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Grand Forks daily herald. (Grand Forks, N.D.) 1914-1916, August 02, 1915, Image 11

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89074405/1915-08-02/ed-1/seq-11/

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ogrtphi especially for American
Association by E. Mullfer,' Sr
opyrlght, 191ft by American "Press As
sociation.
f—Submarine G2 laid up for repalre.
&—The. A-1 en surfacs. 3-—Subma
rines laid up for winter. 4—^Subma
rine tender Tonopah and nine tub
marines. 6*—The K-5. 6w—Subma
rine commanders—(a) K. Robottem,
D-2 (b) C.t M. Cooke, E-2| (c) T.
Wlthe^sifcommendsr second division
ef submarines^ (d) Yates Stirling,
commander/ Atlaiitio squadron of
submarines) (e)R. 8. Fay, D-3 (f)
E. C. Metz, D-1. 7*—The B-3. 8.—
The Intelligent Whale. 0/—The F-2.
By CHARLES P. CALVERT.
|HB success of the submarine
In the present war will shape
the naval, programs of all
countries In times to come. It
has been demonstrated time and again
that the greatest battleship is no
match for the hidden terrors of the
submerslbles. Fleets of destroyers
may steam round and round a war
ship or merchantman, but the under
sea craft lies in wait and, taking ad
vantage of the first opening, speeds a
torpedo at forty knots an hour at Its
prey. Complete1 destruction, annihila­
9)M
fjboto of Wood oopyrigbt by CUnedlnst
Major General Wood and soldiers skylarking In camp
OLLEGE students from sixty
one institutions of various
tanks and slises were taken
Into camp at Gettysburg two
»e4r* ago and taught the rudiments of
yu^i.ring The experiment was so
•untwfnl that it was rspeated last
vearatBurlington.Vt Tale'senttbir
t^uw men. Princeton
SUrvmrd twenty-on* and so ta. Shrea
•SiantOTr boTe were takea.
mar there are (our oampa Cmr
the Instruction of students, one at
Wtotnirti tamcka. N. anotbsf
at LndMctoo, Mich. yet aootbw .at
the pri23kTo San FMliicIsmv uft'fe*
fourth qdcfcamauga, $$ .$ V,
»muBpMa'#nd
iTMkr-
ii a a a
aKKSHK
«sssw-^'-'5-:
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i™*£"VT*'f.
«A f0!Z!ra
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.."sr* .a*
wRSKtll«l^2
tion tn fact Is the almost Inevitable
result
The United States has .learned a val
uable lesson from the activities of the
German boats, and tbe men who
plan the American.navy are ready to
ask congress for an appropriation
with which to build thirty new/under
sea craft in addition to the twenty
six now under construction or provided
for. "U" means "untersee," submarine.
For Defensive, Not Offensive, Work.
The importance of the submarine for
the United States not so much for its
offensive strength against enemy bat
tleships but for.' the defense of the
ooast lines Is appreciated in official
quarters. Extensive experiments are'
now being conducted, and it is expect
ed that when the newest type of subr
ington and will be eligible for comals-
sions in any .volunteer army raised tit
the event of .war. The growing Inter
est In the work Is shown by the atten
tion which the college^and school-pam
pers have been gfving to these mill
tanrtralnlns camna.
Very few people heard much about
the Gettysburg camp of two yean am
bbt it was the trylng out of a new
scheme for a reserve force paralleling
tha.MCu!tr army and the militia. .. The
backera of It^ explained that there were
maay youpt mto ln the countnr who
lapsed t^ time,
.or wera otherwise pre
veatM ^^iotain* the jnimia who
would.- aWmrthelMi ha dad to cat aa
Men Learn Duties of Soldiers
SWB
.«*
mi:^, -.
marine is-completed If Will embody
many Ideas -'that-- are -hot- generally
known. As .an. "exampleof this one
may cite the fact that the American
navy had Installed disappearing guns
on the decks of, her newest'boats. This
was kept a secret until announcement
came that an English merchantman
had been shelled by a German raider.
There waa/no -longer any need for se
crecy. the other nations had adopted
the same fdeai" and announcement was
made that the United States navy was'
equipped with such boats and gunS.
Experiments are: being conducted to
determine the value of electric. bat
teries to-, propel submarines for sub
merged operations.- It. is confidently
believed' that when the general naval
board- Is ready to make its formal re
port next month the number of new
principles of the art of war, as our raw
volunteers have been In the habit of
doing .ever since we ceased to be a
frontier country, when being a minute
man was a comparatively simple mat
ter.-
No one who went to the Camp placed
himself -under obligation to go. to war
or do other military service. The as
sumption of those who fathered the
undertaking was that many of the
young men would be found ready to
act as officers of future volunteer regi
ments and of the regular reserve of the
army.'"'
During the period of instruction,
which lasted for six weeks, all the
brass, button frills were cut out and tbe
work was made to resemble as nearly
as possible, the actual Conditions of
war. One hundred and sixty men at
tended, the average age ^being^ nineteen.
The War department detailed one.
battalion of lrjfantry, one troop of cav
alry and one company .of. "the signal
corps to serve as %tStructor 6f the stu
dents. A. detachment of-.the medical
corpr was detailed to lookv.after the.
health of the camp and treated the stu
dents so far like the regulars under their
bharge that typhoid serums and small
pok.vaccine were administered without
chane. There was this difference, that
neitl^r yiacclhatfon nor ino&ulatlon Was
compulsory. The majority of the
young- men, however, underwent both
treatments, suffering, so it was report
ed. no iU effects except a: temporary
soreness of the arm in a few cases. .'
The w«Jrk consisted prindully of the
study of the dutiies ahd princlples of
infantry Service, thotigb.^ ihe other
branches were not neglected.. In the
morning there were three, hours of
drill, and one hour of lectures,' given by
various officers at the camp-and: occa
sionally by such htgh placed military/
personsges as KaJor OeheMQf Leonard
Wood, then chief of staff, and 'Major
General Barry, then commanding the
depaitment of thtf.eaat V
8ome of the lective: sul^lects were:
"Obnlllct of Intabtry,"
"Vl&dia Corpt,-
"Uia and Duty of Eleld Artniefy,M
*VoreigB Military of
Cavalry," "Benefits of Military Train
ing,"* "Causes of War," *lmitary His-'
t«ryi» fChrU
Itoaua«BUiw4(fll.
tafy Tralnliii," Tecsohal Hyglsns,"
"JPha Armjr hukotf 'atf ^t'Oai* «i
the Wounded."
«r\
Afternoons were -]nM»..:ia hayosit'
and. brca^ibwort eMrdse,,-,cavalry- aad
artillery ..drills: vrMtel' road
sketchjair iaa^ tahafcnijltfap
ittr: ln-the «yiMlag ^ae 4?
h4d ma» olsgs. tliat.ls. thsi
$
b.
T' /i '/&>,
m.
rr^^z/s ,* -r-v
«&•$
r-.-'^rrv
submarines reeomm^fled will depend
on the number of batteries and engines,
available at that time.
.Intelligent Whale Am$ng the First.
As a contrast to illustrate the vast
strides that have been made tn sub
marine development in this country
.one may point to the Intelligent Whale
and. the ^Schley. The Whale was built
in 1864 in New Jersey by C. Bushnell,
Augustus Rice and IL Halstead. She
Was 28.8'feet long, nine feet in depth and
carried a crew of thirteen men. She
cost $50,000 and was propelled by hand.
In 1872 she was tested and condemned.
The Schley, now under construction,
when completed will be able to travel
7,000 miles without replenishing her
supplies. Her speed on the surface
will be twenty-nine knots and sub-
HREE things prompted me
to volunteer: for air scout
ing over Paris after the war
began," said pretty, dimin­
utive and effeminate Helene Dutrieu.
the French aviatrix, who is now in
this country.
"I love Prance. I love adventure. I
knew my business. Most of the men
fliers were needed at the front In
strictly military recorihdissance work.
There were comparatively few avia
tors available for guarding Paris. I
told the military government I wanted
to do my part. They told me that I
could hot be entered upon the army
rolls that I could not have any offi
cial position, but that I might work
privately. So 'from the day the war
began I was in the air practically ev
ery day. sometimes arising early in the
morning and scouting for hours, some
times flying in the afternoon or late
evening. I had the good fortune on
numerous occasions to'detect taubea on
their way to visit Paris, and I was
able to. descend and warn the aviation
Corps commanders so that they had
ample time to send up squadrons and
light off or frighten away the invad
ers. *.•
"l am sorry I cannot say that the
Germans shot at me. But I never let
tbelr fliers get close enough to shoot
WVvs
p.t
my machine or to drop bombs on me.
I circled around and around, keeping
watch with' my glasses, and the tow
stant I detected a German machine I
darted to earth and gave warning.
Usually I flew at a height, of from 1,500
to 2,000 meters, but sometimes 1-ihad
to go much higher because of fogs and
mists that veiled the loiter altitudes."
Mile. Dutrlevels so girlish in appear
ance that she/does not look her age,
which, as shfe remarked very naively,
"is between twenty-live aad thirty."
Certainly the reporter who talked with
her would have! been perfectly willing
to wscept the smaller figure. She has
been, as she puts It "trying to die
young" ever since she Was la her
taena ,•
She saM that as thers%waa no fur
ther ssrvic^ she could rfisder naapce
at tha presMit time «i| aacouatthe
declaiOB of the govertjinsit* act t* us*
womea 'In the war sha lipi decided to
Visit tha.Ualtfd BU
lectures' in the eaftern
.The Vriaosss ShakhoVAftya Cf Btiis*.
jrta. who ha# won fame af xa» a*1ato?r,
was at tha
ti*mi tor
mitt*-
:«attti
»6?
%$$$1
a t!mt She waua
userged eleven to fourteen knots. She
will coat $1,350 000 and will be the most
destructive weapon of submarine war
fare in the world.
Navy engineers are also hard at
.work seeking some effective defense
against submarine attacks. While
nothing has been revealed. It is as
sured that questions are being consid
ered that will divide the hulls of bat
tleships into more numerous compart
ments and stronger bulkheads, so
strong in fact that they can withstand
the force of the explosion of a torpe
do. It is said that the torpedo boat
destroyer does not meet the needs in
anything like an adequate manner.
Location and destruction of sub
marines by aeroplanes also is consid
ered Impractlble in any but special
cases where weather, depth of water
and other conditions make It possible.
Bomb dropping from aeroplanes, even
over farreaching land fortifications and
other easily visible stationary objects
MM
-M#J ft*
?h
$s^*
1
4
5Mf:
DEFEND AMERICAN COAST
has not proved so successful as to give
much promise where a small dimly vis
ible shape beneath the surface qf the
water Is the target.
Similarity, submarine against sub
marine is not considered a possible de
velopment of undersea warfare unless
some new and startling deylce to give
commanders the power of undersea
vision is discovered. One of the novel
features of the war, however, was the
sinking of an Italian submarine by an
Austrian submersible. The reports of
the encounter were not sufficiently
complete to Indicate the value of that
kind of warfare.
American Navy a Defender.
Officers who advocate the submarine
navy say that It is thoroughly prac
ticable for the United States, because
the mission of the American navy is
to defend the United States from in
vasion, not to prepare the way for an
invasion of .any. enemy country. That
they declare, has always been the
BRAVE WOMEN OF EUROPE RISK THEIR LIVES AS AVIATORS
30
American Press,
Mils. Helena Owtrlsa (ktt) and, Musses MsMMvakaya (ri|M|. Nsa iWla OsUlsa
tap tha Busriaa ths
.tos*
theory of the navy department, and
they say it accounts for the fact that
no great efforts have been made to ob
tain appropriations for swift battle
cruisers, such as those employed by
the British and German navies. Lack
ing a merchant marine to be protected
and being a self contained nation, fully
able to support Itself with the re
sources within its own borders, they
argue that battle cruisers have not
been considered a necessity to the
United States navy, and attention has
been concentrated upon getting the
greatest possible number of heavy bat
tleships, floating fortresses, to" defend
the coasts. That theory
for the lower speed of American super
Dreadnoughts, it is said, and the
greater concentration of gun power in
ships of American design compared
with similar ships abroad.
With fleets of submarines statione'd
along both coasts and with navy yards
equipped to care for them those of
ficers argue that even the battleships
could be spared from the defense line
and that no enemy would dare ap
proach with ships and transports a
coast well mined and defended with
land guns as well as submarines. The
risks would be too great, the 'chances
of overwhelming disaster too many.
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