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fai farmers were isolated on their remote farms and garden patches the other workers were penned up in the factories, in the mines and in the slums of the city streets. The power that oppressed both controlled not only the markets but practically all the means of transportation and communication. They controlled the press and all other agencies for the formation and the dissemination of thought and opinion. Nothing could go directly from the one class of workers to the other. Probably before the revolutions of 1848, which were most active among townspeople, there had been some awakening among the farmers. At any rate it was not long thereafter that they began to cast about, for some method of relief. It was the -newer rather than the older forms of oppression that first appealed to them. They learned that new and better methods of farming had been discovered. They heard of the uses, of commercial fertilizers, of improved farm implements and of labor-saving machinery. They found dealers who would supply them with these, but at prices that absorbed nearly all the advantage of using them. They learned of the existence and the uses of credit in modern business, but found credit controlled by the people who sold them their equipment and bought their products, fixing the prices of both. Fortunately there were a few far-seeing and large-minded statesmen, philanthropists and religious leaders who knew the hardships of the farmers, who rec ognized the danger to all the people of the contin BY F. H. SWEET HE ventilation of barns is essential in order to regulate temperature and keep animals in the best of health. The efficiency of the design presented herewith depends a good deal upon the location, size and straightness of the intake flues and outlet flues, practically airtight, nonconducting walls and ceilings, and good tight doors and windows. As in any natural or auto matic system of ventilation no provision can be made to warm the incoming fresh air except the heat supplied from the bodies of the animals. The fresh air is warmed by mixing it with the warm air of the barn at the ceiling before it is breathed. The fresh air intakes are located at 12 to 14-foot intervals along the side of the barn wall. The min imum length of the flue must be over five feet be tween A and B, as illustrated in figure 1, so as to guard against air flowing out ward. It is very important that the in let flue be covered with fine wire screen ing to prevent the flue from becoming obstructed. The valve or register should be arranged to open or close so as to pre vent drafts in the barn and to keep the stable from becoming too cold during the extreme winter season. A register, sim ilar to those used for hot air furnaces, may be installed in place of the damper. FIGURE I VALVE INTAKE: The foul air flues are made of galvanized iron, insulated, or of paper and lumber. The design of these flues is of the greatest importance to the success of the VALVE ventilating system. They should be as straight and smooth as pos sible, for every turn or bend re duces the carrying capacity of the flue. If it is necesary to pass around a bend, the flue should be enlarged so that its capacity will not be reduced. The ven tilating flue acts as a chimney, and should therefore rise above the highest part of the building in order to receive the full force of the wind. The velocity of the wind, as well as the difference in temperature between the inside and out side,, make the flue draw. It is important that great care be tak en in locating the outlet flues. These should not be placed too close to the heads of the cattle, for if they are all of the foul air will pass directly by the an imals and much of it will be breathed in by them. Neither should the outlet flue be placed ued decline of agriculture and who possessed the courage to strike at the root causes of that decline. These leaders saw that so long as the farmers acted only as separate individuals they would all be at the mercy of the trading classes. They saw that without relief the peasantry could neither support themselves in reasonable comfort nor produce food to keep other classes from starvation. WHY. GOVERNMENT AID WAS NOT SOUGHT BY FARMERS These leaders faced no less a task than the com plete reconstruction of agriculture. The idea of securing all raw materials from foreign trade pre dominated in England to such an extent that even the great estate owners in many cases neglected their land or turned it into pleasure parks or pas ture. Many of the great landowners became im poverished and were compelled to divide their estates or to sell to the newly rich. These either converted them into country residences or game preserves, or rented them out to the peasantry, in which case an absentee landlord took the place of the resident lord of the earl.ier type, who was at least concerned with the efficient tillage of the land. The blindness of the new ruling class would be be yond belief did we not know that although they themselves were the very newest product of civili zation they were looking backward instead of for ward. They were blind to the fact that the very foundations of the old industrial system were crum The Principles of Barn Ventilation Theory and Practical Operation—Amount of Air Needed to Maintain Animals in Health near the entrance where the opening of the door would break the drawing action of the flue. The outlet flues should be so located as to be out of the way as much as pos sible, and yet be so dis tributed about the stable as to draw out the foul air. Much of the success of the ventilation de pends upon the construc tion of the flues. The outlet flue is especially important. The cost of such a flue will average 75 cents a foot,of length. If made of galvanized iron the flue should be well insulated, otherwise the moisture passing through the flue wilf be condensed and fall as water. Insulating a round or square galvanized flue is generally impossible except by a commercial concern. This will in crease the cost. Lumber and tar paper is a good combination. In this system the to tal area of the outlet flues should practically equal the area of the in let flues. If the win dows and doors are not tight the number of inlet flues should be reduced so that their total area should only equal two-thirds of that of iL.he outlet flues, as there will be enough air entering the cracks to furnish plenty of fresh air. A convenient size of outlet flue is 18x24 inches or 16x22 inches. In figuring the size of flue the num ber of animals should be carefully considered. The following data may be found of service in comput ing the size of inlet and outlet flues: Amount of air required for barn ventilation Per animal per minute Horses 71 cubic feet Cows 59 cubic feet Swine 23.2 cubic feet Sheep 15.3 cubic feet Hens 52 cubic feet To estimate the amount of air required for a PAGE POUR vi IPH BPH i^l 1^1 an FIGURE 2 LETTING FRESH AIR IN AND FOUL OUT bling into dust and its walls crashing down upon them. Sucb being the state of mind of the ruling classes it is easy to understand why the wise and coura geous men who sought freedom for the rural pop ulations did not look to the existing governments for aid. Most European peoples had learned to look upon governments as something that imposed bur dens upon them, instead of helping them. Moreover, not only were the agricultural populations separat ed from the other workers, but each agricultural community was isolated from the other. Modern transportation was being developed but no one thought of extending its benefits to the rural pops illations. All through Europe the villagers were compelled to convey their products to market by thp most primitive methods, often carrying them over almost impassable footways on their backs. There was little rural education, and that little of the narrowest and most primitive character. Books, periodicals and newspapers were almost unknown. Travelers from other sections and other countries rarely left the main highways. The traveling priests and minstrels of former times had almost gone out of existence. Rural Europe was becoming a vast backwater, in a civilization that ignored its existence. (The steps taken to remedy these conditions will be told in the concluding installment of Professor Roylance's article next week.) herd of 27 head of cattle and for five horses we would multiply 27, the number of cattle, by 59, the number of cubic feet of air required for a cow, which is 1,593. To pro vide fresh air for the horses multiply 71, the number of cubic feet of air required for one horse, by 5, which makes 355 cubic feet. The total would be 1,948 cubic feet. In order to get the to tal cross-sectional area of either outlets or inlets divide 1,948 by 300 (the rate at which air travels a minute in the flues of a stable) and you would have 6.49. Multiplying 6.49 by 144 (the number of square inches in a square foot), would give 934.5, the total cross sectional area in square inches of inlets or out lets for this barn. Now the total required area, 934.5, will be divided by the number of flues to be provided so that the fresh air will enter the barn every 10 to 12 feet. This barn being 36x86 feet, the inlet flues spac ed at 12 feet intervals require 18 flues. To get the area of each inlet divide the total cross-sectional area of inlets by 18 (1,948 divided by 18 equals 108) and each flue should have an open ing of 108 square inches. A 10x12 inlet flue comes nearest to providing this amount. The total cross-sectional area of the outlets divided by four (1,948 divided by four equals 487), which is the number of outlets that will remove the foul air from all parts of the barn, gives a total area of 234 square inches for each outlet. This area will be secured in a flue 22x24 inches. The area of the outlet flues should be a little larger than that of the inlets. However, too great a difference, especially in a cold climate, will mean that the barn will be too cold. The outlet flue should be provided with a door that can be opened when it is desired to cool the barn more rapidly than by normal ventilation.