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The next class is composed of the
Ibiiul-owning farmers, who grow their
own cane and have it ground on
shares, after the fashion of the rural
grist mill. The remainder of ihe cane
is grown by the owners of the milb.
themselves. At some centrals th
"administration" cane, as that grown
under "central" management is known,
amounts to only 4 per cent of tlu
total at others it amounts to 90 per
Even the share fanner, at pre-war
prices, made money. According to
Tuba Before the World." the oilicial
handbook of the republic at the Pan
ama-Pacific exposition, when sugar
was selling at 2.02 cents a pound, his
share of the sugar brought him. on
the basis of twelve sacks to the acre,
a return of from to -S-'l per acre.
When one remembers that the selling
price of sugar in 1920 was from four
to six times as high as before the war,
the size of the per-acre income at the
high tide of prices is apparent.
Boom in Sugar Lands.
A great deal of the cane land pro
duces much more sugar to the acre
than the modest twelve bags that
formed the basis of the calculations
cited from "Cuba Before the World."
According to figures furnished by the
Cuban department of agriculture, much
land produces 22 bags to the acre.
This, at In cents a pound, brings a
gross return .of more than $1,000 an
These conditions brought about an
unprecedented boom In sugar lands.
One sugar estate, which was bought
•bout 1917 for $3,000,000, sold in Jan
uary 1920 for $9,500,000. Another
which was valued at about $6,000,000
few years before, changed hands at
Numerous new "centrals" were built,
all capitalized on the basis of earn
ings during the early months of 1920.
Thousands of American capitalists in
rested in these flourishing enterprises.
How Cuba's receipts from sugar ex
panded is shown by the fact that, the
1915 crop brought a total return of
Jess than $200,000,000, while two-thirds
of the 1920 crop (one-third remains
unsold) brought $400,000,000.
Production Cheaper There.
Cnha has the advantage of every
country in producing sugar cheaply.
Most countries have to plant every
two years and some of them every
season, but the average in Cuba is
once in from 7 to 12 years.
In most parts of the island the
Investing season Is six months long
—from December to June but in
aome sections the harvest lasts from
(Frepared by the National (jeoeraphlc So
ciety, Washington. l. C.)
Cuba, which immediately following
the World war climbed to heights of
prosperity seldom attained by any
other small country, has passed now
into the valley of hard limes and the
reason in both cases was the same—
sugar. For though ihe island's annual
tobacco harvest is very valuable and
though It has many other potential,
if undeveloped, resources, it is hardly
overemphasizing the importance of
sugar production to say that Cuba is
one-crop country. When Kuropean
and Eastern sugar was unobtainable
prices soared skywnrd.Vnd Cuba not
only cusiied in heavily on her usual
production but feverishly increased
liw nine acreage and sugar mills. Now
that sugar from the eastern hemis
phere is reaching the world markets
•while Europe has Utile buying p.V.ver.
sugar prices have fallen to low levels
and Cuba is finding her war-increased
crop a drug on the market. Financial
gloom has followed upon the heels of
a most hectic prosperity, "as the night,
5ragar-cune is grown by three classes
of planters in Cuba. Perhaps the
major part of the crop is grown by
share fanners, or "colonos," as they
ore called. The owners of Ihe sugar
Wills furnish them with a given num
ber of acres of land to plant and give
tftetri an agreed share of the sugar
They Made Money Rapidly.
In a Cuban Sugar Mm.
the first of December to the first of
October. The fields are so planted In
the first place that each month of the
grinding season produces its own
crop of mature cane. Here is a group
of fields where the new crop has just
sprouted over yonder another group
where the cane is half grown and
on farther is a group where harvest
ing operations are in full swing.
How the Crop Is Harvested.
In harvesting, the cane-cutters first
strip the blades from the stalk then
they cut off the upper part of the
latter, which is worthless except for
replanting, since what juice it con
tains possesses very little sugar. One
of the strange things about sugar-cane
is that the sap of tlie growing plant
lias little sugar, while in the mature
stalk the juice is rich in sucrose. The
action of tlie sun's rays seems to
transform glucose into sucrose—a
transformation that cannot be accom
plished by human means. If man
knew how to do that, every cornfield
would be a sugar field.
The main body of the stalk Is cut
down and loaded into the ox-carts.
In these it is hauled to the field sta
tion and placed in the waiting cars.
Each car contains about twenty tons
and each train is made up of thirty
cars. This makes 000 tons of cane
to the trainload. and eight to ten
trninloads a day are required to keep
one of the bigger centrals In opera
tion for" 24 hours. The big United
Fruit cent nil at Preston requires the
crop from -~(l acres e\(cry day to
keep It busy. Imagine a field three
fifths of a mile square being harvest
ed between sunup and sundown to
keep one central going!
At the mills the cars of cane are
dumped on an endless belt which car
ries it to the crushing rolls. Each
the cane passes through
presses it harder than the one before.
The last set may exert a pressure vf
a million pounds, and when the
"bagasse." as the crushed cane is
called, issues from them it is nlmost
as dry ns tinder. Tt is carried by con
veyors to the tire-boxes of the boilers,
where it Is used as fuel in generating
the steam that drives the big mills
and boils the cane juice. The stream
of crushed cane flows through the
last set. of rolls at a speed of seven
miles a day.
Making the Sugar.
After the juice is freed of sediment
it is pumped in the evaporators, where
jfiout half of the water is boiled out
The next step in the making of
sugar is to draw'the thick juice into
the vacuum pans. Here it: comes into
contact wiili hot steam coils and bolls
at a very low temperature because of
the absence of atmospheric pressure.
As the boiling proceeds, the sugar
crystallizes into small grains.
The sugar and the adhering sirup
are finally removed to a centrifugal
machine that acts somewhat on the
principle of a cream separator.
Placed inside a perforated basket
and whirled around at from 1,000 to
1,400 revolutions a minute, all of the
sirup is forced out through the per
forations. while the crystallized sugai
This sirup is boiled again and tlit
process is repeated until all the avail
able sweetness has been extracted
Tin remaining liquor is the "black
strap" molasses of commerce.
A tog of sugar-cane yields four and
one-half gallons of blackstrap mo
lasses. and one gets a good impres
ston of the Immensity of the industry
wh?n. on a single day's rail journey
he meets a dozen solid trains of sonu
forty big tank cars each, every cat
full to the dome with blackstrap.
After sugar has come from tht
centrifugals it goes to the bagging
room where it is put into bags that
hold 325 pounds each. These art
hauled in t'-ainloads to the docks ane
shipped to t'ie United States, when
the big roi'.neries remove the impur
ities and transform the sugar fron
dirty yel'ow to immaculate white.
"Interesting to Read."
are well looked after, and who are
watched over by excellent farmers and
inspectors and by cow doctors who see
that we live in healthful surroundings.
"They like to know all this, and
so the milk company tells the people
"But they tell them by writing it in
notices or advertisements in the news
"I do think it is a funny joke to
think that men and women who are
away from the country and who rath
er think they're very much superior
to cows have come to the conclusion
that it is interesting to read in the
evening paper about the 70,000 cows
and how they are being looked after.
"Not only do they read about soci
ety In the city papers, and not only
do they read about the money which
can be made or lost as the case may
be, but they read about cows, good,
every-day cows. Thats a joke on
them! They thought they could leave
cows alone and have their city life
without a thought of cows, but they
found they wanted our milk In the
first place, for the city people drink
a lot of milk.
"And now they're anxious to hear
about us, very anxious to hear about
"They can't get away from the coun
try and the cows. Ha, ha, ha!"
"I heard of some beekeepers who
went to a school which taught all
afiout beekeeping," said Miss 'Cow.
"It shows that people aren't so su
perior to animals and little creatures
after all. They must ask us for help,
and they must learn about our ways."
"I'd hardly call cows little crea
tures," said Mrs. Cow. "Moo, moo,
I'd hardly do that."
"I was speaking of us as animals,
and of the bees as little creatures,
moo, moo," said Miss Cow.
"I see, moo, moo, I see," said Mrs.
"You have big enough eyes to see
with, too," said Miss Cow, grinning a
slow, cowlike grin.
Alas, for Example.
Father—I hear, my boy, that you
have lately told your mother several
falsehoods. This grieves me to the
heart. Always tell the truth, even
thougli it may bring suffering upon
you. You will promise me?
Father—Very well. Now go and
see who is knocking at the door. If
ii'.s the iaftdlord say I'm not at h,r:ie.
THK WEEKLY TIMO-WECORO. VALLEY CITY. MOUTH P*KOTM
MARY GRAHAM BONNER.
COnrUOHI IY WliH«MTCV5»«»U UNION I
A FUNNY STORY.
"Moo, moo," said Mrs. Cow, "I have
a funny story to tell." And Mrs. Cow
smiled a very funny cow smile.
Her big eyes looked at some of the
other cows and she said:
"Gather around me, Cows, and. lis
ten to my funny story."
So very slowly the cows got up and
came over by Mrs. Cow, and listened
to the story she hpd to tell.
"You know," said Mrs. Cow, "we
give milk to the city people. Yes, the
milk that we give Is given to the city
"I don't know that I should actually
use the word 'given,' for I don't be
ieve the milk is given away.
"But we give the milk away, and
then the milk is sold to the city peo
"Of course we shouldn't expect to
be paid for the milk we give, as we
ure given board and lodging (which is
very apt to be out-of-door lodging)
in return for the milk we give.
"I am not complaining when I speak
of the out-of-door lodging, for we usu
ally like that kind best.
"And we are given excellent board
and a lovely meadow for our home.
"Now, there are a number of us on
different big farms who give this mill
in return for board and lodging. Then
the milk is sent to the city and the
city people have It left in bottles by
their doors In the morning.
"But the joke Is that the milk com
pany which sells our milk to the city
people, tells all the city peo
ple that they are keeping tab o£
or looking after, 70,000 cows.
"That In itself isn't the Joke. A
joke should always come at the end
of a funny story, or else it isn't a
very funny story.
"No one wants their jokes in the
middle of a story, or I've never heard
of anyone who did.
"But I am coming to the end of my
sfory, and I am coming to the joke.
"The Joke is that even in the city
they like to hear about cows. Isn't
that a joke on them? They like to
know that their milk comes from fine
healthy cows who eat right and who
Millicent Ends a
By DOROTHY WHITCOMB
(©, 1921, Western Newspaper Union.)
The night before my father died he
called me to his bedside. He had be
come conscious at the end, after three
months of speechless stupor, just as
the doctor had anticipated.
"Milly," he whispered, "when I am
dead you will have enough to live
upon. I want you to promise never
to sell the old homestead."
"I promise, my dear," I answered,
and that was all. He seemed to have
called himself back to life with one
wild effort in order to get my prom
ise. He died at four o'clock in the
"Of course, you'll sell now, Miss
Street," my friends told me, and they
laughed when I announced my inten
tion of refusing. So did Mr. James'
lawyer when he called on me a few
"Well, young lady," he said, setting
down his hat and staring hard at me.
"you can guess what I have called
to see you about, I suppose?"
"Perhaps," I answered enigmatical
"You know that for seven years
Mr. James has been trying to get the
Street homestead. The assessed value
of your property is, I believe, four
thousand dollars. Mr. James offers
you fifteen thousand."
"He rose from four thousand to fif
teen thousand in seven years," I an
swered. "But I wouldn't sell it for a
hundred thousand. In fact, I won't
sell it at all. My father might have
sold once, although the homestead.was
naturally dear to him. But when Mr.
James began his persecutions—"
"That was old Mr. James," inter
rupted the lawyer, frowning. "Mr.
Cyprian James had, I admit, a vindic
tive nature. Mr. Harold James, how
ever, is a fine gentleman. Mr. James
is coming South to live, and wants
your place for a shooting box."
"No," I answered. "It isn't for
One morning a few days later I saw
that a series of boards had been put
up all around my little property in
the night. I went down to look at
them. There were ten in all, and
each bore in large letters the words:
"TRESPASSERS WILL BE PROSE
The road Jed from the garden
through a mile of James land ,to
Hicksville. A man was waiting at
the gate of the garden, and I hadn't
set foot outside before he came hur
"I must ask you to go back," he
said, taking off his hat respectfully.
He seemed a gentleman, although he
was dressed like a tramp. "You may
not know that this is a private road.
I must request that you step back
upon your own territory."
"Indeed, I shall do no such thing,"
I replied angrily. "I utterly defy you
and your old road."
I returned from town about an hour
I was very lonely. I had written
to a girl chum to come down from
Richmond and stay with me until 1
had decided upon my plans, but I had
never contemplated being marooned.
What if that Wicked Harold James
really meant to let me starve to
death there? I wasn't too Joyful when
I awoke next morning.
looked out of the Window. Close
to the gate, tied to a short stake by a
very loug chain, was the most savage
looking bull I had ever seen. He had
his head down, and as I approached
the garden gate he gave one bellow
and began to paw the ground furi
I tried to compute the lengtn of
I saw that he could not reach the
Then I took heart again. The chain
was too short. I couJd pass the bull
with several feet to spare.
I felt so infuriated that, as I passed
the snorting monster, I snapped my
fingers at it. Next instant, with a
roar, the creature leaped at me. And
then—well, for the first time in my
life I fainted.
I could not have been unconscious
*ong, for when I opened my eyes the
bull was feeding a short distance
away, as peacefully as though it had
never had thoughts of violence toward
me. And the gamekeeper was bend
ing over me, a look of agonized re
proach upon his face.
"I didn't mean to do it—indeed 1
didn't," he was saying over and over
again. Won't yon forgive me?"
•'I suppose you have to earn your
wages," I answered curtly.
"Are you—engaged?" inquired the
"What business is It of yours?" I
"Because," he said, "I am Harold
"I might have guessed it from your
actions," I answered.
And then Mr. Harold James sud
denly caught hold of my hands.
"Millicent," he said pleadingly,
don't you remember how we used to
be sweethearts when we were at
school together and how you promised
some day to marry me? I've been
crazy over you ever since. Millicent,
may I have a chance to win you?"
I could not help laughing.
"You may call on me next Wednes
day evening, after my friend, Miss
Jones, gets here," I answered.
Well, the Street homestead Is still
standing, and it will never be sold as
long as I am alive. But it used
now mainly as a shooting box, for the
James mansion is so much more con
Misses Betty and Zella Cook,
daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis
Cook, 512 Improvement building, be
came the brides of William Diemert.
of Moorhead, and Calvin Dargan, of
Fargo, respectively on Saturday,
The we'dding of Miss Betty Cook
and Mr. Diemert took place at 9 a. m.
at the residence of Rev. Father Al
fred Mayer, pastor of St. Joseph's
church in Moorhead, and was at
tended by only family members and
intimate friends. Miss Irene Har
rington and Fred Diemert were the
attendants. The bride wore a tail
ored suit of blue with accessories to
correspond. Mr. and Mrs. Diemert
will make their home at 429 Fourth
street south, Moorhead, upon their re
turn from their wedding trip to the
twin cities and to Collegeville, Minn.
Mr. Diemert is associated with his
father, W. H. Diemert, in the real
estate business in Moorhead.
The wedding of Miss Zella Cook
and Mr. Dargan took place at 1 a. m.
at the First Presbyterian church in
Moorhead, Rev. W. J. Hall officiating.
The bride who was attended by
Miss Myrtle Dargan, sister of the
bridegroom, wore a tailored suit of
brown with a corsage of pink roses
and narcissi. Richard Rustvang at
tended the bridegroom. Friends and
family members attended the wed
A wedding dinner for the two
couples was served at the home of
the bride's parents, following the
ceremonies. The appointments were
carried out in the autumn colors and
covers were laid for 15 guests.
Mr. and Mrs. Dargan will be at
home at Valley City after Nov. 15
when Mr. Dargan will become mana
ger of the Kindred Hotel.
Mr. Dargan is the popular manager
of the Kindred Hotel of this city and
will make his home in
rooms in this hotel. He is a young
man of pleasing manners, a thorough
business man and we predica for him
success. He and his bride have the
hearty congratulations of friends.
TO VISIT K. P. LODGE
Tomorrow (Wednesday) evening
Mr. Frederick S. Attwood, Supreme
Prelate of the Order of Knights of
Pythias, will be in the city and attend
the regular K. P. meeting to be held
at that time. Mr. Attwood is a man
familiar to almost all of the members
of said lodge in this city, as well as
their families. He has visited here
three times before- and on one or two
occasions spoke to the members' fam
ilies as well.
Mr. Attwood is an ardent Pythian
and always has a wonderful message
to give. He lives the life of a true
K. P. and is ever ready to impart to
others the true meaning of things the
order stands for.
Tomorrow evening the local lodge
will exemplify the work in the rank
of Page, and will be assisted by Mr.
Attwood, so there is a treat in store
for those of the members who may at-
Chef Metcalf will serve another of
his famous feeds after the work is
over. Arrange to be present—get
your money's worth from your mem
ON BIG IRON RANGE
17,61 'fZ Mqo*0
The Budget, Valley City, N. Dak.
Dear Budget: Although my
home state, I find myself lonesome for
Noi$h Dakota, especially for news of
the Normal. There are no V. C. N.
girls here and I miss the talks we had
last year and the possibilities of see
ing some of our faculty. We were so
delighted at our opportunity for a
visit with Miss Fisher. The biggest
"at home" feeling I have here is when
three or four of us get together and
discuss Educational Sociology. The
"at home" feeling comes due to the
fact that the others had Dr. Finney
as their instructor at the "U" and are
as enthusiastic about him as we at
However there hasn been much
time to give to lonesome feelings.
During the week there is our school
work in our fully modern up-to-date
school building and so far there has
been some excitement each week end.
The first week end the school board
entertained us by giving us an all day
boat trip on beautiful Lake Vermilion
with a snlendid chicken dinner at one
of the lake hotels. There are twenty
nine teachers here so you may easily
imagine the fun we had besides get
ting some idea of the extent and won
derfulness of this lake with its three
hundred sixty islands and its thous
and miles of shore. We stopped at one
of the lovely cottages and were in
vited to go through it. It is built of
cedar logs, has large porches, and in
the living room, there is an immense
fire place of large stones of marvelous
coloring. It is beautifully furnished
and in harmony with the rustic idea
of the logs. It is such a home as
would make Miss Deem's heart glad.
The next week end six of us girls
were invited by one of the teachers
to a house party at her cottage on an
island. Regardless of wind, rain, and
cold three of us went in swimming be
fore breakfast and all of us explored
the main island which is very differ
ent from anything we are used to.
The rocks and trees seem to vie with
each for beauty.
Week end number three was spent
in hiking Saturday to an old saw
mill where we nearly drowned in saw
dust. Sunday, to Jasner Peak, next to
the highest point in Minnesota, where
we had a wonderful view of the sur
rounding country—miles of water and
"f forests. The trees were in their
full autumn gorgeousness accentuated
by the green of the pine trees.
THURSDAY. NOVEMBER 10. 1921.
On Monday afternoon at the City
Hall the Community Club held its reg
ular meeting with a very good attend
ance. The meeting opened with com
munity singing ur.Jer direction of
Miss Chatburn, director of music of
our public schools. Arthur Spalding
lavored the club with a delightful
violin solo. Mrs. O. Simenson gave
a very splendid report fit the Feder
ation meeting -at Fargo including the
message of the national president of
Federated Clubs. Miss McCoy head
of the English department State
Teachers College presented the cause
of "Better Speech Week" in a very
interesting way. She expressed the
hope that the mothers would encour
age their children in their efforts to
use better English this week, and that
next year the club would cooperate
with the schools in the observance of
"Better Speech Week." Miss Mc
Coy likened a word to a human being
in that it had a birth, growth, develop
ment, a period of greatest usefulness
decay and death, and often left a fam
ily of words.
Mrs. W. N. Palmer told of visiting
the hospital at Jamestown and of the
delight the inmates found in making
things from scraps of silk. She was
appointed chairman of a committee to
collect silk pieces to be sent to the
Mrs. S. P. Ellis, chairman of the
program committee, announced she
had the year books ready for distri
bution, each member is entitled to
one, and if more are desired a small
fee to help defray the cost of printing
will be charged.
Mrs. Simpson, chairman of the so
cial service department expressed the
wish that those who need help, call
the Salvation Army Employment Bu
reau, where they may reach those
who really need work.
The regular meeting of this club
are held on the first Monday in each
SUDDEN DEATH OF
It is with sincere regret that the
Times-Record is called upon today to
chronicle the sudden death of one of
Valley City's prominent and pioneer
citizens, Dr. J. E. Featherstone, whose
demise occurred at the family home
on West Fourth street about four
o'clock Monday afternoon. The cause
of death is given as heacfc failure. It
seems that Mr. Featherstone was
around Monday morning but after
dinner complained of a headache and
went to bed somewhere about three
o'clock to rest and wanted to be called
a short time. Mrs. Featherstone
found him* about four o'clock with
life extinct, heart failure being the
cause of his passing away. The
Times-Record cannot at this time give
any detail about the deceased and will
have to ask the relatives to give them
to us when they can. Dr. Featherstone
has been a prominent citizen here for
many years. He was a man who
took a very active part in the doings
of this city and was fearless in his
likes and dislikes but having a warm
regard for those with whom he was
intimately acquainted. He liked to
do things for the young folks partic
ularly. He was a pioneer in these
parts and had been a practicing den
tist for a long term of years. He
was a great student and reader and
very few men were better posted on
current events than was J. E. Feath
erstone. The editor of this paper has
been intimately acquainted with the
deceased for many years and has al
ways found him square and upright
in his dealings. He was a man of
firm convictions but tried his best to
stand for and do those things that
meant for better standards of citizen
ship. His death will be a source of
regret to many friends and the fam
ly who have been thus bereft of the
husband and father have the sym
pathy of their many friends in this
hour of sorrow. We have not been
informed of the funeral arrange
ments which will be given at a later
date. We trust the family will send
up in a complete obituary of the de
GIVE SHOWER FOR
BRIDE TO BE
Miss Anna Ramseth, for the past
two years deputy in the office of the
registrar of deeds at the court house,
was the honor guest at
lightful shower given at the N. O., Hol
berg home last evening by Mrs. N. O.
Holberg, Mrs. Thomas Skorpen and
the Egge sisters. The evening was
spent in a very delightful manner, the
main feature of the eveiiing being a
guessing contest of "What will
bride wear." Miss Ramseth is a bride
to be and the contest proved to be a
very puzzling affair. The color
scheme was carried out white ana
vellow. At the close of the guessing
contest a very delicious luncheon yr&s
served after which the guests depart
ed for their homes wishing Miss Ram
seth the best of luck on the sea of
matrimony. The bride to be was pre
sented with many beautiful gifts in
a very unusual way. Starting at the
end of a string in one of the rooms,
she followed it up stairs, down in tne
basement, up in the attic and finally
ended in the kitchen where she i£und
a small wagon loaded with gifts from
her friends tied to tbe
string which she? had followed to all
parts of the house.
At a meeting of the Council of the
Community School of Religious Edu
cation held on Saturday evening, Dr.
C. A. Allen was elected president,
Geo. B. Caley vice president, Henry
E. Nelson treasurer and Anna F.