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lA PECK'S BAD BOY WITH THE CIRCUS By HON. GEORGE W. PECK Author "Peck's Bad Boy Abroad," Etc. \Ji-of (Copyright by i. B. SAW las.) a Pa and the Bad Boy Stop Off at a Lively Western Town—Pa Buys Mining Stock and Takes Part in a Rabbit Drive. Well, we are on the way back home, after having engaged Indians, cowboys, rough riders and highway robbers to join our show for next season. Pa felt real young and kitteny when we came to the railroad, after leaving our robber friends at the Hole in the Wall, far into the mountain country. We came to a lively town on the railroad, where every other house is a gambling house, and every other one a plain saloon, and there was great excitement in the town over our arrival, 'cause there don't very many rich and pros perous people stop there. Pa had looked over the money the robbers had given him, to throw it away, because it was old-fashioned confederate money, when he .found that there was only one bundle of con federate money, and the rest was all good greenbacks, the bundle of con federate money probably having been shipped west to some museum, and the robbers having got hold of it in the dark, brought it along. Pa burned up the bad money at the hotel, and then he got^ stuck on the town, and I said he would stay there a few days and rest up, and incidentally break a few faro banks, by a system, the way the smart alecks break the bank at Monte Carlo. I teased pa to take the first train for home, so we could join the circus be fore it closed the season, and he could report to the managers the result of his business trip to the west, but pa said he had heard of a man who had a herd of buffalo on a ranch not far from that town, and before he returned to the show he was going to buy a herd of buffalo for the cowboys and Indians to chase around the wild west show. I couldn't do anything with pa, so we stayed at that town until pa got good and ready to go home. He bucked the faro bank some, but the gamblers soon found he had so much money that he could break any bank, so they closed up their lay-outs arid began to «sell pa mining stock in mines which were fabulously rich if they only had money to develop them. They salted have gone all right, and we would hav« got out with honor, if it hadn't been Miss Esther Howland, of Worcester, Mass., who invented the modern val entine in 1849, never married, and died some ten years ago. The Springfield Republican recalls the fact that she, was a graduate of Mount Hplyoke seminary, and her father had a small bookstore and bindery. She sought to add a new feature to the business, and her method is thus described: Mis3 Howland took stiff letter paper, scalloped and fringed the edges, cut numerous that they come In off the plains adjoining the green spots, at night, and eat everything in sight, so once a year the people get up a rabbit drive and go out in the night by the hundred, on horseback, and surround the country for ten miles or so, and at daylight ride along towards a corral, where thousands of rabbits are driven in and slaughtered with clubs. The men ride close together, with dogs, and no guilty rabbit can escape. Pa Swung His Ax Handle. some mines near town for pa to ex- I for the corral, and all the other horses amine, and when he found that they started, and everybody yelled, but they contained gold enough in every shovel- held back their horses so pa could have ful of dirt to make a man crazy, he the whole field to himself. bought a whole lot of stock, and then Gee, but I was sorry for pa. His horse rushed right into the corral amongst the rabbits, and when it got right where the rabbits were the thick st, the darn horse began to buck, and pa for all the gamblers entertained that was out. They got up dances a?fl fandangos, and pa was it, sure, and I was prcud of him, cause he did not lose his heau. jessed pa in the air just as though he He just acted dignified, aid they (had been thrown up in a blanket, and thought they were entertaining a dis- he came down on a soft bed of Strug tinguished man. Everything would ~ling Pa thought it would be a picnic, and so we went along, but pa wishes that he had let well enough alone and kept out of the rabbit game. Those natives are full of fun, and/ on tnese rabbit drives they always pick out some man to have fun with, and they picked out pa as the victim. We rode along for a couple of hours, flushing rabbits by the dozen, and they would run along ahead of us, and multiply, so that when the corral was in sight ahead the prairie was alive with long eared animals, so the earth seemed to be moving, and it almost made a man dizzy to look at them. The hundreds of men on horseback had come in close together from all sides, and when we were within half a mile of the corral the crowd stopped at a signal, and the leader told pa that now was the time to make a cavalry charge on the rabbits, and he asked pa if he was afraid and wanted to go back, and pa said he had been a sol dier and charged the enemy had been a politician and had fought in hot campaigns had hunted tigers and lions in the jungle, and rode bare- The Pony Tossed Pa in the Air. backed in the circus, and gone into lions' dens, and been married, and he guessed he was not going to show the white feather chasing jackrabbits They could sound the bugle charge as soon as they got ready, and they would find him in the game till the curtain was rung down. That was what they wanted pa to/ say SOf as a a tired suggested that he get on to a fresh horse, and pa *aid all right, they couldn't get a horse too fresh for him, and he got on to a spunky pony, and I noticed that there was no bit in the pony's mouth, but only a rope around the pony's nose, and I was afraid some thing would happen to pa. I told him he and I better dismount, and climb a mesquite tree and watch^the fun from a safe place. Pa said: "Not on your life your pa is going right amongst the big game, and is going to make those rabbits think the day of judgment has arrived. Give me a club." The leader handed pa an ax handle, and when we looked ahead towards the corral where the rabbits had been driven, it seemed as though there were a million of them, and they were :mping over each other so it looked as though there was a snow bank of rabbits four feet thick. When pa said he was ready a fellow sounded a bugle, and pa's pony started off on the jump ,s for the annual rabbit drive that came my horse and climbed up on a post of off while v/e were there. Part of the 'he corral and tried to pick out pa. country is irrigated, and good crops |Tbm all tne hundred or more dogs are grown, but the jackrabbits are so were let loose in amongst pa and the —^^.^- anJ scareJ rabbits and the other horsemen stopped at the edge of the corral and watched pa, and I got off INVENTOR OF VALENTINES. heart-shaped holes in the corners, glued colored pictures that came with raisins and tea and such things, on this, put borders of laco paper, that was used on the inside edges of fancy boxes then as to-day, around the pic tures and hand-painted little verses on them. The valentines found ready pur chasers, and soon business men in New York and other cities began to order them for the next year. Four rabbits, and It was a sight worth go ing miles to see if it had been some body else than pa that was holding the center of the stage, and all the crowd laughing at pa, and yelling to him to stand his ground. Well, pa swung his ax handle and killed an occasional rabbit, but there were thousands all around, and pa seemed to be wading up to his middle in rabbits, and they would jump all. over him, and bunt him with their heads, and scratch him with their toe nails, and the dogs would grab rabbits and shake them, and pa would fall down and rabbits would run over him till you couldn't see pa at all. Then he would raise up again and maul the animals with his club, and his clothes were so covered with rabbit hair that he looked like a big rabbit himself. He lost his hat and looked as though he was getting exhausted,.and then he stopped and spit on his hands and yelled to the rest of the men, who had dismounted and were lined up at the edge of the corral, and said: "You condemned loafers, why don't you come in here and help us dogs kill off these vermin, cause I don't want to have all the fun. Come on In, the wa ter is fine," and pa laughed as though he was in swimming and wanted the rest of the gang to come in. The crowd thought they had given the distinguished stranger his inning, and so they all rushed in with clubs and began to kill rabbits and drive them away from pa. In an hour or so the most of them were killed, and pa was so tired he went and sat down on the ground to rest, and I got down off my perch and went to pa and asked him what he thought of this latest ex perience, and I began to pick rabbit hairs off pa's clothes. "I'll tell you what it is, Hennery," said pa, as he breathed hard, as though he had been running a foot race, "this rabbit drive reminds me of the way the rich corporations look upon the poor people, just as we look upon the jackrabbits. We pity a single jack rabbit, and he runs when he sees us, and seems to say: 'Please, mister, let me alone, and let me nibble around and eat the stuff you do not want, and we drive them into a bunch, the way the rich And mean iron-handed trusts drive the people, and then we turn in and club them with the ax handle of graft and greed, and we keep our pow er over them, if enough are killed off so we are in the, majority, but the jackrabbits that escape the drive keep on breeding, like the poor people that the trusts try to exterminate: Some day the jackrabbit and the poor people will get nerve enough to fight back, and then the jackrabbit and the poor people will outnumber the men who fight them and kill them, and they will turn on the cowboys with the clubs, and the trusts with the big head, and drive those who now pursue them into corrals on the prairies and into peni tentiaries in the states, and those who are pig-headed and cruel will get theirs, see?" I told pa I thought I could see, though there were rabbit hairs in my eyes, and then I got pa to get upland mount his horse, and we rode back to town with the gang, white the 5,000 rabbit carcasses were hauled to town in wagons and loaded on the cars. "Where do you send those jackrab bits?" asked pa of the leader of the slayers, as he watched them loading the rabbits. "To the Chicago packing houses," said the man. "They make the finest canned chicken you ever et." "The devil, you say," said pa. "Then we have been working all day to make packing houses rich. Wouldn't that skin you?" Then we went to the hotel and I put courtplaster on pa where the rabbits had scratched the skin off, and pa ar ranged to go out next day to the ranch where the herd of buffaloes live, to look for bigger game for the show, though he would like to have a rabbit drive in the circus ring next year if he could train the rabbits. "Mammy" Wouldn't Tell. On his native heath down in "Ole Virginy" there is nothing the average darky resents so vigorously as im pertinence on the part of one of the race. A regular "fo*-de-wah mammy," known by young and old as "Aunt Prudy,'' was toiling up a long hill near her cabin home with a huge basket of clothes on her, head, when she was stopped by a little pickaninny sitting on the fence who yelled in a shrill voice: "Whar yuh goin', Aunt Prudy?" Aunt Prudy,turned slowly, and, with frown to make a statue thrill, thus addressed the little negro: "I'se gwine whar I'se gwine, dat's whar I'se gwine. Yellah brat a-sittin' on de fence axin' me whar I'se gwine! I'se gwine whar I'se gwine,.dat's whar I'se gwine, an' doan yuh axe me no mo' whar I'se gwine, kase «I ain't gwine to tell youh!"—Baltimore Sun. He Surprised Eliza. A story is going the rounds of the territory press of a farmer, living a few miles from Henryetta, who wore his old suit until everybody was tired of it, and his estimable wife' was al most ashamed of him. But one day, when selling produce in town, he de termined to buy a new suit, and a happy thought struck him. He would surprise Eliza. So he bundled a new suit into the wagon, hurried toward home, and at the bridge, two mijea from town, he stood up in the wagon and "peeled" -and threw the despised old suit into the creek. Then he reached for his new clothes. They were gone—had jolted out of the wag on! The night was cold, and his teeth chattered as he scurried for home. He surprised Eliza even more than he anticipated.—Kansas City Journal paper were bought, pafter lace, tinsel, and other things were secured, and a big supply was made up. Enameled pic tures from Germany were procured and original designs invented and or dered printed. The scissors were put aside for dies, which cut out designs with one blow. It soon appeared that Miss Howland had developed a real business. girls were hired to assist in making elation has .taken the matter up with the valentines. Pictures and embossed- fte Of late years the public has had of fered no little information regarding the watering of dry lands to make the desert bloom and now there are signs public attention is to be called to the draining of swamp, lands and the transforming of these waste places. Recently a bill was introduced in congress for the reclamation of swamp lands under a system similar to that ^adopted for the reclamation of the deserts in the southwest. As yet only a beginning has been made, a begin ning that probably will some day lead to legislative'action. RECLAIMING OUR VAST' AREA OF SWAMPLANDS BUI Introduced in Congress for Reclamation of Inundated Lands Under System Similar to that Adopted for Desert Lands. The total area of our swamp lands is impressive, and it stands to reason this large portion of territory will some day be coveted by our fast-in creasing population. "We are feeding now nearly 80,000,000 of people within the boundaries of our own country and sending enough material abroad to clothe and feed an almost equal num ber." And when one considers the ad vantages offered by the swamp lands one wonders why experiments have not sooner been made in their reclamation. Authorities tell us swamp lands can be reclaimed as cheaply as arid lands. Once drained, swamp land is drained for good. Drained lands are more fer tile than the average agricultural soil, require little or no artificial fertiliz ing. And, what is of decided impor tance, generally these lands are lo cated in the midst of well settled re gions, a market near at hand, trans portation provided. And ndt only for utilization of waste lands is it urged the swamps be drained, but because many of them' are such a menace to health. In an article on "Reclamation of Salt Marsh Lands," in the circular RECLAIMED SWAMP LAND NEAR THE EVERGLADES. culture, attention is called to the fact that marshes and stagnant pools are the principal breeding places of mos quitoes. Science has shown that mos quitoes are the most common, if not the only means bf conveying malarial germs and introducing these germs into the human system and that mos quitoes are the only proved cause of the infection of yellow fever. In Italy vast areas of land have been aban doned because of the mosquito pest. While our salt marshes do not seem to present the conditions necessary for the breeding of the species of malaria mosquitoes in this country, they are breeding places for immense numbers of other mosquitoes that prove a pest to persons and to stock, in some cases so troublesome they lower the valua tion of the land. Engineers believe the everglades of Florida can be drained, and here would be added to our rich lands 7,000, 000 tillable acres. There are 5,000,000 acres of swamp lands in Michigan, be tween 6,000,000 and 8,000,000 acres in Minnesota, 4,000,000 in Wisconsin. In New Jersey and Virginia there are large areas. Salt marshes are promi nent features of nearly all the states bordering the Atlantic and Pacific. In preparing this article we have found it difficult to get any very recent writings on the subject of the reclaim ing of the swamps, but are looking Endeavors to Keep Paper Making Material from Being Shipped to America. German manufacturers cf paper are urging the reich&teg to impose un ex port duty on rag? other than woolen, with the object of preventing theirs ex portation to the United States. The bill provides for an export duty of 60 cents per 100 pounds, or 12 per ton, which, says the New York Herald, will practically prohibit the exportation. shortly for a flood of literature on the divisible into several classes, deter subject. Some years ago quite a good deal was said, a crusade started for the reclamation of our salt marshes their value as farming lands emphasized, and that in the existing state they were a serious menace to the health of the people living in their vicinity. Notable among the government re ports issued at the time was Shaler's "Sea-Coast M*rshes of the United States," and Nesbit's "Tidal Marshes." GERMANY CLINGS TO RAGS. The New York Paper Dealers' asso- of a I 8 retaliatory leg- islation by congress. The enactment of such a law would close up many houses in New York that confine their business entirely to the importation of French and German rags, and it is as serted that as a result the prises of all kinds of paper will be advanced. It is understood that Franca will take the same action. Peretz Rosenberg, a member cf ,one of the New York houses, gays: Writing on the sea-coast marshes of the eastern part of the country, Shaler said: "The great advantage of the northern marsh areas is found in the fact that they generally are near the large centers of population of the country, where they will have a high value as market garden soils or fields for the raising of hay. Nvhen brought into their best state such areas will, measured by the price of other, lands in the same neighborhood,. have a value of not less than $200 an acre. As the total reclaimable area between New York and Portland (Me.) probably exceeds 200,000 acres/ the money value of their best state will amount to at least .$40,000,000. The cost of reclaim ing these lands and reducing them to cultivation should not exceed the fifth of this sum." bureau of soils, department of agrl-1 of reclaimed salt marsh is worth four Shaler' spoke of the need for well skilled engineering .direction in the reclaiming of the marshes. In Europe' salt marshes are consid ered the most fertile of lands. For many years past large areas in Den mark, Belgium and Holland have been under cultivation. The Fens in Eng land have been diked and ditched and about a million acres of matchless fer tility been reclaimed. There are many kinds of salt marsh es some bare mud flats without vege tation others with heavy growth of grass, sometimes there is a sod a foot and more thick. It is a comparative ly slow process to get the salt lands rid of water and saltiness, but in those cases where proper precautibns have been taken, sufficient time and labor allowed, the lands have given good returns. The author of the circular says it is generally conceded one acre or five acres of upland, and that/ac* eording to the well substantiated fig ures of Shaler, the cost of reclamation should not exceed one-fifth the final value of the land. The Yankee farmer has found out that a certain class of bog land can be turned, to profitable account in grow* ing the cranberry, but when considera tion is given the extent of our swampr lands it would seem nothing has been done in the developing of the possi-* bilities that lie therein. Shaler, writ ing in Science in 1886, argues for the utilization of our swamps and gives information in regard to the various classes of swamps in the United States. "These neglected districts are of great extent and very varied nature.. They consist, in part, of land which is some what less fertile than the best soils, but which in every other respect is fit for tillage. A preliminary study of the field has shown the re markable fact that we have left un touched in the region east of the Mis sissippi districts of easily •, drained swamp lands amounting to more than 50,000 square miles of area." The inun dated lands of the lower Mississippi remain in the state in which they were when first seen by men, while similar areas in England were' long ago won to the state of the most fertile fields of that country. Our American inundated lands are mined by the condition of their origin. Of these the most important are the tide water marshes, the lacustrine swamps of the glaciated district, the delta swamps of the Mississippi, and the class of ~wet lands or upland swamps where the marshy condition is due to the action of plant in retain ing water under the surfaces of con siderable districts. CHRISTOPHER WEBSTER. "This matter is much more serious than many suppose in its relation to the paper industry of this country. The proposed duty is practically pro hibitive, and the matter will noc end there, for France is sure to take some action along the same line. There has been talk here of placing a duty on rags for nearly two years. "In the calendar year 1905 there were 12,389,523 worth of rags other than woolen Imported into the United States, about one-half coming from Germany. There were imported from Germany 13,780,554 worth of paper, and the German manufacturers think that if an export duty were placed on rags more paper would be exported to this country. Before rags were imported to any considerable extent from Ger many paper manufacturers there could obtain rags for almost any price they wanted to pay but the demand from the United States has increased so in the last few years that they hava had to pay much higher prices/ ^-^H^JW.J^^X%,mSP^rtf&XfrZF* -*W?€*jF* Wj£**$r$*rndgW&**J W 7 MINNESOTA STATE NEWS HORSEMEN ABE REMINDED TO FILE ENTBIE8 FOE BACES. Bees Cause Trouble—Floods So Con siderable Damage—Cattle Inspec tion Established—Watchman Saves Train—Brief Notes. Time Is Limited. Sec. E. W. Randall of the Minnesota State Fair wishes to call the attention of horsemen to the fact that only three weeks remain in which to file entries for the races for the state fair of '06. The entries close positively on Monday July .2. Blanks, conditions and full in formation of any kind may foe obtained from Mr. Randall. This year the Min nesota fair has outdone itself offering a total of $33,050 in purses. No other fair comes anywhere near this offering. And horsemen*know that they will get their money as soon as the xraces are over and that the conditions and con duct of the races will be absolutely fair. The tracks have been put in excellent condition this spring and there are none better in the country. /A large amount of work has been done'on the half-mile track, filling a low place and resurfac ing, so that it Is now as good as the best. In addition a 34-stall barn is be ing put up especially for running horses. Bees Make Trouble. Minneapolis—A swarm of bees, get ting into a freight car at the Minne apolis transfer, caused the state rail road and warehouse commission con siderable difficulty. J. P. Howard of Hammond, Waba sha county, last Thursday shipped his household goods, several head of stock, some bee hives and several hundred bees, all loaded in qp.e car, from that place to Shell Lake, over the Milwau kee road. Mr. Howard, not hearing from the consignment, called upon the railroad and warehouse commissioners. It was then discovered that the live stock sanitary board tried to inspect* the stock which was in the car, but 'were prevented from dong so for three days by the bees, which had broken loose. As a result, when the livestock board could get in the car, the stock was in such a condition on account of the bee activity, that they could not be inspected.. Water Causes Damage. Mankatc—Floods in the Minnesota river, caused by the recent heavy rains are doing considerable damage to the roadways. The river is 'wearing away its banks just north of St. Peter and threatens to destroy the wagon road leading to Ottawa and Le Sueur. The condition is considered so serious that the Omaha road, which follows the river, is sparing no expence in its efforts to strengthen the banks at the weak spots and prevent the further encroachment of the waters. A stretch of turnpike nearly half a mile in length is affected by the flood, and as it lies within a few rods of the new St. Peter-Ottawa short line of the Omaha, it is feared that the railroad embankment may be damaged. Inspection. South St. Paul—The state live stock sanitary board will establish regular Inspection of dairy and breeding'cattle at.this point. At present there is no •veterinarian of the- board stationed at the stock yards, the inspectors of the bureau of animal industry of the de partment of agriculture doing the in specting. Secretary S. H. Ward,-of the live stock sanitary board has issued notice to. the commission firms of South St. Paul that after June 18, the regula tions requiring the testing of dairy and breeding cattle coming from other states and sold to Minnesota persons must be strictly observed. Saved the Train. Mankato—The North-Western line has a sinkhole at a point between Jud son and Cambria, where 100 feet of the tract suddenly dropped twenty-five feet. A watchman noticed the break and flagged the night train before it reached the place. A strange feature of the occurrence is that only a short time before the tract dropped, two heavy "freight trains passed over. It\ is believed that the quicksand that the tract was built on slipped into the Minnesota river, which is close by. The road has a force of men at work filling the hole, and trains are making the circuit on the old tract via St. Peter. Donkey Makes Trouble. St. Peter—A burro's braying is the basis for an unusual action that has been commenced in Cordova township. Louis Wilfert is the agrieved person, and he has lodged a complaint against a neighbor, Samuel McMillen, for keeping in his possession a burro that Is a public nuisance. Wilfert declares that the swan song of the long-eared animal is a source of great annoyance, and he has asked the courts to com pel McMillen to dispose of the burro or else cultivate its voice. News Notes. St. Cloud—The opening meeting of the annual conference of the Minne sota Seventh Day Adventists was held last evening in the Jarge city of tents which is being occupied by the dele gates and members of the church from all over the state. Minneapolis—The May stamp sales at the Minneapolis postofflce show a striking increase over those for the corresponding month of last year. The exact figures are: Sale for May, 1906, $116,482,04 May, 1905, $106,216.38 in crease, $10,265.66 per cent of increase, 9.66. Ada—The pupils Who received di plomas at the Ada^high school were Isabel Brattland, Minnie Brattland, Verna Ahlers, Charlotte Barnes, Charles Andrews, Lambert Prigge and Paul Oustad. White Bear—The Bald Eagle resi dents will ask thV grand Jury to in vestigate the cutting bf a waterway at White Bear Lake. St. Paul-r-By a special ruling from the attorney general, County Treas^ urer Henry C- Hanke has been ordered \h. pay over to''the state treasurer the $10,500 inheritance tax that has been collected in Hennepin county since the law went into effect. Minneapolis—Though not officially announced in Minneapolis it is report ed-that the strike of the line and con struction-workmen of the Tri-State and Northwestern Telephone com panies is called off and the men or dered back to work by the- executive committee of the national organiza tion.1 •v:— St. Paul—The St. Paul Symphony Orchestra association filed articles of incorporation with the secretary of state. The articles state the purpose of (the corporation is the "promotion of musical education."- The officers of the corporation are the same as the officers Recently elected by the associa tion. •w^fej Recently there have been offered evidences of general activity among the anarchists of the world. The at tempt to assassinate the king and queen of Spain on their wedding day and the score of deaths and many in juries resulting from the bomb throw ing in this attempt the open rejoic ing of anarchists in Paterson, N. J., over the Madrid assassination the arrest of a Pole in Portland, Ore., with the discovery of a plot to kill President Roosevelt in Rome the police finding several bombs when raiding a meeting of anarchists. As there are socialists and social' ists, so are there anarchists and an archists. Not all anarchists are bomb throwers and assassins, nor be lievers in these methods of bringing about change in the social order. The word anarchy was first used in its French form by Proudhon in 1840, in an essay entitled "What Is Property?" Since, the word has come into very wide use. Some of the theories it designates are ancient—"the best of them formulated in definite language by Proudhon and his personal fol lowers." The International gives us- four definitions of anarchy, four different groups of theories. The first may be called idealistic anarchy and this the theory, anarchy the result of absolute individualism in thought as well as in social activity. Next we have Proud hon's theory—which he himself re garded as impracticable—anarchy an economic and social system whereby the individual should be free to pro duce what he pleased, get the full product of his labor, and under no compulsion of social regulation or law in any of his economic relations to his fellows. The third definition anarchy represents a communistic or- ganization of individuals in society having perfect freedom and equality between themselves as in the produc tion and consumption of goods, and offering a combined resistance to all existing forms of social order, law and government. And now we come to the fourth, to the popular concept of anarchy, chaos and violence—anarchy comprises all attempts to destroy the existing social crder without any ref erence to any theory of reconstruc tion, and by the use of any means, fair or foul, by which individuals or authority, may be destroyed. In this last class are grouped the "ultra-rad icals, who are the uncompromising enemies of public order and decency, who plan murders and reckless public calamities. They are the fanatics who have been most in evidence in recent years.", The Russian agitator Bakunin (1814-1876) about the time of the ap pearance of Proudhon's "What Is Property?" was becoming prominent as one holding radical social views in 1848 was in the very center of the revolutionary movement .with which all Europe was then convulsed. He became more and more radical in views and utterances, and his views were widely disseminated. The terrorists are the last word in anarchists, those that shout from the housetop: "Save humanity by blood and steel and poison." To this class belonged Most belongs Emma Gold man, sometimes styled the "High Priestess of Anarchy in America the one whose writings are said to have influenced Czolgosz to assassinate "What do you want?" 'The cashier." "Ah, you're not the only one.' Bolice want him. too." vf°QFF ANARCHY,EARLYEXPRESSIONS AND SPREAD THEREOF Proudhon*s Essay and Definitions of Various Groups of Theories—Outrages in Different Lands— Countries Giving Refuge. President McKinley. Goldman is a Russian, was educated in Germany, has lived the greater part bf her life in America. Her family was orthodox, but she early showed radical tenden cies and says that the hanging of the Chicago anarchists in 1888 converted her to anarchism. The United States has been the scene of two anarchist outbreaks: the Chi cago Haymarket tragedy, May 4, 1886, when a bomb was thrown, killing seven policemen and wounding 27 others the assasination of President McKinley, September 6, 1901. Eng land has been singularly free from anarchist violence, the nearest ap proach the Trafalgar square riot No vember 13, 1887. France, Spain, and Italy have suffered severely. One writer declares it was France that made anarchy possible, anarchy the legitimate child of the revolution. Italy, a country where the knife so quickly atones for wrongs both great and trifling, is most productive of an archists. Salvatore Cortesi, writing in the Independent, informs us that the serious "work" of Italian anarchy be gan in 1894*with the murder pf Presi dent Carnot by an Italian anarchist. Then followed quickly other "work" by the Italians. Lega fired at Crispi, Ac ciarite tried to stab King Humbert, Angiolille shot dead the Spanish pre mier, Lucheni. assassinated the em press of Austria, and Bresci killed King Humbert. Cortesi lays the blame of these on the Italian's habit of tak ing vengeance in his own hand—in spite of a naturally gentle spirit—his hereditary leaning toward secret so cieties, and the exciting influence of the writings of Reclus, Krapotkin, Proudhon, Emma Goldman, and oth ers. In Spain from the first the anarchist EMMA GOLDMAN. movement found devoted disciples. In 1871 some Catalan workmen an-, nounced themselves as Collecti-vist anarchists, perhaps the first example of the use of the name by an associa tion. Bakunin and the Italian inciter Malatesta 'exercised powerful influ ence upon Spaniards inclined to revo lutionary views, as time went on the anarchist tendency grew more and more pronounced in Spain. Spanish anarchists have shown an unusual co hesion, similar to that of a well or ganized secret society, and because of their practical measures Spain has be come the real center of the interna tional propaganda of anarchy. But here, as elsewhere, there are various groups, not all terrorists. London is harbor for anarchists from various lands, and rumor has it they have a pact with the British se cret police, so long as the'British royal family is immune from anarchist at tacks they not to be molested. It ap pears that at least an agreement ex ists among the anarchists themselves not to molest British royalty as long as anarchists are allowed freedom of access to England and are not sub jected to persecution while therein. In the United States and Switzer land, as well as in England, anarchists have found refuge. These are the three most democratic nations of the world, and have hesitated to put re straints on freedom.of speech. Now statesmen of these nations are consid ering if the time has not come when action should be taken to limit an archistic utterances and assemblages. IN DEMAND. MOTHER REMEMBERED. The HENRY THAYER. Dad (severely)—And look here, Ethel, you mustn't encourage that young man to stay so late every night. It's disgraceful.' What does -your mother say about it? Ethel—She says men haven't altered a bit, dad.