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The workingman's advocate. [volume] (Chicago [Ill.]) 1864-1877, May 26, 1866, Image 2

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fhtWotkragman'j^A* watt.
(WfM OryonqfUU reads* li-riffl ifffii'-rrO
PnuiwiniT Vtvbtst. a*
ANDREW C. CAMERON
/ 16ft South Clark Street. t'klcaf*,
Mad!ton and Maoro* Mm)
■ubmorxptxom vaunt
he Copy, par year, delivered (M ad ranee).|t 00
One Copy, dx bob the. •• *• . 1 00
(IpU Uae ocasfifvts • pin.)
Per Square, first caye.... TO OeaU
Par Square, third or fourth papt .....00 Oea«
A liberal dlsooaut made to yearly and hoOT-yearly
advertisers.
Local If raise* In tested at the rate of twenty ceate per
Doe for Am tne. rtton, and fifteen sente par line fcr aim
subsequent Insertion
odety Notlsse, per rear. .$10 00
OBP" JOB FBI NT.' 0, of every description, executed la
a tupertor manner at in* office of this paper,
tSP Address ell sommunlcattona to A. C. Csutaos,
Poet (iffi.se Box 1974. Ctlease. 111.
Eight Hours a Legal Day’s Work.
CHICAGO, SATURDAY. MAY 26, 1866
MORE TRUTH TIA.Y POETRY.
"It is all sheer nonscnaa to expect any
thing from tbe laboring clasaea, a working
man will be a workingman to the end of tbe
chapter end be will never occupy other than
a subordinate position,” said a friend tbe
other evervng, who had been a constant,
reader of the Aovocarx. "Men who are in
earnest can do anything within the range of
possibility, but most of our mechanics seem
perfectly content with their position and act
upon the principle, ‘ To-day let us eat and
drink for to-morrow we die.'” While the
pride of some would rebel against any such
conclusion, if their conduct for tbe past is
any index—for the future—we are pained
to admit there was more truth than poetry
id these remarks. Workingmen you tcilt con
tinue to be workingmen—that is r -smain '
stamped with the ban of inferiority both in
the social and intellectual world—until you
are actuated by a nnWir ambition—and
realize your destiny must be carved by your
cum bands. Your position is similar to that
of adrowninf B in calling for help, while you
refuse to accept the life preserver within I
your reach. Wesre sick and tired of reading!
and henriug of this and that strike, which
in a majority of cases, result more disast
rously to the employed than the employers,
while you refuse to adopt measures which
would render these strikes impossible.!
Neither dees it avail to be coutinualiy bar |
raogumg of the aggressions or greed of cap- j
itaiUte, while you neglect to strip it of its j
power—by systematic co-operation. The t
admission of tbe existence of an evil accom- j
plishes nothing, if your action is not predi
cated on a determination to change it. As
matters stand st present, tbe privileges
which you possess as American citizens are
a curse instead of a blessing to yon. These
advantages, which in the hands of earnest
men would prove your salvation, have been
the means of debasing you, for if you hatfj
no' possessed them you could not have ex- j
ercised them to your own injury. Suppose
the mechanics of Sheffield or Birmingham
possessed the elective-franchise for one year,
would they occupy the position you do to
day t Did you ever think what the intelli
gent, united efforts of 40,000 men could ic
oomplieh. and then Bring the matter home and
aek yoursv'ves the question what have the
workingmen of Chicago done—or to make
the matter a persooal one, “ What Aart 1
done, as one of these 40,000,” to rata: my
eelf or fellow-men from the slough of con- j
tempt, to give a practical illustration o4 the
dignity of labor or repudiate tbe ahczMMri
that we are not the mudsills of aaev-t r 1
Have you worked as earnestly for the eetab
lishment of a Trades’ Union—the Brst atepj
in \ne ngui uirvcbivu, uic »uu.bpi cn iu« vv
operative Association, the establishment of
a Mechanics’ Institute or Reading Room, at
you have for the election of a ward con
stable or pound master ? Did your tongue I
ever tire in urging upon your fellow mechanic
the necessity of uniting his influence to your
own building these essentials, as often as
it has tired in defending the policy of the
Democratic or Republican parties * If you
cannot answer these questions in a direct
iktielactory manner, you are directly charge
dblt with this apathy, and «hould lay the
blame where it exists—at your own door.
e have reason to believe traitors exist
in our vrr* 'inks, men who are loud in their
profts. ioi « of 'oyalty to the labor mu "eats,
hut whisi w ns belie their professions;
who ar< *l;vays reedy to throw cold water
on every enterprise and prognosticate
d fiat. And yet is it strange that aurh
erec t res should exercise any influence with
earnest, intelligent men. What, for example
would tbj Republican have thought of the
man who, whtk advocating 'he principles of
that party, cast his own vote on the day of
election for the Democratic nominee, and
urged others to do likewise ? And yet not
more inconsistent is the action of these
men. But this is begging the question.
Every privilege which you can expect, work
ingmen of Chicago, is already guaranteed ;
if you fail to use it for your own advantage,
you alone art reeponnblt! and you alone will
be the sufferers, as you richly deserve to be.
But it it a long love which has no turn and
though your day of prob-tion is fast passing
• wav, after which your regrets like thuse
of the lost, will come Iue late, an oppor
tunity is yet presented to redeem yourselves
“ Attempt great things and expect great
things.” Remember, as Dr. Collyer told
you, to it somebody you must do somethin,,
and let tbkt something be the determination
to cultivate these traits of character which
dignify mankind, to foater a manly inde
pendence, to cease croaking and go to work
as men who are in earnest, to determine you
will n somebody, redeem the time left, and
prove your ability to occupy a nure exalted
position. Give it but one fair, Honest, im*
partial trial, and like the Queen of Sheba,
you wilt be eon-ineed the keif h^ryiot been
toldyot. _
EftJETATlOUf OF THE LAMB>
I>G CLASSES.
' | It ii thought hr many, that tha Mm of tha
dotation of U>a laboring claaaM ia Utopian—
an infatuation, a dream. Tbeybata no tima
‘ k ‘ J t * - t 1
for book-study, cauuot got at libraries—
baomua of thgugjht and leamiufv-that In
conaaquMM th* m* doomed to uM»td 4t»U
nesa, stupidity, in#.. It ia said there
must bo rank—epssific ciaaa disUuctioua
jcaats ta society to keep up tbs bast order
and lyueby of arrangement ia human
affairs. Again, many contend that the la
borer must constantly be engaged in toil for
mere subeutenoe. . Not one of these objec
lions haa any great amou. t of significance.
As to libraries, bosks, it needs but a few.
There ia no man, he he laborer, scholar, or
philosopher, to make most vital, fundamental
^ headway in the vast realm of thought who
more than a few of the works of great and
needs atiecl "und*. Singular ss it may seem
there are hut few east ideas, thoughts, that
with living, impregnating fire—dart bem..s
— send illumination through the vast variety
of things. They are what awaken—stir—
vitalise, set the intellectual world in motion.
The vast amount of books—popular reading
ia trash —the time spent in the perusing
worse than lost -Ther* is not s laborer but
an bnng himself in contact with the work
of some most distinguished genius—drink
from some inexhaustible fountain—yet
quickening, that will enable him to handle
his own powers which is the great end of
book-knowledge, aa of all other. Then think
in want close contact all are, especially the
agricultural portions of community with na
ture. This vast unbounded scene of conti
nents and oceans—of sir and sky—vast,
riditnt, majestic systems, rolling in oeaieles*
measureless grandeur—what so adapted to
quicken, expand, build men—give new force
of thought—deepening consciousness, en
ergy of being. This grand scene of nature
was made for mind—for culture—adorning
—embellishing. The study of the energies’
forces of nature, as they are exhibited in the
erer-ceaseless play of its grand economy—is
one of the sublimest, grandest, in which
men can be interested. Nature is God’s
vast book of kuowledge to man. We rarely
think how much nature does for us. The
occupations, arts, the professions, to a great
extent, spring from connection with the
material world. The farmer—the mechanic
has all the chancel of the natural historian,
the philosopher, the lawyer, the artisan. The
poet draws grand images from nature. Al
most infinite thoughts came to the world of'
mankind through nature. It is the great
quickener of mind. Them is nothing in the
way in thia respee. What is wanted is
that ttA laboring classes should come truly
to respect themeetv?8 the dignity of intel
lect—their own nal opportunities gain a I
passion—an enthusiastic desire for true ad i
vanceuient. Thgf there always have, ever
will be, diatuictiOas among mankind we by
no means deny; that there has been gross
ignorance, superstition, prejudice?we know.
There have been ages of feudalism—of high
overgrown and corrupting arristocracies—
arbitrary caste distinctions. They have
inwoven their influence into; they framed
the geneial life so much that a deep-seated
conviction exists In many minds that such a
state ia preferable. This is an age of light,
<>f advancing civilisation—ideas—not preju
dices—thoughts not whiuis sre the great
power—forces. Rank, distinctions arise
more and more from intelligence, sound
judgment, great practical wisdom than from
anv other sources whatever. Meu must
now think—talk sense -to be priuces, lords,
tbat'i> all. Thia opportunity is as open to
the laborer aa to others.
Nor are the laboring classes without much
•pete time. We know there it much con
stant drudgery of ttu. But this age of in
vention by thousand labcr s**viug methods
<t* greatly alleviated matters in this respect.
Let the laborer truly systematise bis time
and work. Take proper time for aleep—to1
aat. When be works he ought to work1
with definite energy and aim; then stop—
remember that merely to get something to
cover hi* nakedness, . ed natural hunger,
shelter him is not ail, nor the great thing.
That to build, enlarge his mind, get insight, j
scope, power, to labor on for grander scale
—that is the high Jailing
We want strength of principles- powerjof
cultivated inuilpci, incorruptible high patri
otic pwpoae, knlarged views, nobleness. |
generosity, magnanimity of feeliog and not!
irbitrarynonsepteal disi notions The lab-J
oring classea may £et 11 the elevation, wear
ts signal honors huta as ary class in the
community. The way is now open for their
elevation Th# grandest motives prompt.
The loftiest distinctions allure—crowning
priaea invite—aatisfacti >n in their own at-i
[Momenta—vaat influence good accomplished
in their day and generation—an immortality
Df fame in l.wtory Cor signal services ren
dered rnanV :i
TMAtoKST __
BV C. K. H
Consult Adam Smith- he says—“The
wages of labor are the encouragement of
industry, which like every other human
quality improves in proportion to the en
couragement it receives. A plentiful subsis
tence increases the bodily strength of the
laborer, and ihe comfortable hope of better
ing his condition, and of ending his days,
perhaps, in ease and plenty, animates him
to exert that strength to the utmost.” Such
are the opinions of the greatest of political
economists.
a oooo t/RDnsTaieDiNu vscixo brvwbem
La BOH AMD CAPITA L,
There exists no actum! necessity tor a
conflict between labor and capital, and it
should always be avoided, if it can he made
consistent with honor and manly Reeling so
to do. A fight between labor and capital is
like a fight between father and son, for cap
ital is the offspring of labor—the surplus re
maintng after the living demands of labor is
satisfied—and this will always remain ho
under our pm* at social and financial sys
tem y or if ytM choose to review the paat you
wifi find that capital most first be satis
fied, and than labor may eat, and. capital
takas ease of the ae*4 that it he no^jtoo
large and the drinks that they ha noftho
copious. If you fieri It with us from this
standpoint, and we think it is a good one,
you will perceive that a conflict between
the two ie in ovary sense unnatural and de
grading to ear common humanity. We
4 • '
know that w* in not alone in this view» bat
tbit tame of the beet of Chicago men, poo*
searing both money and brain, think ao too.
While in the foregoing I have admitted
that capital and labor are closely related and
ought not to fall out by tha way, still I do
not wish to bo understood as advancing tba
absurd theory put forth by the iron masters
of the Eaat in the late atrikea “that capital
owns labor to a certain extent,” not pop
thank you, far be it from me, end withered
be the hand that would write such an idee
end palsied the tongue that would give it
utterance Let such ideaa be buried with its
twin relic of barbarism—slavery.
In its time, capital did own labor, one kind
of labor, but that is passed, hencefor .ard it
never can and never shall, our co< ise like
that of the unlettered eagle is no* onward
and upwa.d *
We claim that the time will eome, and
wish all to nutrk util our assertion, when
la sol will be MAsTEa, not over capital in
its negative state, but master in its utm
■Md ; not master in any arbitrary or tyran
nical sense, but by co-operation fully ana
fairly developed, receive the full and first
reward of labor, and each in hts own trade,
sitting as it were under his own vine and fig
tree be enabled to eujoj that which rightly
talongs to them, in its fullest sense—the
fruits of their own toil.
CAPITAL ROES LIBOR.
A recent Eastern writer states hi sub
stance as follows :—The gross Injustice done
by cuteeiated eapital to labor can be shown
by a single statement, which la taken from
the last census report of Massachusetts.
According to this report there are three ea
tablishmenu in that state for the manufac
tureof cot*on goods The united capital am
ployed '.n the establishments is $490,900,
the value of the materials consumed is
$228,616, the number of operative employed,
male and female, 326, the amount paid to
them for their labor- is $73,850, and the
value of the goods they produced is $515,
000. Now, reader, take your pencil and
cast np the different sides of this statement,
and distribute them where they belong, and
you will see that the material consumed and
the labor, putting both together, cost $308,
$25, the value of the <,oo<it manufactured it
$615,OOo, and hence the clear profit to the
capit<di»l in $212,375. The reader will
notice at once that the profits ore nearly
half as great as the capital invested If we
suppose there are fifteen partners to these
profits, owners of the three factories, it
gives to each one of the fifteen the hand
some sum of $14,172, or, if we deduct the
interest at six per cent, on the capital inves
ed, it still gives a profit to each one of the
capitalists of $12,212. Who says it is not
time that ike workingmen of America de
tnanded their rightR ! Bear in mind the
above is no imaginative or fancy sketch, but
one of the “official documents” of that re
!:ab!e old State, Massachusetts, and that
these enormous profits have been wrung
from the sweat and blood of the over-work
ed and uncared for mill operatives of her
soil. Under such a system of things the
puritanical money changers may well blush
at the assertion of the CharUtton Mercury,
that New England factory towns auppliad
southern cities with nympht de pave.
labor shocld have its proper share.
Now, let ue look on the other able of the
picture. We have seen bow much capital
baa been able to make in a aingle year from
its investments; let us see how the account
staods with labor.' Certainly, if there is to
the co-operation desired, end wbioh some
maintain already exists between labor and
capital, than labor ought to receive its share
of the benefit that accrue. The whole
amount paid for labor, both male Rod fe
male, was $73,850; there were 396 opera
tives. This of course gives to each one the
sum of $226.24 for a whole year’s work!
(the time covered by the Census report).
Now, it strikes us there is a vast deal of
difference between the individual earning of
the capitalist and laborer, saying nothing
about aching bones, Ac. Two hundred and
twenty-six dollars and twenty-four cents for
a year of life destroying toil—and twelve
thousand two hundred and twelve dollars
for—well, because they have the capital!
Agaio^of these 326 lahorers, 157 were
males, and 169 females. Of course ’the
males earned the larger amount of wages in
the division, and the females much the less.
Had the profits been divided equally, not to
eay equitably, (pwween the laborers and the
capitalists employing them, the former
would have got for their average pay $787
instead of $227. Any one can see, from
this very simple, direct and truthful itku
tration, how unequally, unjust and tyran
nically the present relations between, the
father and son—Capital and labor—operate
against the latter, and what an urgent need
exists for revising theee rotations at oooe,
and establishing them anon a basis of justice
and equality. Labor ought to have a chance
in this country. Opportunity is what every
body craves, and in nine caaee out of ten
it is all that makes the difference between
men who labor.
---
Comaraoicated.
THE ARTS ATD HCIB.’WC'ES. 1.
The rapid progress of the United States
in wealth, art and ecience, in due to the m
om five genius of our rifiemt.
In ordeT to folly demonstrate this, it is
only necessary to compare the resources of
this country, with those of other countries
surrounding as. la examining this subject,
reference will be more especially made to
the mechanical department, it being the
great stimulus to agricultural pursuits. In
the earlier history of the world, the wealth
of the people consisted mostly in the pro
duction of etook, and a limited amount of
grain taken from the poorly cultivated soU.
This was a matter of necessity fat consequence
of the want of suitable mechanical applian
ce* for tilling the soil, harvesting the grain,
and preparing the saase for toad. Reference
to the famishing condition of the land of
Caanan, in Jacob** timer with the well fil
ed ware-booses of Egypt, will deafly show
tbs benefit derived, even from the staple
agricultural inventions mads by the Egypt
ians. Whas was true with tfccd* oountrlee
has always been true with cot ntriss com
paratively sdranaad in the art*. And it is
a fact, worthy of notice, that in oattnia
! . 1 l
ooun tries, which visited
with famine, mbfe
produced • large
popalated, and the i
dnoed, in this eaee as
.at tt^PWtflhy
The reader is refer. -d to the prosperity of
New England, compared with the neceaeary
deetruotioa of etoek in South era California,
by drowning, in order to parent starvation,
which would not have occurred had the peo
ple depended more apon tie mechanical
pursuits, to the exclusion jof Nomadic life.
We see in the scriptures that an example
waa given by our Creator—in mechanics
by making coate of akin and covering oBr
Bret parent* after they were driven oat of
the garden. And ever eiaoe that day the
world has been progressing in such arte, ae
the age required, for we are informed at a
very early day that tha people had sought
out many inventions. We can not infer
from this that the inventor was the recipient
of any excloeive right, but rather that he
made the improvements se a matter of ne
cessity growing out of hie condition in life.
Kings and other potentates having authority,
at an early age, were accustomed to bestow
special favors upoa their subjects for new
and destructive war implements, and the
Greeks rewarded their skilful architects and
artisans, by high positions in the offices of
stste, which we think some of our impover
ished inventors would kave gladly excepted.
- ■ -#«
A Laker Teat.
No arrangement wot.li 8'ein more equit
able than subjecting a ..killed smith, for in
stance, to a short trial before permanently
eouagiog him, »h to the amount of work he
can turn ont within a given time. Such s
plan is, indeed, when systematically carried
out, s very ingenious means of eliminating
inferior workmen from any given workshop
and it is only a wonder that it hss not been
general 1/ carried out. On reflection, how
ever it will be seen that this mode strikes at
the very ro»t of the very objects sought to
be attained bv the Trades' Unions, who wish
to put the good and bad workmen, after
having served a legitimate apprenticeship,
00 the same level ae to wages. Accordingly,
last Monday, in one of our largest locomo
tive works near Manchester, there having
been a foreman anointed who bad else
where Biadt himself obnoxious to the “Am
algamated Engineers' Union” by this course,
all the smiths struck work end left the shop
the very instant the new otHcial eame in at
the door. When we say that this occurred
rW Messrs. Ceyer, Peacock A Co ’9 establish
ment, we need not add that the employers
of these men are well known for a uniformly
just and libei al treatment of their workmen.
1 — Engineer.
The above from an English psper, shows
that some of the so-called mechanical jour
nals of the old world, like ihoee of the new,
are but the mouthpieces of capital, and do
i • t represent in any manner the interest or
claims of the producing classes. It proves
sIbo that the man who penned it is grossly
ignorant of the principles upon which he un
dertakes to enlighten others. No honorable,
independent workman would submit to such
a test for an hour, as it is nothing but the
vilest slavery under another name. It is
expected, as a matter of course, that a me
chanic under such an ordeal will strain every
nerve to accomplish a given amount of work,
which is taken as an average of what he is
expected to do all the Use, and the firm
who desites to Mtfororfuck atest would be
very apt to obtain a slave-driving scoundrel
to represent them. Let us, however, see
i how this rule would apply to other voca
tions : Suppose that a physician or a law
yer were required to prove how many
patients or cases they bad severally lost or
gained before they were allowed to practice,
how long before a hue and outcry would be
raised against snob injustice f AgaiD, .o
Trades' Union with which we are acquainted
wishes to put the good and bad workman on
the same level as to wages. They simply
say a man shall not work for less than a
given sum, but do not prevent the employer
giving twice that amount to a superior work
man. In other words—they stipulate the
minimum, but never the maximum of wages.
Wo commend this view of the case to anti
union employers, and challenge them to
prove to the contrary.
TiADEr raioa items.
Earlt Closiso.—-The dry goods commis
sion merchants of Philadelphia have gene
rally agreed to close their stores daily at 4
p. m., and on Saturdays at 8 p. m., from the
16th ion until September 1st.
The Operative Bakers, Coschbuilders,
Shoemakers, Skinners, and Tailors of Kelso,
| Scotland, have succeeded in obtaining an in
crease of wages, with, in some instances a
modification of the working hours.
Til Master Builders’ Association of Lon
don has conceded to the men the sdoption
of the nine Hour rule, as well as an advance
on their wages.
Tn strike of the Moulders in the Eagle
Foundry, St. Louis, has ended favorably to
them.
Thb Draymen and Drivers of express
wagons of Sb Louie are preparing to form a
Protective Union.
There were about 1,000 men engaged in
the recent Shoemakers’ strike in Madison,
Tn Stone (Hitters of Baltimore are on a
strike for $4 a day and nine hours for a
day’s work.
Tna Journeymen House Painters of Balt
imore hare succeeded in obtaining an ad
vance on their wages of fifty cento par day.
The oooper* of Oswego, N. I., ware re
ported on a strike on Monday last.
it was reported at a recent social science
meeting in England, that out of twenty-sis
strikes la the last year among the working
meng, eighteen of them ware successful.
Gilbert Vaile and John J. Davis, Jr.,
have been selected to represent New York
Typographical Union, *0. 6, in the Chicago
National Convention. The selection is gen
erally satisfactory.
boar Hons.—A large Eight Hour meet
ing under the auspices of the Conchmakera’
Union, was bald in New Haven, Ct., on
Wednesday. It waa addreaad by aaamban
of IheYiegtalature.
The workingmen qf Washington have
agreed to support no candidate ah the com
ing city election without having then
pladgad in favor of the Eight Hoar move
Ptm Teias.
Hocsw, 12th May, 1866.
*• «f »• WHiMuiiitMihn,
I notice ia yon Issue of the pth of April
a communication signed “ Mmhsnia," de
cking information in very ineliegaat and
angentlemanlv terms of the natecedenta of
Mr. A. C. Cameron, and jit the same time
applying the term “ Copperhead” to the
whole race of Democrats, especially to the
workingmen of Ckiougo. Mr. Cameron has
ably refuted all the specious, untruthful
charges concerning himself, but the cause
of tbs workingmen of Chicago still remains
to be defended from the vile slander wbiob
this radical, fanatical, would-be-mechanic,
has •o obbrobiously heaped upon them.
This fellow pretends to be a mechanic, a
member of the League, and an advocate of
the Eight Hoar System, but preferred work
ing twenty hours per day rather than see the
State of Illinois go into the hands of the
Democrats, or as he, io great respect and
brotherly affection calls them, the “ Copper
heads.” I will present this question to thie
“ mechanic,” aa well as to all others im
bued with his sentiments. Is he the copper
head who ignores all party issues, works
honestly, faithfully, and cheerfully for the
good of his co-laborer ; binding air his en
ergise to their cause, and using all that in
telligence and all those means which God
has given him for their benefit and advance
ment ; thus complying with the sum of all
laws, M thou shall love thy neighbor as thy j
self.” Supporting the cause of the Union |
fearlessly, and with all that devoted lovei
which s noble mechanic bears to the coun
try which secures to him hie old birth-right'
—liberty, and all those privileges are our im-!
munities, workmen, in any other land under j
the sun. How nan they help but love that;
country for which they have fought so well
and by their bravery and iudornilable will j
preserved and brought it safely fnto a i
calm harbor, after a four years storm
of war. Is he a patriot or a friend of the .
mechanic who seeke to carry contentions
into their councils, who is more devoted to
fanatics than to the true interests of bis co
workmen, who eschews the true principles!
of that party among whom he pretends to!
Dumber nimself, and tries like a traitor to
subvert the noble cause wnich he hypocriti
cally assumes to be his, and lastly to have !
the impudence to direct his remarks, un
solicited to the Editor of the Advocate,
and then fear to attach bis signature to the !
sin conceived communication. No doubt
but that he has many reasons for not doing
so. • • • But too much space;
has already been allotted to these remarks,1
suffice it to sav that this “mechanic” has a
strange way of showing his devotion to the
Eight Hour System, and as a workingman, 1
herewith enter my protest against the intro
duction of s'! such political issues into our
Leagues. Should you wish to have a cor
respondent in this part of the country, I
shall give the Advocate an account of our
climate, agriculture and mineral resources,
prospects, Ac. Yours truly,
Sabive.
[We shall be very happy to hear from our
correspondent in the future, as will also the
readers of the Advocate. He must excuse
us however, from publishing all his letter, os
we think some parts of it unnecessarily
severe. With regard to ourselves we can
afford to laugh at all such disorganisers, as
our Amboy accuser, knowing as we do, he
is powerless to accomplish his purpose.
*Xhe Advocatx knows no politics but the
politics of labor, and we don’t mean to
swerve a hair’s breadth to gratify either a
bogus or a genuine mechan* .—Ed. Ad].
- -+•
From Freeport.
Fbekpoai, May 18, 1866.
To the Editor ot the WoatmeUAS • Advocate.
The following resolution was passed a.
the last regular meeting of Eight Hour
League, No. 9, of Freeport :
Resolved, By the officers and members
of Eight Hour League, No. 9, that we ten ler
our siocerest thanks to the Trades’ Assem
bly, of Chicago, and particularly. to Mr.
Ryan, for their kindness and courtesy as
shown to our delegate while Attending the
Convention of Eight Hour Leags.‘s, held in
the city of Chicago, for the purpose of form
ing a Grand League.
Resolved, That a copy be sent to the
Trades’ Assembly, and also s copy to the
Advocati, with a request to publish the
same.
Join Mac*, Cor. Sec.
The Right Skeit.—In a communication
which we have just received from our friends
in Watertown, Wis., accompanied by an or
der for $5l.o0 to aid the men of the Rock
Island shop the writer says :
“ Say to the boys that we are with them
in spirit, and intend to contribute our mite
monthly so long as it may be necessary, al
though we think if our fellow workmen of
other localities contribute proportionately
our friends of the Rock Island Snops will be
amply sustained.
Hoping that others may see this matter in
its true light and act accordingly,
We remain yours, etc.,
Shofmates.”
By What Same skaU we Call
v Thews T
We dip the following from the last num
ber of the Moulders' International Journal,
and think there ’jt a few bipeds at presenl
at work in the Rock Itlarfd Railroad Shops,
;o this city, to which they are peculiarly ap
propriate :
We cannot too severely coi demn that
clan of men who take advantage of a strike
to supplant their toiling brethren while
struggling to vindicate a principle which se
cures equal benefits to all. The truckling
creature who permits himself to be used as
the instrument of capital to oppress labor,
must often feel at*, 'hod at bis own perfidy.
Such a wretcq would have been a tory in
the Revolution -an informer to a tyrant—a
spy in behalf of treason. Rather would we
beg from door to door than merit the con
tempt of our fellow-workmen, and have the
alow finger of scorn raised against os by
such base treachery. It is a stain that no
atonement can wipe out. It may be forgiv
en, bat never forgotten; and he must be an
unnatutal father who couh) punish his chil
dren by such an accursed legacy . The de
ceudants of Benedict Arnold received a pen
sion from the British crown ; but we want
these tools of capitalist* to remember that
no such provision shall be made for their
children by employers. On the contrary,
those who thus degrade themselves are gene
rally the first kicked oat of the shop after
a difficulty is settled, and we feel thankful
to know this is their final reward.
Til Paris correspondent of the London
Timet smarts that the detentions in tbs
published speeches of the Emperor, which
caused the recentwzeitemeut, were not ut
tured at AuxerrefYut that he subsequently
wrote them, and bad them not only printed
in the papers as his ^eech, hot also had
them placarded thrsagbont tbs large towns.
fie MM N»4 W«r»d«*»M te
the LeflllaUre.
A la* days ago, an Iriahman, a so-called
con. *•!r tborar. was told by some capital
la. *, 'Tst to aay to an advocate of the
"Vi/ s°ur low,’’ as he passed along the
sties*. The Irishman said to the advocate
of the eight-hour law (ho not being a so
called workingman j, “ I <lo not want an
eight-hour law ; you want to get away my
liberty. I want the right to work aa many
bouts aa 1 please , i do not want to be dic
tated to. Shall T not earn more money if i
work sixteen hours a day at tan cents an
hour, that. ( shall if I work only eight
hours*** The jogs of elbows, winks and
laughs of the capitalists seemed to indicate
that they enjoyed the logic of the laborer
hugely.
But a change came over them when the
eight hour man said, “ You have not got
any liberty as a workingman, except the
right to starve to death. This is a great
right. The negro had it not before the war
He was thrashed if he did not work for food
and clothes Vow he has the right, In com
uun with the Northern laborer, to say he
will starve rather than work at the prica*
the capitalist dictates. You talk about hav
ing your liberty taken awsv 1 There is
nothing you can do which will so much help
the capitalist to keep you down, as to insist
that you will work more than the average
hours necessary to supply the world with
produce, if all work. Every hour you work
over the average help* to keep other* out of
employment, or else to excpse them , and so
you cut of your own nose— you make your
self work cheap and keep another see out
of employment, so that they stand around
the door of the factory, or begging the con
tractor to give them a job that they need
not starve
Now, if just »uch men as you would only
say that you would not work more than
eight hour’s, you w mid get rid of all these
competitors, and the capitalists and specu
lators would be obliged to go to work, and j
we should a.'l become producers. The'
friends of the eight-hour law want to get a
law passed prohibiting corporations, at least, I
and if the workingmen only knew enough |
tc help to do it, they w ould like to get a law j
to prohibit anybody from working more
than eight hours, because it is well known
that if all the members of the community j
would work eight hours, we should have al
great deal more products to consume than j
we have now. But if one can work more |
than eight hours, somebody is cut oflf from ;
work, and the capitalist knows enough to
take advantage of it.
The eight-hour law f.dks want vou, hod
carrier* and grave-diggers to have carpets
on your floors, pictures on your walls,books
and pianos in vour bouses. They want you
to amuse yourselves after the eight boors'
labor, just as the merchants, lawyers presi
dents of rauroads, agents ar. l treasurers of
factories, and other so-called gentiy, Bo
There are enough young men and women nf
the upper class, so called, who would be
glad to do some kind of work if it could be
made respectable to do »o. Now, *ny friend,
f do not vast to get away v our liberty; I
want to have you have and enjoy more
liberty.
If you think you have the l.berty of work
in* as many hours a* you pl.*ase, just go to
the factory, or .o the contractor, or foreman,
and tell him you want to work eight hours
a day. He wdl say to you, ‘ If you will not
work ten, twelve or even sixteen hours, as I
dictate, you shall not work at all.’ More
over, the capitalists have a plau on foot to
take away some of the liberty you now have.
They mean that you shall work more hours,
instead of less; and fcr le s pay, instead of
the pay you tiave now; and when they have
got your common laborer down, they are
going tn tackle the mechanics and clerks in
stoias, so that capital shall rule supreme.
Now, we eight-hour men want to save your
liberty; but we are afraid thatth" 'apitilists
will get round you and cheat you out of the
little liberty you now bare.”
The Irishman put his hand undsr his hat
and b, gan to acralch his head, and said,
God bless you, sir ! I do not understand
this. I hope you will grt the eight hour
law I will vote for it. bo you think we
shall get it this yearf He was told you will
never get it until common day-laborers and
other workingmen are united, and will send
workingmen, not bosses, capitalists, min
isters and lawyers, to the legislature. The
day-laborer and mechanic know what kind
of laws are needed to organize a just labor
system better than those who l tve played
! boss, capitalist and employer. You might
| as well trust a hungry dog with your din
ner as to send the employer class to the Le
islature. The Massachusetts Legislature ol
thia year b»va decided by a rote of two *o
one that laborers “ hive no rights which
capital is bound to respect.”—Cot. Platon
Vtiee.
Thr Poor lie Loadoa.
A London journal said in the winter: “It
ia at thia time of the year that they who are
anxious to know tL extent and degree ol
the poverty that dwells in London may most
completely sutisfy themselves. Frost de
velops poverty as light develops a photo
graph. It is the last crael smart that makes
the poor wretch cry aloud. It kills the fee
ble : it strikes to t’h» breast of the hungry.
Directly the frost is fairly upon us, the pa
pers ere'erowded with appeals from every
part of London in behalf of poor familie s
housed in fire'.^ss garrets, and witboat a
crust or a blanket. Not a few such case!
appear, we repeal The inetances of star
vation by hunger and cold may be counted
every winter in London by the thousand
This dismal fate ia that of poor working
men's families. The workman with his
wife can just keep body and sou! together
in the warm months. They are of the vast
London army of an paid men and women
whose labor‘is lews even than that of a Dor
setshire laborer. They are John Cross’,
town relations. The courts and alleye swarn
with them. If they will not take the worl
they can get at the master choose* to pat
for it, thore is another poor creature ready tt
Kunce upon it. The competition is fierce
r the most miserable cling to liffe ant
will do a day’s work for a crust, if no won
than a crust is to be had.
“ A Clerkenwell missionary has rseentli
given the public one or two examples of thr
kind of distress thet abounds iahis weigh
borhood—we might almost say is tbs rail
there.—In a little top-room livea a man, bii
wife, and five young children. There is nc
fire, there is no money even for a rushlight,
and the children are orying for bread. Tbs
wife has just been compelled through illness
to gire np a situation where she earned nine
shillings a week. The husband can earn
* scarcely anything,’ and there is ao relief
»»vui *ui pai <»u .
“ A poor widow can barely earn one shil
ling a week. Her week’s fare eoneiets of
five pennyworth of bread, two pounds ol
potatoes, and- six pennyworth of grooerie..
In another family there ie one at sal a d*>,
which consists of bread and tea, with some
times a little bit of buue;-. The father has
been ont of work ten weeks, and the mother
can earn only a trifle at needlework. These
are fair samples of the cases which might
be collected in London at the preeent mo
ment by the thousand. When poverty ol
this intensity comes to light svery winter,
end is shown to exist over luge neighbor
hoods, and to get worse and worse ae yeari
go by, ws cannot avoid the eoocloaion that
theta are regular influences at work which
5* this misery "as the froei
develops It. How IgJt that all this under
paid, unskilled, sickly labor, becomes mas
ssi in groat districts, until ws find satin
a
parishes oi paupun? How is it that gen
eration after generation of sickly creatures
(whose labor is barely worth their bread) is
permitted to arise, to sufcr, and to die,
■dthout having provoked even a speculation
among politicians in powar on the m'-ane ot
i^alati □C the labor market as to continually
direct labor f%m the markets where it is
superabundant to the places where it is in
demand.”
Goon roa the Boston ('ai-leer** ’ The
Boston Voice, of the dUl inst., say* ;
The ship Archer arrived ut tin* port yester
day, for repairs, sent on from N v York for
the especial purpose of de*- »*in, t!.» . , bi
hour strike of the ship-bnddm/ trad-* m
New York.
It gives us pleasure to »tute th.it tLu Bos
ton caulkers, who have be-u working on the
eight hour system for sow- tim \ promptly
met and voted aot to work »n this ship ,r
any other vessel which has hc-n or n. .. be
sent round from New Turk to iefeat" the
strike of their brothers there.
Three cheers for the B >st n /xuls-rs '
We hope the other trades may have to;
manliaeea to follow their erahiplc.
Has ill’s Reception' jn L ila-id me
London NpWamrn of the 5th in-t
nounces the arrival of Hamdl, the ehampi m
sculler of America, at NuwcartJe. if ) ws*
accompanied from L verpool by his friends,
the celebrated English scullers. Chambers
and Clasper. The SyorUun says
On tiie arrival cf the party at N.-wcastls,
the station was literally i. sieged with a
dense crowd of Tynesiiers, who gave thu
American a most enthusiast!. reception.
After visiting several of th lea ling sporting
houses, the party called at the oltt • th -
Newcastle CkronicJ. , and then.'.- amounted
to Clasper’s hotel, where a very phasart
evening was spent. Hamill m expected to
make his debut on the Tyne this mori iog,
and his tfrst performance afloat i- looked
forward to with the greatest ex* itement by
the Tvnestders. who are favjial», impressed
with his appearance. Our telegram do
scribes him as bearing a cl" resemblance,
both in heith ai.d build, to Robert Cooper,
but broader anil strong.*' made, sod, as lar
as looks go, a very promising candidate for
the championship. IVhatever may be the
ultimate result, we may rest ass ired that
Hamdl will meet with a worthy and geuer
ous opponent, who would »■ i to stoop to
either meanness or subturf ige, »u i siiould
tbe American succeed in bis ch /alrous un
dertaking to win for the New World fh<*
coveted honor, no true Englishman will
grudge hnii his tnompli
YFWS «»» THE IMt.
The number of languages spot, r, .9 2,0*♦
The New York Tribu ; w»~ -urttd :» _
capital of one thousand dollar*, borrowed
money.
The day mentioned in the indictment of
Jefferson Davis, Jane 15th, 1^64, was tha
of the first assault by tha troops of Geosia!
Butler's command upon the defences or
Petersburg.
The tolloAing is a list of palaces and cas
tles (14 in number) appertaining to the
British crown, Windsor, t jgntore, Cumber
land Lodge, Osborne Castle. Claremont
Hou«e, Hampton Court, Kew Pairce, Ken
sington Palace, St. James’ Palace, Balmoral
Castle, Holyrood House, Dublin f'aptlc.
Tne London Time* says that, according to
the careful estimate of the commissioners,
four hundred and thirty-eight rebels »■ r«
shot in Jamaica during martial law, about
j »ix hundred persons flogged, and one thou
1 sand houses of the peasantry burned down.
Gabeibai.di is to l ave a prominent part
! in the approaching war between Italy a .d
Austria, for the possession of Yeniiia He
has had an understanding wd’i the Ita!
' Government, and is to command the voluu
| teer» in person, with headquarter* i r -
j prdhent at Florence.
A great financial panic has occurred in
; England, resulting in many heavy failur,—
One firm is repotted to have * lap n lad with
liabilities of ten millions of pound* The
bank charter act ha l beeu suspar letf, and
| the rate of discount of ti e H*nk of England,
i raised to nine per can*
The Illinois Penitentiary.—There era
now 937 convicts in tha State Penitentiary.
A batch of 15 men were sent up from Spring
field last week, and at least 30 are expected
from Chicago, this week. Thu* the number
is constantly and rapidly increasing. Amour
these are seven Government p *oner* from
Kansas, assigned to this Stat the United
States Court United State* >1 irsha Arm
strong and detective Smith, of 1 aveuworlb,
Kansas, arhveu at Joliet on 6 urday last
with five prisoner* from Kan-as. Four
were up for counterfeiting and one for for
gery.— Wilmington (III.) Independent 2d.
Western Pati , issued by the U. 8.
Patent Office for the week, ending May 1 i,
186*1, as reported by G. L. Chapin, Patent
Solicitors, Chicago :
Apparatus for Expeiuog Air from Case*
—Daniel Calvidge, InJianapoli*, Ind.
Adjustable Sandal- Jane Miria Wilkin
son, Urbanua, 111.
Buckle—J. J. Wilkins, Yirdey, O.
Bed-bottom-Jonas Bouse,’ Downgvs •,
Mich.
Breech-loading Fire-arm—James L-*,
Milwaukee, Wis.
Bed-Bottom—Warren Jones, Beiliu, Wo
Breech-loading Fire-Arm—John Burk
Corn-sheller—Augustus Adam*, *. 1
wich, 111.
Cultivator—Orlando Barr and F. F. t x,
Beloit, Wis
Cotton-bale Tie- Jamas Booth, gt. Loins,
Mo.
j Cooking Stove—Daniel lleilig, Cbicigo,
Car-coupling—Miles H. Card, Fulton, III.,
and J. W. Stewart, Lvons, Iowa.
Clotbee-dryer—M. D. Hotchkiss, Sbehov
gan Falls, Wis.
Cultivator—William McCormick, Muse*
tine, Iowa.
Carriage Seat— F. B. Morse, Milwaukee,
1 Wis.
Cultivator—E. Parmele and R. N. Pptter
son, Davenport, Iowa.
Corn Plow—Daniel Wield, Washington,
IOWA.
Ditching Machine—J. P. R^ere* and R.
A. Graham, assignors to tbeineolres, and 0.
C. Barns, Oreensourgh, fnd.
Dumping Wagon—A. D. Manley, Wash- *
ington, Mich.
Hot Air Furnace—Thomas Wallace. Cbi
cago, 111.
Gang Plow- Thomas J. Cornell, Decatur,
111,
Harreeter Rake—A. D. Sprague, tn 1 A.
Cockurn, Caledonia, Minn.
Harreeter- Jacob Seibell, Manlius, IH.
Hoop Skirt—P. E. Sheffield, Pontiac,
Mich.
Hay Loader—S. R. Ifiggine, Parma,■
Harness Soap—G. W. Devin, Ottumwa,
Iowa.
Key—T. S. Bowman, St. Louis, Mo.
Screw for Stool, Etc.—W. Allen Ingalls,
Chicago, 111.
Mosquito Canopy—M. Bliss,Gruneil, lojra
Machine for Making F.area Trough—O.
W. Noble, Darlington, Wis.
Mail Bouch or Box—M. Smith, St. Louie.
Neck Yoke-*. C. Cook, Ohio, U -
Ore-eeparatore of Jigging Machine—T.
Dewey, Haeghtoa, Mich.
Ratchet Attachment for HarresUii—W in.
Coggewell, Ottawa, 111.
Safety Valre for Steam Generator*—Vir
gil D. Green, Watertown, Wie.

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