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«gJS®3BE«S3KStf. «Ji ST? .-i^iv^v: •3Wy.-W«i»MVi^ «o£v»0«3Wr.vfc jy*v$- c&0M-«-4taft«He&? „_.. "^wWooewewKWMMwvWWtto)^^ •rf'lv .. .• ,*: ogrtphi especially for American Association by E. Mullfer,' Sr opyrlght, 191ft by American "Press As sociation. f—Submarine G2 laid up for repalre. &—The. A-1 en surfacs. 3-—Subma rines laid up for winter. 4—^Subma rine tender Tonopah and nine tub marines. 6*—The K-5. 6w—Subma rine commanders—(a) K. Robottem, D-2 (b) C.t M. Cooke, E-2| (c) T. Wlthe^sifcommendsr second division ef submarines^ (d) Yates Stirling, commander/ Atlaiitio squadron of submarines) (e)R. 8. Fay, D-3 (f) E. C. Metz, D-1. 7*—The B-3. 8.— The Intelligent Whale. 0/—The F-2. By CHARLES P. CALVERT. |HB success of the submarine In the present war will shape the naval, programs of all countries In times to come. It has been demonstrated time and again that the greatest battleship is no match for the hidden terrors of the submerslbles. Fleets of destroyers may steam round and round a war ship or merchantman, but the under sea craft lies in wait and, taking ad vantage of the first opening, speeds a torpedo at forty knots an hour at Its prey. Complete1 destruction, annihila 9)M fjboto of Wood oopyrigbt by CUnedlnst Major General Wood and soldiers skylarking In camp OLLEGE students from sixty one institutions of various tanks and slises were taken Into camp at Gettysburg two »e4r* ago and taught the rudiments of yu^i.ring The experiment was so •untwfnl that it was rspeated last vearatBurlington.Vt Tale'senttbir t^uw men. Princeton SUrvmrd twenty-on* and so ta. Shrea •SiantOTr boTe were takea. mar there are (our oampa Cmr the Instruction of students, one at Wtotnirti tamcka. N. anotbsf at LndMctoo, Mich. yet aootbw .at the pri23kTo San FMliicIsmv uft'fe* fourth qdcfcamauga, $$ .$ V, »muBpMa'#nd iTMkr- ii a a a aKKSHK «sssw-^'-'5-: 5 ii i™*£"VT*'f. «A f0!Z!ra V5,ari MTln iTTMM »»»»*. .."sr* .a* wRSKtll«l^2 tion tn fact Is the almost Inevitable result The United States has .learned a val uable lesson from the activities of the German boats, and tbe men who plan the American.navy are ready to ask congress for an appropriation with which to build thirty new/under sea craft in addition to the twenty six now under construction or provided for. "U" means "untersee," submarine. For Defensive, Not Offensive, Work. The importance of the submarine for the United States not so much for its offensive strength against enemy bat tleships but for.' the defense of the ooast lines Is appreciated in official quarters. Extensive experiments are' now being conducted, and it is expect ed that when the newest type of subr ington and will be eligible for comals- sions in any .volunteer army raised tit the event of .war. The growing Inter est In the work Is shown by the atten tion which the college^and school-pam pers have been gfving to these mill tanrtralnlns camna. Very few people heard much about the Gettysburg camp of two yean am bbt it was the trylng out of a new scheme for a reserve force paralleling tha.MCu!tr army and the militia. .. The backera of It^ explained that there were maay youpt mto ln the countnr who lapsed t^ time, .or wera otherwise pre veatM ^^iotain* the jnimia who would.- aWmrthelMi ha dad to cat aa Men Learn Duties of Soldiers SWB .«* mi:^, -. marine is-completed If Will embody many Ideas -'that-- are -hot- generally known. As .an. "exampleof this one may cite the fact that the American navy had Installed disappearing guns on the decks of, her newest'boats. This was kept a secret until announcement came that an English merchantman had been shelled by a German raider. There waa/no -longer any need for se crecy. the other nations had adopted the same fdeai" and announcement was made that the United States navy was' equipped with such boats and gunS. Experiments are: being conducted to determine the value of electric. bat teries to-, propel submarines for sub merged operations.- It. is confidently believed' that when the general naval board- Is ready to make its formal re port next month the number of new principles of the art of war, as our raw volunteers have been In the habit of doing .ever since we ceased to be a frontier country, when being a minute man was a comparatively simple mat ter.- No one who went to the Camp placed himself -under obligation to go. to war or do other military service. The as sumption of those who fathered the undertaking was that many of the young men would be found ready to act as officers of future volunteer regi ments and of the regular reserve of the army.'"' During the period of instruction, which lasted for six weeks, all the brass, button frills were cut out and tbe work was made to resemble as nearly as possible, the actual Conditions of war. One hundred and sixty men at tended, the average age ^being^ nineteen. The War department detailed one. battalion of lrjfantry, one troop of cav alry and one company .of. "the signal corps to serve as %tStructor 6f the stu dents. A. detachment of-.the medical corpr was detailed to lookv.after the. health of the camp and treated the stu dents so far like the regulars under their bharge that typhoid serums and small pok.vaccine were administered without chane. There was this difference, that neitl^r yiacclhatfon nor ino&ulatlon Was compulsory. The majority of the young- men, however, underwent both treatments, suffering, so it was report ed. no iU effects except a: temporary soreness of the arm in a few cases. .' The w«Jrk consisted prindully of the study of the dutiies ahd princlples of infantry Service, thotigb.^ ihe other branches were not neglected.. In the morning there were three, hours of drill, and one hour of lectures,' given by various officers at the camp-and: occa sionally by such htgh placed military/ personsges as KaJor OeheMQf Leonard Wood, then chief of staff, and 'Major General Barry, then commanding the depaitment of thtf.eaat V 8ome of the lective: sul^lects were: "Obnlllct of Intabtry," "Vl&dia Corpt,- "Uia and Duty of Eleld Artniefy,M *VoreigB Military of Cavalry," "Benefits of Military Train ing,"* "Causes of War," *lmitary His-' t«ryi» fChrU Itoaua«BUiw4(fll. tafy Tralnliii," Tecsohal Hyglsns," "JPha Armjr hukotf 'atf ^t'Oai* «i the Wounded." «r\ Afternoons were -]nM»..:ia hayosit' and. brca^ibwort eMrdse,,-,cavalry- aad artillery ..drills: vrMtel' road sketchjair iaa^ tahafcnijltfap ittr: ln-the «yiMlag ^ae 4? h4d ma» olsgs. tliat.ls. thsi $ b. T' /i '/&>, m. rr^^z/s ,* -r-v «&•$ r-.-'^rrv submarines reeomm^fled will depend on the number of batteries and engines, available at that time. .Intelligent Whale Am$ng the First. As a contrast to illustrate the vast strides that have been made tn sub marine development in this country .one may point to the Intelligent Whale and. the ^Schley. The Whale was built in 1864 in New Jersey by C. Bushnell, Augustus Rice and IL Halstead. She Was 28.8'feet long, nine feet in depth and carried a crew of thirteen men. She cost $50,000 and was propelled by hand. In 1872 she was tested and condemned. The Schley, now under construction, when completed will be able to travel 7,000 miles without replenishing her supplies. Her speed on the surface will be twenty-nine knots and sub- HREE things prompted me to volunteer: for air scout ing over Paris after the war began," said pretty, dimin utive and effeminate Helene Dutrieu. the French aviatrix, who is now in this country. "I love Prance. I love adventure. I knew my business. Most of the men fliers were needed at the front In strictly military recorihdissance work. There were comparatively few avia tors available for guarding Paris. I told the military government I wanted to do my part. They told me that I could hot be entered upon the army rolls that I could not have any offi cial position, but that I might work privately. So 'from the day the war began I was in the air practically ev ery day. sometimes arising early in the morning and scouting for hours, some times flying in the afternoon or late evening. I had the good fortune on numerous occasions to'detect taubea on their way to visit Paris, and I was able to. descend and warn the aviation Corps commanders so that they had ample time to send up squadrons and light off or frighten away the invad ers. *.• "l am sorry I cannot say that the Germans shot at me. But I never let tbelr fliers get close enough to shoot WVvs p.t my machine or to drop bombs on me. I circled around and around, keeping watch with' my glasses, and the tow stant I detected a German machine I darted to earth and gave warning. Usually I flew at a height, of from 1,500 to 2,000 meters, but sometimes 1-ihad to go much higher because of fogs and mists that veiled the loiter altitudes." Mile. Dutrlevels so girlish in appear ance that she/does not look her age, which, as shfe remarked very naively, "is between twenty-live aad thirty." Certainly the reporter who talked with her would have! been perfectly willing to wscept the smaller figure. She has been, as she puts It "trying to die young" ever since she Was la her taena ,• She saM that as thers%waa no fur ther ssrvic^ she could rfisder naapce at tha presMit time «i| aacouatthe declaiOB of the govertjinsit* act t* us* womea 'In the war sha lipi decided to Visit tha.Ualtfd BU lectures' in the eaftern .The Vriaosss ShakhoVAftya Cf Btiis*. jrta. who ha# won fame af xa» a*1ato?r, was at tha ti*mi tor mitt*- :«attti »6? %$$$1 a t!mt She waua userged eleven to fourteen knots. She will coat $1,350 000 and will be the most destructive weapon of submarine war fare in the world. Navy engineers are also hard at .work seeking some effective defense against submarine attacks. While nothing has been revealed. It is as sured that questions are being consid ered that will divide the hulls of bat tleships into more numerous compart ments and stronger bulkheads, so strong in fact that they can withstand the force of the explosion of a torpe do. It is said that the torpedo boat destroyer does not meet the needs in anything like an adequate manner. Location and destruction of sub marines by aeroplanes also is consid ered Impractlble in any but special cases where weather, depth of water and other conditions make It possible. Bomb dropping from aeroplanes, even over farreaching land fortifications and other easily visible stationary objects MM -M#J ft* ?h $s^* 1 4 5Mf: DEFEND AMERICAN COAST has not proved so successful as to give much promise where a small dimly vis ible shape beneath the surface qf the water Is the target. Similarity, submarine against sub marine is not considered a possible de velopment of undersea warfare unless some new and startling deylce to give commanders the power of undersea vision is discovered. One of the novel features of the war, however, was the sinking of an Italian submarine by an Austrian submersible. The reports of the encounter were not sufficiently complete to Indicate the value of that kind of warfare. American Navy a Defender. Officers who advocate the submarine navy say that It is thoroughly prac ticable for the United States, because the mission of the American navy is to defend the United States from in vasion, not to prepare the way for an invasion of .any. enemy country. That they declare, has always been the BRAVE WOMEN OF EUROPE RISK THEIR LIVES AS AVIATORS 30 American Press, Mils. Helena Owtrlsa (ktt) and, Musses MsMMvakaya (ri|M|. Nsa iWla OsUlsa tap tha Busriaa ths .tos* theory of the navy department, and they say it accounts for the fact that no great efforts have been made to ob tain appropriations for swift battle cruisers, such as those employed by the British and German navies. Lack ing a merchant marine to be protected and being a self contained nation, fully able to support Itself with the re sources within its own borders, they argue that battle cruisers have not been considered a necessity to the United States navy, and attention has been concentrated upon getting the greatest possible number of heavy bat tleships, floating fortresses, to" defend the coasts. That theory for the lower speed of American super Dreadnoughts, it is said, and the greater concentration of gun power in ships of American design compared with similar ships abroad. With fleets of submarines statione'd along both coasts and with navy yards equipped to care for them those of ficers argue that even the battleships could be spared from the defense line and that no enemy would dare ap proach with ships and transports a coast well mined and defended with land guns as well as submarines. The risks would be too great, the 'chances of overwhelming disaster too many. |S!I It i^AC si jrtf *v* A^Psi **JvK %'f^ yt •cU if 1 & r« *.'. V-^I 4^4 1 ~t*I f* fc MX' alBO accounts V'