-
tioiis i n e n (j
On al rojjatloii of in - i'lenss isui'iju
On alioll-h int all t.ut local i-aicei.
etc I"0l'fMI
Oil aliolishiiie; 5 11 ot al crtis.n . . UiiMin
Total 1 fiuo .101
Mr. Davis has held high jiosi ions on
several railroads, and his article in the
Arena show thorough research and
acquaintance with his topic.
These figures may lie correct as far
us they go. Uut they do not go to the
bottom facts.
The main cost of the railroad system
(and every ot he r for that matter) the
exorbitant interest and dividends that
are taxed upon the people.
Poor's Ibiihvav Manual, the stand
ard authority on this bli-iness. states
that the stocks and bonds of the rail
road aggregate Slo.fclil'JM.llla.
Their total earnings were $1.0S'i,-0-tO."2O7,
the operating expenses j-TM.-308,8."?,
leaving a surplus of ijHl,-
y , f 1 gVjjjHr. r t" '
fitirt.o'.t'.l, ut the railroads collected
Sr0,12,...24 tor ren'al. tolls, etc., and
$155.17 4..'!l!i from miscellaneous sources.
Add those-and the receipts of the rail
road companies were 1.1,S0.."M:?..St4
which would leave $1155. ',170,0 17 as the
profits now made on the railroad. This,
added to the fliMI.ODD.OOi) saved on
operating expenses as figured hy Mr.
Davis, would give the people of the
United States an annual saving of
nearly C.!lO,000,(H() which even the ex
travagance of our late Congressional
appropriations would be sufficient to
pay all expenses of Government, and
enable us to raise the wages of the rail
road men $100,000,000 a year.
This is figured on the basis that the
Government need make no profit on
the railroads any more than in con
ducting the postoffice. Progressive
A .Millionaire' onI.
On August 20. lS'.'ii, F.rastus Vi
man of New York, cue of the richest
and most influential men of this na
tion, stirred by the llulfalo strike,
Bpoke as follows:
Ours is aa age of combination. Cap
ital combines lind so does labor. Cap
ital organizes into trus s. Labor or
ganizes into unions, brotherhoods, aud
rssociations: and now I say and nark
Well my words the possibilities of or
ganized capital are ten thousand times
more dangerous to the public than are
the possibilities of organized labor. I
have a son with Troop A, at Buffalo,
engaged in oppressing 475 laboring
men who have struck. He is support
ing, I regret to think, unjust organized
capital. They represent, organized la
lior. I regret that he is there. I re
gret that 0.000 of onr state militia
should be there, overawing men who
wish an hour's pay for an hour's work.
One of the roads engaged in this
switchmen's trouble, the Lehigh Val
ley Iload, is a party to the so-called
coal trust. It controls 20 per cent, of
the anthracite coal land in the coun
trv. The New Jersey Central controls
another 20 per cent., and the Heading
System, as I was told in my own house
only two months ago, controls 52 per
cent. JJere you have over 00 per cent,
of the coal product of the country un
der the control of thres corporations,
and one of these three, the Heading,
has far from enviable financial refu
tation, and pays its employes according
to its reputation. Another road, the
Lehigh, now implicated m the switch
men's trouble, would like to reduce,
switchmen's wages to the Heading
standard and send up coal to the
Heading price. If these roads should
so wish, they could refuse next winter
to send coal" to Buffalo, or New York
City, for that matter.
Again, I say, the possibilities of or
ganized capital are ten thousand times
more dangerous to the public than the
possibilities of organized lalior. I
know that I am guilty of outrageous
heresy in fo saying, but I read the
news'every morning, which sti:s my
blocd, and I must let it out.
1'iospects c.oo.l i or X. nl lrl sni.
Mr. Vanderbilt owns over two mil
lion acres of land.
The California millionaire, Murphy,
owns our million acres of laud, which
IP Tor IION'T I.'KK TIIK WAV I'M i;rN:Mi lilt; Mt Kill. r.lT OFF.
is equal in area to the sia'c of Massa
chusetis. The Schenly estate owns 2,000 acres
within the limits of Pittsburg and
Allegheny cities, from which the heirs
draw t?l,(.Mlt),(KM) annually.
There are t-!S,t)ini,0i)0 acresof United
States land owned by foreign noble
men, who are not eitizensof the United
States, owe no allegiance to the! (iov
ernnient, and spend their money else
where. "Lord" Scully of Ireland, owns (ac
cording to our laws) in). 000 acres of
farm lands iu Illinois. These lands bo i
parcels out tomall tenants who turn j
over the bulk of their earnings to their !
foreign Ian llord. His income from
that source is $'00,000 per annum.
The (Jreat West.
; frank him! V w:crl4.
j lllatnnt e-iwards arc more hurtful to
i the cause of reform thai; its open and
I avowed enemies. They are lacking in
the essence of true manhood and patri
'olisr.i, which form the bulwark and
' reliance oi' a nation in times of public,
danger. Their example is one of dis-
coiirageim nt to others who might havo
, lent a shoulder to the wheel of peace
! fill revolutii ii. Ever ready to admit
existing wrongs, they plead tiie impo
j t'-nce of the masses to dethrone tho
golden calf and correct the abuses of
two decades of misgovernment, as an
excuse for not enlisting under tho
.banner of reform. They had rather
j continue to stroke the elephant and
j throw meat to the tiger anil let th9
country oi to ruin, than to bear tho
! odium of engaging in a cause that in
i unpopular villi the plutocracy and if a
; hireling press. This is the deplorable
c ondition of mind of a large: majority
of the j eopb. of tho East, who would
TT - : t . r T
be immeasurably Ixitcfitcd if "equal
rights to all. special j riviligestonone,"
were the rub of legal enactments in
s'ead of i s convcrM". The burden of
all true work of reform will lie to
arouse these partisan-blinded peoplo
from their dreary, drain-rotting apathy
and ins' ill in their minds a desire to
study the social and oeopomieal prob
lems of the age. This quickening of
the ir own intelligence Mill do the rest
i' will pluck from their eyes the
mote and beam.
The field of reform is being well
plowed and planted with good ideas in
the West, and it is to the free and
glorious West where ideas are as broad
as her illimitable prairie expanses, that
we must look for the future! hope and
salvation of this Hepuldic. Her sons
are noble in all the true elements of
manhood ; her daughters are supreme
in all perfect qualifications of woman
hood. I believe in the Eternal Good;
iu all the affairs of his'ory I seethe
hand of the Eternal Hight. Out of the
travail of the preseut wrongs, suffer
ings, and unjust economic conditions,
I see born the Bepublie of the future,
founded more nearly upon the all-enduring
rock of human brotherhood.
Farmer's Voice.
I our Dollai-M Loaned tor Every Dollar In
tlx Rteiioo.
Few people are aware of the bound-
i less advantage's that the national banks
have under our present accursed syg
tem. They have usurped the credit of
the people and arc fattening a thous
and fold annually from the unlimited
resources at the ir command. The Xrw
Fontnt give-sit in the following, which
we commend to our readers for careful
"We find the following printed card
on onr desk : 'The last report of sec
retary of treasury shows the banks as
loaning $1, '.'70, 022,087 ! Four times
the amount of money there is to loan.
Four interests on every dollar! Thcy
are drawing from the people enough to
run the national government, llow
long will it take them to gather in all
, the money of the nation? lhis does
j not include the amounts loaned by
I state, private and savings banks. Add
to this the billion dollars of othe r loans
and think if it is anv wonder times aro
i hard.
Will the American people never
wake up to the fact that they are being
j i nnperized ? Four people are paying
: interest njn-.a each dollar you Uave.iu
your pocket if yotwiiave auy.
Wake up! Wake up!-E.x.
Australian Finance.
Sir Poliert Hamilton, Governor of
Tasmania, snyo that the private wealth
ef Aus.ia ia is $'',K7".,nno,(!0. fcinco
IN.'ifl the country exportci gold to tho
value o." $l,7i ','ii 0,0'iu an I wool to tho
Value of $-0.1,0! n,0c;i. Pail ways and other
resnunevative works have cost the coun
try i;'lC.(i'.0,((iO the present indebted
nets. .
A;:o"T 310 leafs were killed in Maine
u lug the y?ar ending in May, aid
f o:nc of the- hunters hav.j ma le a good
living from the skins and tho bounty of
5 piiJ by the Stat-; for ca"h bear.
Fori: million people
grasped Corbett s hand.
have already
i I)cl:l!c,l IV.erljitio:! f Hon: the Work
Is .'Irroiiijilisheil.
Thirty-live thousand passenger cars
are now in use on the 175,000 miles of
railioadinthe Fii'ited States and Ter
ritories, and these cars have cost over
two hundred million dollars. A pas
senger car co-ts 5,m to s,000. An
outline of the manner in which such
cars are built cannot but bo of in
terest, as this chiss of car construc
tion ((institutes an important in-du-try
here. Wli-n an order is re
ceived leir a given nuiiilier ot cars it
is accompanied by carefully prepared
drawings of eveiy detail and by speci
fications which even enumerate the
quantity and quality of screws, nails,
bolts, castings, trimmings, etc.,
which are to Ik; used. Those un
familiar with this class of work
would be a-t iiiislied at the elaborate
nature! of the (hawing-, many of
tbeiii of full si.e, with ail dimensions
marked on them so that no mistakes
may occur. 'The specification aim
to contain a eleir statement of all
the materials t le used, their quan
tity, epnality and sizes; and the man
ner in which they are to lie treated
and built into tip; proposed cars, is
also very carefully described: even the.
paint and varnishes an; specified, as
well as the number of cents of each,
and the length of time each coat is
to be given to dry. Thus it will be
seen that a car is tirst carefully con
structed in th mind f the de
signer and all details put upon
paper, which servo as a guide totbos.!
having the construction in hand.
When an order for cars is placed,
bills of the mat'-ria's required arc
made in each department and pat
terns for t''e iron and wood work are
ma le, to guide the foremen in laying
out their portions of the work. As
speedily as possible departments are
furnished with the raw or finished
materials called for em their bills
of material?, with which t. make their
portions of the car. As an illustra
tion, the wood machine shop gets out
from the rough lumber the exact
number of pieces of wcol of every
kind and form called for, and the
blacksmith shop gets out the forg
ings required, the bolt department
makes the exact number of holts of
various kinds needed, and the brass
foundry !hl its order for the neces
sary trimmings, which trimmings,
when si specified, are taken in
hand by the electro - p!atiiu de
partment and plated with nickel,
silver or gold, as called for. Tie
glass department cuts the glass,
etches it, and silvers it when re
quired, and makes and furnishes all
the mirrors. When everything is
ready the prepared materials are de
livered as needed at the; compart
ments where the cars are to be erect
ed. First, the bottom material-',
such as sills, floor-joists, ileoiing,
draft-timbers and transoms arrive
and are taken in hand by the bottom
buiiders. At the completion of the
l ot torn of a car. which comprises the
work of the liottoni-huilders, it is
turned over to the body-builders, who
put tip the frame work and complete
the IkkIv of tho car, their work
consisting of app'ying posts, brac
ing, filling, bclt rai ing. paneling, car
lining, etc. The car is now taken by
the roofers, who apply the roof-b sards
moldings, etc., and then the tinners
put on the metal covering. After
a careful inspection the car is taken
by ibeontside painters, and isentcred
at the same time by the in-idc finish
ers, who put in arid finish the nice
inside wood-work, which isof the lrst
kinds of lumber, such ;:s c ak. ash,
cherry, mahogany, or vermilion.
The piping for heating and for light
ing is set in before! the seats are
p.aied in position. The inside finish,
ttHi, conceals the electric wires which
may be called for in the specifica
tions. Cars are lighted by oil. gas or
electricity. If by gas. it is carried in
condensed form in tanks underneath
the car. and is conducted to lamps by
suitable pipiiK. Electee lights are
derived from storage batteries, and
from dynamos run in a baggage car,
by steam from the engine.
When the inside woo l work is all
in place, and some of this finish com
prises exquisite carving, the inside
painters go over the entire interior
wood work, making the car read' for
the trimmers, who place the bronzoor
plated trimmings upon doors, sash,
blinds, and walls. The upholstering,
draperies, seat-coverings carpets,
ete., which have all been previously
prep red, are now put in. and when
the fliiif-hing touches arc added hy
the equipment department the car is
re.Tty for delivery to its purchaser, to
whom it is sometimes t-ent by special
messenger. Parties for whom cars
are building generally keep an in
se -le r at the saops to s e that all
work and materials are in accordance
with p'ans and specifications. All
work in the construction department
is carefully subdivided, many differ
ent gangs of men having their allot
ted tasks, which they perform with
surprising quickness and dexterity.
Mostof this passenger car work is paid
for by piece wages. These car works
have the capacity for turning out
twelve new passenger cars a week.
Pullman Journal.
lVrhaps It W;mm Whltr Sttark Instead ra
There is no argument valid upon a
premise of inherent impossibility. It
used to be concluded beyond question
that there were no black swans, be
cause it is impossible to conceive a
black swan. Hut one harmless and
unconscious black swan from the anti
podes put all the ingenious thinkers
to rout. Hume argued from his con
ception of a true induction that the
major premise must include all possi
ble cases. This he thought conclusive
against a great deal of popular belief.
Hut what test have we of the possi
ble?. It is harder to t clieve that we
have explored and classified the whole
Held of knowledge, than that a raven
ous lish with no higher and no lower
thought in its meager brain than a
plentiful dinner should have swal
lowed and then disgorged a man. He
sides, we are not without evidence
that such pisciac conduct is at. least
possible. Jonah was willing in the
Mediterranean right along its whole
length from Joppa, in Palestine, to
Tarshish, in Spain; and it is in this
very sea that even at the present day
a huge fish, the white shark, is found.
And not only this, but the bones of a
much larger species now extinct. For
the vrcrd used in the Bible is a gen
oral term for a large fish, and It in
cludes in various writers sharks,
tunnies, whales dolphins and seals.
This white shark attains such a size
that it has been known ti weigh four
tons and a half. One that was ex
hibited last century over Europe
weighed nearly two tons, and very
nearly re-enacted the part of Jonah's
llsh. A IJritish war vessel was sail
ing in the Mediterranean when a man
fell overboard. A huge shark in
stantly rose and the unlucky seaman
disapieared within its mouth. Tho
captain Hied a gun at it from the!
deck, and as Ihe shot struck upon its
back it cast the man out again and he
was rescued by his companions. They
forthwith harpooned the lish. dried
him, and presented him to his in
tended victim.
In the beginning ed this century a
shark was taken at Surinam, and iu
it. was discovered I he b nly of a woman
excepting the head. Instances are
recorded ujxn good authority of
specimens being found in the same
sea: one with a sea calf in its stom
ach as big as an ox. another with a
whole horse, and another with two
tunnies and a man. That a man
co ,ild live there fur a considerable
time seems bv im means imn issible-
i Oncer liirreiKlyitiil''- Wliie-h Ailctrn llm
Steielc oil Hit' VeHt4'n I'ruiries.
! The prairies have a series of t nide
1 matks as general an I valuable as
those that decorate ejueensware. pot
: tery, and e eiith ns do luxe. The c in
! blems arc con-eived with much t are,
1-0 N
$ 03
IP -TP Ifi E
some sample i hand
and a violation of the rights they in
volve means death to the depredator.
They do not appear on paper, nor are
they modeled in earthenware or
metal. They are traced in living
fiesh by red-hot irons, an 1 are read
by cowboys and much owners, from
the uplands of Wyoming to the river
valleys of Texas. Yet few east of
the Missouri Itivor have ever seen a
sampie of the designs or realize the
completeness of their system.
The identification of cattle upon
the great Western plains, where
tens of thousands of long-horned
beasts roam through!. ut the year, un
feneed and unlienled. would present
a serious aspect were it not fi r
branding. Only by that means is it
possible, iu a country wh re stoek
raUing is carried on so extensively
that fencing the range's is almost out
of the question, for owners to keep
any knowledge of their pos-essions.
No more rigid system of identifica
tion exists anywhere, and the owner
of a steer is almost as certain of his
property when the animal has
strayed a hundred miles away as if tie!,
horn --ranch corral iaelosi'd him. It
is not uncomni 'ii for a Western Kan
sas cattleman to receive notice from
a friend iu Nebraska or Wyoming,
saying that one of his cattle has
strayed from home, and ic iu his
vicinity, the friend having looked up
the animal's brand in the herd book.
Heiw Twi Itrnthrrs Hied on a WoMrrn
"I have seen a great many men
killed," said liurke McMahun. at the
Southern. "1 was with old Pap
Thomas at Chickaaiauga when his
corps siod like a rock for the dower
of the Confederacy to beat and break
upon, and with (rant when he hurkd
his columns at the impregnable
heights of Yicksburg. I have seen
commanding officers torn to pieces
with a shell and lieardioss boys dea 1
on the baltte-lleld with their moth
er's picture pressed to their cold lip?,
but I never had anything affect me
like the death of a couple of young
railroad men in Texas ?evcn or eight
years ago.
"I was riding on the engine of a
fast passenger train, and at Waco the
engineer got orders to look out for a
brakeman who was missing from the
freight we were following. Ho uas
supposed to hive fallen between the
cars if his train. 'My brother is
breaking on that train. I wonder if
it can b; him?" said the fireman.
'I ll keep up steam while you stand
on the pilot and watch out,' replied
the engineer. The fireman took his
post in front and we pulled out. We
had just got well under way when
the fireman gave the signal to stoi.
The engineer applied the brakes.
They failei to respond, and we were
on a 'own grade and could not stop.
The missing brakeman was lying on
the track, badly mangled, but con
scious. -He raised his hand and frantically
signaled the train, but the great iron
machine went plunging down upon
him at a rate ot twenty miles an
hour. The fireman cat one despair
ing look at the engineer, then sprang
in front of the pilot and hurled his
wounded brother off tha track. But
he was not quick enough to save him
self. The engine caught him and
crushed both legs off at the hips. As
we picked him up he said, with a
quiet smile: Its no use, boys; I'm
done for. lint I saved Ned.' Wc
laid them down in the baggage cat
side by side. Ned put out a feeble
hand ami clasped thateif his brother.
I've got . my time, old fellow, lie
said. Here, too, Ned;, we'll make
the run to the next world together,'
was the response, and, holding each
other by the hand, they died without
another word." St. Louis Glolie
Democrat. . .. : .
Frederick Iiuoi.asv plays the
violin. As it Is his only dissipation
and he has it in a mild form, it is
hoped that it will not bs counted
against tht good old man.

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