Newspaper Page Text
tJj Oi n-ilJ I 5 «v^s4V*t jSV^V Sf® ti i.-V.V E Lt, iiife 'Hi Ju.| 'jn :!li 4 S Hats '•.•.' '.'• A* #t Photos by American Press Association. (•—Entrance to Dardanelles. 2.—Map illustrating positions of fortification on the Dardanelles. 3.—Birdseye view of Constantinople and the Bosporus. 4.—Famous Madyar Kale battery at the entrance to the Dardanelles. 5.— A view of the harbor and fortifica tions at Chanak, the most important town on the Dardanelles. 6.—Fort Sedd el Bahr. 7.—Kalid Bahr, a well fortified point on the strait. VEN before England declared war on Turkey (Nov. 5. 1P14, "owing to hostile arts com mitted by Turkish forces un der German officers." the forts at the entrance to the Dardanelles had been bombarded by British and French war vessels. On Nov. 3 there was a heavy bombardment, with the object, it was said, of locating1 two heavy Krupp guns that had recently lieen placed in the forts—guns which outranged anything that the attacking force could bring to bear. On Dec. 13 the British submarine B-ll performed the feat of diving un der five rows of mines and destroyed the Turkish battleship Messudieh, with her two new 9.2 inch guns, anchored as an outwork of Ilelles fort. At the entrance to the Dardanelles, which stretch in a. northeasterly direc tion to the sea of Marmora, are the forts Helles Burnu and Sedd el Bahr on the northern or European side, and Kum Kale on the southern or Asiatic. Further on toward the narrows are two redoubts on the Asiatic side at Kephez Bernu. The narrows themselves are thus fortified: Maidos, Cam Kales! 1 1 -N Zv«* **erle*n Preaa Aaaoclatim. •r.Sitii. tt the' 'richest' children In' the world are here shewn.: WfC 'TIMOR..Walsh.. UC£MQ. A*tar CfeUdi ia OM of the jpwplett "TtfW* that. exptoraa Central pwrk, a Colonel Aator, who loat hla life Utt'* "WW *#d one •half years old. ,•-/ 'Hi*- eemparative freedom Is doe to .. r'a devAte* ••?...*• '—-S ,1 **k 4& .W A Sjsr' and Kllld Bahr on the Gallipoll penin sula or European side and Xagua. Kose Kale, Karajeuren and Kale Sul tanie on the Asiatic. Before the German engineers Im proved the fortifications an English military expert reported on them as follows: "Both the Dardanelles and the Bos porus resemble winding river valleys, but the shores of the former are flat ter than those of the latter, and where the Gallipoll peninsula sinks to under 500 feet and narrows to less than four miles the Bulair fortifications, joined by a continuous parapet and ditch, stretch completely across the isthmus from the gulf of Saros to the Helles pont. The heights In front are crown ed with redoubts, and Bulair Itself is protected by smaller works. HERE ARE TWO YOUNGSTERS HEIRS OF IMMENSE FORTUNES ti.W Fortified at Eaoh End. "The strait is also fortified at «ach end and in the center. The south en trance, like the north entrance to the Bosporus, is heavily fortified on both sides. The four or five miles of nar rows In the center, from Kilid Bahr to Maiden and from Kale Sultalne to Na gasa, are lined by some ten works on each shore, and the great naval station of Gallipoll is also fortified. "Strategically, however, the Isolation of the GalUpoli peninsula and the char acter of the mainland north of the gulf of Saros make the Dardanelles less Im portant than the Bosporus, which Is the real meeting place of the two con tinents and of the two seas, and there fore every other place Is dwarfed In importance compared with Constanti nople," t, tfV Tvi-niavw,. On right—Two view* ef John Jacob Aetor. wfV Inseparable eorapanloiL Except for the time she devotes to charity work *P)f jj* vrltb Mm, aafl a meter ride ls in variably part of ths wUly program tor niptber and son. Mrs. Astor took personal charge of the baby last 'summer at Bar Harbor and Spent hour* Whetflqg him in Ms perambulator, accompanied only by a aprse. A* fhe rMUit 'Myoia outdoor life John Jacob .Astbr fs orie of the healthiest and On left—Vinson McLean. trust fund of 91,000,000 tor any child by his maniac* to Mia* MaMdu Tal mage Force until the beir was twen ty-one year* old. Tbi* fund Inherited by little John Jacob will wtth tta nor mal Increment, conaidertng the way in which the bulk of the Aator fortune la Invested, amount to much more than 110,000,000 when he reaches his ma jority. There are not Many babies worth 110,000,000 in the world, On the etbor MM, mn oxirt today •any parenta who Um the problem of y.TT-* v. A DARDANELLES FORTS OFTEN UNDER BOMBARDMENT .. .... ... ft WU .v i*a& #&* 1 ananmn^ anon Wjl BtfasSSi Aside from the two Krupp guns men tioned above, said to be of fifteen inch caliber, the same authority describes the armaments as follows: "In the batteries at the Dardanelles there are twelve to fifteen twelve-Inch guns, but these are much exposed and have a very restricted arc of fire and indifferent loading arrangements. Most of the other guns, of which there are many in the forts, are of an obsolete nature and practically useless against modern armored ships." Announcement that allied war vessels were preparing to force a passage through the Dardanelles brought to mind the little known fact that the first warship to. bid defiance to the Turkish fortresses frowning on both sides of the narrow strait flew the stars and stripe*. It was the United mmm bringing up 11,000,000 balftea ao that they shall be real human beings when they grow up instead of gilded noodle heads. Down at Palm Beach these parents may be Interested to know there is a boy being brought up ac cording to a new idea In order that he may be prevented by money from be coming a man. Mr. and Mr*. Edward B. McXean are the parents and the little boy is the celebrated Vinson Walsh McLean. The McLeans have a harder knot to untie than most wealthy parents. From the very day ef his birth he has been kept under surveillance. De tectives have constantly stood between him and possible kidnapers. A corps of trained nurses and physicians has al ways been at hand to alleviate the slightest symptoms of illness. He takes his Airings in a steel auto mobile always guarded by three de tectives on the lookout. He used to apend ten hour* out of the twenty-four in an Ironclad perambulator. The aand men had to eeek the little fellow out In a nursery fitted with lat ticework and flexible Iron shutters that let down from the lnsld* and were in discernible from' the street. He slept In a solid gold eradlo presented to blat by tb* late King Leopold of Belgium. The precaution* lor hi* bodUy aeourlty were taken because of the fear at kid napera But far greater i* tb* difficulty of keeping the little fellow *afe from perils within himself—from growing too conscious of himself and too for getful of his fellow being*. "I don't want my *on to be a •nab." taid Mr. McLean, do not want him to crow up living the Uf* common to the children of Wealthy people, want him to be mindful of the fact that he la one of the people." Along these line* th* par*nt* laid their plana. They took a* a. fosterling a little negro boy to be the boy'* com panion until fifteen, after that hla valet Theae two little Wiapi of hu manity eat at the same table, dref* alike and play together in tbe aand on the beach, the greatest of. chums. .. If tbe little boy la brought np aa many rich children are, hi* father rea «*». he will *ee none but aervants and subordinate* until hi* mental habtta are formed a9A ft* will grow to feel himself supeHK iMaln human b« in**. If. on $a other band. ba li brought up in al«pl* mrrouadings Ilk* tb* child bom la moderate elretmu •tanoee he wiU tavo fo aMot the tamp*, tationa of vaat veaKb ait at aa«* whan ha comes into wht own money. tha McLeaa M** 1* to And hbii a companion who Will neither look on him. with aversion or servility, a* *ji outside playmate frdM poorer clasaee nilght do, nor "teach him the ugly, tricka that another 'little rich boy «i*ht teieh *&.? mtaAkU BCOTt, IA'?:-' States frigate George Washington, which, under command of Captain Wil liam Balnbridge, sailed boldly through the stronghold and dropped anchor un der the window* of the Tildlt kiosk, the American flag flying at her spanker. It was In October, 1800, that the George Washington performed her ex ploit. Under command of Captain Bainbrldge she had been sent to Trip oli, and from that port went to Con stantinople, bearing on board a party of Trlpolitan envoys to the porte. Ar rived at the fort* guarding the en trance the frigate was halted and her passports demanded, the Turks having always asserted their right to refuse entrance to any foreign warship with out permission. Captain Balnbridge had no passoprts, and the United States was practically unknown in BTABLI8HMBNT of Reacue company No. 1 In the New Tork dty lire department waa not brought about by Com E missioner Robert -Adamson wltfi any Idea of dramatising the work of the city flremen. The fact that thla ap pear* to have been don* ia incidental. The main idea was utility, and, in point of fact it is the great usefulness of thla new outfit the revolution which it promises to work In the science of suc cessful lira lighting, that stands out prominently. The two officers and eight men of Rescue No. 1 are equipped and have been trained to enter sub cellars filled with highly carbonated amoke, ammonia fumea, chemical gases to bore their way deep into the holds of burning ehlpa and quench Ires' before they have gained headway. They are *bla to do thla by reaaon of amoke helmet* containing *u0eient oxygen to fumleh proper air for breath ing for the apace of an hour and a half. Telephone attachmenta to the headgear enable the officers to convene with chlefa on the aldewalk and to report the progrees of the light Besides thl* the men are prepared to deal In a few •aeond* .with ateal bar*, such a* im prisoned a man W a vault in the burn ing Equitable building, whlla the In dian. Seneca Lark a, worked two hours with a hand *aw to reauscitat* asphyxiated firemen with puimotora. and, in.general, to be ietlve in a ape. oialised lino of work ertiioh until ro oently had been utterly neglected. The preliminary work of traiiiln*, which betan in January, was *o ardu ous and *o axhauetive that when the men emerged from tha oounw and be came a company duly oonatltuted, pre pared to "roll" whenever oalled, they were to all intent* and purpoaea vet erans They had learned all, there la to know about the 'tie* 'of the pulmotor and bad remained ahnt up for an hour to the. thickeet amoke and moot noxi ous fumea that.couid be brewed In the department'a araokehouaa, wleldln* axa for ten minute atretches, which tries the. lung* (o the utmost They had carried on oonversatlona by »«««».« of telephone aad rope algnals with par son* otitslde aQd Mohg 'themselvee through the medlum of 4nger prenure aad learnedHow to employ oxygen in the^aevering of steel bars—In short had so equipped thcmaelvea that Com miaaloner Adaaiaoa'believea a new era «f handltnf hidden firea haa been ea Ubllahed. Their apparatua waa deaigned espe olally for them by Chief Oemareat of the dapfurtwent of retain, it waa a fnonth ago that the commiaaioner. aat lafled'wltb the protreaavtha. new com paaiy*»aa 'nuMay. ealled tip«a Dema reat to daaign and buUd a wigpn fojr v«S?, wMMmE Turkey at the time. To wait for pas*, ports would mean lying at anchor there for months, so Captain Balnbridge de cided on a ruse de guerre. Makes Quick Bold Dash. He sailed the George Washington np to the anchorage, clewed up his courses, let go bis topsails and started to salute the fortress as if he was go ing to obey the order. As soon as the fort began Its reply to his. salute he quickly made sail again, and when the Turk* caught alght of htm once more a* the amoks of the guns lifted the George Washington was sailing Into the sea of Marmora with every stitch of canvas set and drawing. The for tress guns were stationary, being train ed on the channel in front, so that they were unable to stop. him. The Amer ican sailor brought his. vessel up aad dropped anchor before the city of Get^ atantlnople. At the alght of the strange flag that fluttered from the frigate's spanker the Turkish officials' sent out a boat and demanded from whence she came. "From the new world." was Captain Balnbridge's answer, which so impress ed the Turks that they could not do enough for the George Washington and her people during her stop there. The Dardanelles, the strait which connect* the Aegean and the sea of Marmora and the only entrance to Conatantlnople from the Mediterra nean, has been celebrated from the earlieat times. To the Greeks it was the Hellespont, across which Leander swam to Hero and across which first Xerxes, then later Alexander, took their armies Vy means of bridges of boats. When the Turks took Constan tinople they realised the advantages of HELMETED FIREMEN DEFY SMOKE Pholo by American Preaa Aaaociattom v'ii'/ "*y.v?N*w the uea. Adiuaaon bad. the chaaala •nd the eocine he wanted the body, a Jwdjr peculiarly adapted to the work tb« men were to do, and he .muiM it in .four weeks. He got it And it ia "a Vork»e Helmeted •melee Flfhterai C*pu,n McBiii- fott end hie firemen. It carriei life llnea and guna with which to ahoot them, axa. oxygen tanks, puimotora portable telephone*, everything, "n W'r. to .W WW W, the |U» of dutv' tw 6,1 'mCmi B**0* to Oadi^Ud. ?\j4i4fev h5if?S the strait, and from that time to. the present day It has always been heavily fortified. In Turkish Its name la Bahr Sfed Boghazi. Britieh Fleet Steam* Through. At the time of Captain Balnbridge's exploit the forts were supposed to be impregnable, but seven years later the British admiral, Sir J. T. Duckworth, with his fleet, won his way through them. On Feb. IB, 1871, when the fall of Constantinople to the. Rueslans was supposed to be imminent, another Brit* ish fleet steamed through the Darda nelles. This time it want through without oppoaltlon, but against the proteats of the Turklah government the admiral in charge having ordera to steam through "with or without per mission." The right of the Ottoman, govern* ment to refuse paessee. -Uireiurh the Dardanelles to foreign warships with out permission from the porte was up held by the treaty of July, 1841, which was ratified by the treaty of Paris In 185C. Merchant vessels were allowed past Chanek Kalehsl only in daylight. The city of Gallipoll, on the north side of the strait, and Lamaakl, on the south, are near the Marmora end of tbe strait. About Chanek Kalehsl haa grown up the city of Dardanellea, which at the present time is the chief city of the province of Blgha, in Asia Minor. This town ha* a population of It,. 000, exclusive of the garrison. One half of the inhabitants are Turkish, the others are Jews, Greeks, Armenians J' end Europeans. There are a number of beautiful Greek and Roman Cath olic churches and a synagogue, be sides the mosques. The apeclal call to wMch Pony anewere is ?.u!"b?r)"~1' it fwiptniw, m^ninih *tre*» d?«i belesf Ona Hua mVJ J?' twenty-fifth atreet Oa« i?- 5*^ ,rom fir, 4-J- in '-''•.:.i:*: "«4, 4* .. Y- tbla that JUaoue Ve company. In fact^ lf tha Slon« 4^*0* -cWmifi bow AdamMn tn,i Mayor |(itcltal ito.?