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Willmar tribune. [volume] (Willmar, Minn.) 1895-1931, June 19, 1907, Image 2

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Willmar Tribune.
information Gathered from All Quar
ters of the Civilized World and
Prepared for the Perusal of the
Busy Man.
The Haywood defense carried the
cross-examination of Orchard down to
the Steunenberg murder. The wit
ness told of a plot to kidnap the chil
dren of a rich miner for ransom and
said it was suggested by David Coates,
former lieutenant governor of Colo
Harry Orchard, on the stand for his
sixth day in the Haywood trial, firmly
withstood all the attempts of the de
fense to discredit his story. He de
nied that the Federation leaders left
him without money. He told of a plot
to blow up 150 non-union men in Glob
ville which was stopped by Haywood.
Into the further cross-examination
of Harry Orchard counsel for William
D. Haywood repeatedly threw the sug
gestion of a great counter conspiracy,
formulated and carried out by the
enemies of the Western Federation
of Miners, and indicated a determina
•tion to construct their main line of
defense on that field. Orchard was
firm in his denial of thfs theory.
Counsel for William D. Haywood
continued their attack on the testi
mony, of Harry Orchard and centered
their strongest assault on the events
beginning with the explosion in the
Vindicator mine and ending with the
earlier meetings between the witness
and the leaders of the Federation of
Miners in Denver. Orchard stood the
test and strain'very well and held ten
aciously to the story he had related.
The army of Salvador defeated the
force of rebels and Nicaraguans that
had captured Acajutla and made pris
oner John Moissant, a wealthy Ameri
can who organized the expedition.
President Roosevelt and his family
arrived at their summer home at Sag
amore Hill, being warmly welcomed
by the people of Oyster Bay.
Because a nonunion band had been
engaged to take part all the union
bands engaged at the Ohio Grand
Army encampment at Canton with
drew just as the parade started.
Chinese insurgents attacked the
village of Yungchun, in the prefecture
of Weichou, where they burned the
military yamen.
Sarah L. E. Read was awarded
$101,789 for the loss of her husband,
who was killed by a New York Central
& Hudson River railroad train in New
An unknown man was fatally
burned, Mrs. Annie Roundtree suffered
a broken leg and serious burns and
several others were less seriously in
jured as the result of a midnight fire
ir a Detroit lodging house.
August Gottwald, the biggest Elk in
America, died at his home in Defiance,
O., of pneumonia. Gottwald was 40
years old and weighed 450 pounds.
Gov. Folk of Missouri commuted
the sentence of David Long, who was
to have been hanged at Caruthersville
on June 15, to life imprisonment in
the penitentiary. Long was convicted
of having killed John Still, a neigh
Physicians in attendance on Gov.
John S. Little of Arkansas said there
"was no hope of his recovery.
Carrie Nation, after haranging a
crowd in front of a Washington
saloon, was arrested on the charge of
disorderly" conduct. She was released
on $20 collateral.
Mayor David S. Griffiths, of Spring
field, 111., drowned while endeavoring
to ford on horseback a stream of wa
ter ten miles southeast of the city.
Walter Volz, a Swiss explorer, was
captured and burned to death by na
tives of Liberia.
A severe wind and electrical storm
passed over southern Indiana, doing
much damage.
Ex-Chief Claremore, head of the
Claremore band of Osage Indians, died
suddenly. He had a wide acquaintance
among the Indians, as well as the
whites throughout southern Kansas
and Oklahoma.
Frank T. Elson, a lodging house
keeper in Los Angeles, Cal., shot his
wife and instantly killed her and then
blew his head off. They came from
Oskaloosa, la.
William Hart Hemenover, 86 years
old, formerly mayor of Canton, 111.,
and twice judge of the city court,
Because his mother had spanked
him, Calif McCoy, aged 11 years, shot
and instantly killed her at their farm,
nine miles north of Bassett, Neb.
Judge Chamberlin at Concord,, N.
H., announced he would appoint a
master to take testimony to determine
whether Mrs. Mary Baker G. Eddy is
competent to manage her own af
All the saloons in Leavenworth,
Kan., were closed by the authorities!
Indian Inspector J. George Wright
•was appointed commissioner to the
five civilized tribes in the Indian Ter
ritory, vice Tarns Bixby.
Thirty persons were killed, many
hurt and great property damage done
by ^ihdstorms and cloudbursts in
Kentucky, southern Illinois and Iowa.
-, Dr. Andrew Christian, of Boston, ad
vocates the killing of babies which
*how signs of deficiency andfa board
*4jf overseers of marriages-as a meas
-,-jBre to preserve the human race.
Secretary Root accepted an invi
Prof. J. H. Freeman resigned as su
perintendent for the blind at Jackson
ville, 111.
Taking of testimony closed In the
trial of Mayor Schmltz, of San Fran
cisco, after Abe Ruef swore he gave
the mayor half the money paid him by
the French restaurant keepers.
Four hundred members of the
American Association of Nurserymen
convened at Detroit, President Orlan
do Harrison presiding.
New Orleans business men and
wealthy Italians combined to put a
stop to "Black Hand" outrages in that
Los Angeles Japanese, who threat
ened to bring mandamus proceedings
against the county clerk to get the
right to vote, have abandoned the
attempt to become citizens.
The Japanese government has un
earthed an alleged immigration graft
by which 3,000 laborers were import
ed to work on the Grand Trunk rail
road at $1.25 a day and were paid
only $1.10 by the emigration com
Robert Jolly, aged 45 years, living
at 1011 North Senate avenue, Indian
apolis, killed his daughter Gladys,
aged nine years, by forcing carbolic
acid down her throat
Word has been received from Tien
tsin, China, that Chinese Boxers in
America fitted out an 'armed expedi
tion and are on the way to the orient
in a special steamer.
Jewels valued at $10,000 were re
ported stolen from the yacht Adroit,
owned by Russell Hopkins, a banker
of Atlanta, Ga., in New York harbor.
Fire destroyed ten business houses,
two dwellings and an apartment house
at Girard, O. The loss is estimated
at $100,000.
Thomas Baldwin, slayer of four
persons and awaiting trial for murder
in Bloomington, 111., was found dead
in his ceil.
Enforcement of the Missouri law
imposing a 25 cent tax on each
transaction in grain futures was en
joined by United States District Judge
Six midshipmen and five seamen
from the battleship Minnesota are be
lieved to have been drowned in Hamp
ton Roads, the launch in which.they
were returning to the vessel having
been run down by a steamer.
United States Senator John Tyler
Morgan of Alabama, for 30 years a
member of the upper house of con
gress, chairman of the senate commit
tee on the interoceanic canals, and
prominent as a brigadier general in
the confederate army, died at his
home in Washington of angina pec
The second of a series of June cy
clones predicted for Southern Illinois
swept over Duquoio and the surround
ing country doing great damage. It
was believed a man and child were
The large electric swing at Electric
park, a new amusement resort in Kan
sas City, fell to the ground with a
crash, injuring eight persons, one seri
A steamer whose identity has not
been conclusively established, went
ashore in the Strait of Bertheaume,
France. The boiler blew up and it is
feared that all hands were lost.
While King Edward and Queen
Alexandra were in attendance at a
gala performance of the opera, with
the king and queen of Denmark as
their guests, Maj. Gen. Sir Arthur E.
A. Ellis, extra equerry to the king,
died suddenly.
Two women were killed and three
other persons were seriously hurt in
Indianapolis when a traction car
struck and wrecked the automobile of
J. F. Himes.
Faustino Ablen, head chief of the
Pulajanes on the Island of Leyte, was
wounded and captured by Lieut, Jones
with a detachment of eight infantry
men and Philippine scouts. Under
Chiefs Uldarice, Rota and Lucia were
also captured.
Nicaragua has begun war on Salva
dor, Gen. Rivas, assisted by revolu
tionists, having bombarded and cap
tured the Salvadorean port of Aca
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Baumgartner
were found dead in Cincinnati after
they had quarreled over an inheri
tance of $4,500. It is not known
which fired the fatal shots.
The government prepared to file a
petition against the anthracite coal
roads accusing them of conspiring to
kill competition.
The sppreme court of Mississippi af
firmed the sentence of Mrs. Angie
Birdsong, slayer of Dr. Thomas But
The Paris Matin publishes a dis
patch from Rome saying that two
wealthy American Catholics recently
informed the pope that Catholicism
would make great strides in America
if Archbishop Ireland were made a
cardinal, and that they would at once
donate $1,000,000 to the church. The
pope, according to the correspondent,
was most indignant at the suggestion
of such a bargain.
Acting Secretary of War Oliver has
warned the governors of states that
the militia must be reorganized to con
form to the organization of the regular
army by January 1, 1908.
The green bug is ruining the oats
crop in parts of Ohio.
Thomas Heffner, of Sheepshead
Bay, was killed in Brooklyn when his
automobile collided with a carriage.
James Sweeney, a hotel keeper of
Saratoga, N. Y., was fatally injured
and nine other persons were hurt.
President Roosevelt went to the
Jamestown exposition to deliver ad
dresses at the dedication of the
Georgia^ building and before the Na
tional Editorial association.
Entangled In the ropes of his para
chute John Puepura, an aeronaut of
Utica, N. Y., met death by drowning
in the Minnesota river near Granite
Falls, Minn.
Two passengers, a man and a wom
an, were almost instantly killed and
upwards of 15 others were injured in
a trolley car wreck at Los Angeles,
Miss Julia Magruder, the novelist,
died at Richmond, Va., after a pro
tracted Illness. She was 51 years
The Kansas supreme court granted
a judgment of ouster against the An
heuser-Busch Brewing company and
held that the recent appointment of
receivers for the property in that
^VJrtate o* /Pi^gja Jmtofi inpanies
Mexico late this summer, was legal/ *&r •ffl$h?*&l'«"
»*&$&& *eS*
Illinois railroad representatives in
session in Chicago to consider recent
two-cent fare legislation voted to
withdraw all special rates heretofore1
offered to convention delegates, cler
gymen, agents of charitable institu
tions, and attendants at merchants'
Justice Brewer, of the supreme
court of the United States, denied an
application for a writ of habeas cor
pus in the contempt case of H. H.
Tucker, Jr., former secretary of the
Uncle Sam Oil company of Kansas, on
the ground that the case should have
gone to the court of appeals on a writ
of error.
Gustave A. Gerard, who was for
merly employed in the cashier's depart
ment of the firm of G. M. Minzesheim
er & Co., of 30 Broad street, New
York, was arrested on a bench war
rant charging him with grand larceny.
It is alleged that Gerard stole $8,000
worth of bonds belonging to the firm.
The Catholic Church of the Sacred
Heart at Ottawa, Ont, was destroyed
by fire. The church cost about $200,
Count Boni de Castellane's appeal
from the verdict of divorce obtained
by the countess, formerly Anna Gould,
of New York, has been granted by the
French courts and the case will go be
fore a higher tribunal.
Acting on instructions from Wash
ington, United States District Attor
ney Thompson, at Philadelphia, will
move against the so-called umbrella
Clifford Kirkpatrick committed sui
cide in Detroit because Mrs. David
Walters, whom he loved, was killed by
her husband.
Thousands of dollars are being
raised by the Japanese of the Pacific
coast to carry out the compact they
have entered into with the progressive
party of Japan for the overthrow of
the Saionji ministry, the annulment
of the exclusion clause in the immigra
tion bill, and the guarantee of the
naturalization rights of the Japanese
subjects residing in this country.
In a motor car accident at Edge
Hill, near Banbury, England, a Mr.
Johnston of California was killed and
a Mr. Blake of Philadelphia was mor
tally injured. Mrs. Johnston and Mrs.
Blake, who were of the party, sus
tained grave injuries.
Georgia day at the Jamestown ex
position was made notable by the sec
ond visit of President Roosevelt, who
delivered two addresses.
Mayors and councils of many French
towns resigned and announced a civil
strike to aid the cause of the wine
A stray torpedo struck and badly
damaged the German coasting steamer
August while she was passing the
practice range at Kiel, Germany.
Six thousand dollars was demanded
as ransom for eight-year-old Walter
Lamana, son of a well-to-do Italian
undertaker of New Orleans, who was
Nearly 20 persons were injured in
the wreck of a Texas Pacific passen
ger train near Edgewood, Tex.
Six Slav miners were frightfully
burned, three perhaps fatally, as the
result of an explosion that took place
in a boarding house at Grenwich mine
No. 2 near Barnesboro, Pa.
Frank Hagerman, of Kansas City,
representing 18 railroads, served no
tice on Herbert S. Hadley, attorney
general of Missouri, that he will ask
the federal court to enjoin the en
forcement of the two-cent fare law.
A premature explosion of dynamite
took place at Pedro Miguel, on the
line of the Panama canal, and resulted
in the instant death of seven men and
the wounding of several others.
Rocco Laquino, 12 years old, was
killed in Buffajo by an elephant he
tormented in a street parade of a cir
Frank Cook, the oldest jeweler in
Wisconsin, is dead from injuries re
ceived in an automobile accident.
Application was made for receivers
for Milliken Bros, of New York, large
steel manufacturers and contractors,
and a petition in bankruptcy was filed
by the firm's creditors.
The grave of Michael Pasha, Turk
ish admiral, who died last January,
has been desecrated by thieves, who
stole the body. They expected to find
jewels in the tomb.
Investigation of the International
Harvester company, a corporation
with business interests estimated in
the aggregate at $100,000,000, will en
gage the attention of the federal grand
jury in Chicago.
The famous Princess Anne hotel at
Virginia Beach, Va., built 25 years ago
and one of the handsomest summer
resort hotels along the middle At
lantic seaboard, was destroyed by
fire and one guest was believed to
have perished.
Viscount Tani, leader of the oppo
sition in the Japanese house of peers,
demanded war with America if di
plomacy fails to secure reparation for
the San Francisco attacks. The Jap
anese of the Pacific coast and the
progressives, a political party of
Japan, have entered into an alliance
with the overthrow of the present
ministry in Japan and the annulment
of the clause in the immigration, bill
excluding Japanese coolie labor from
continental United States as the ulti
mate objects.
The government is about to sue
prominent persons in the Indian Ter
ritory for alleged fraud in the acquir
ing of land from the Creek nation.
Herman Koeh, his wife and baby
six, months old, were drowned in
Beaver Dam lake, Wisconsin, and
Minnie Haag and Delpnia Koerring,
each about 16 years old,- were drowned
at Belvidere, 111.
Judge F. K. Dunn, of Charleston,
111., the Republican nominee, was
elected to the Illinois supreme court
from the Third judicial district, to
succeed the late Judge Jacob W.
Wilkin, of Danville.
Judge Artman, at Lebanon, Ind., de
clared George Rhodius, of Indianapo
lis, to be insane and appointed James
M. Berryhill as his guardian. Rhodius
owns real estate in Indianapolis worth
$800,000. January 21 he was married
at Louisville to Elma Dare, a keeper
of a resort in Indianapolis. It was
charged that the Dare woman kid
naped him.
The Twenty-fifth infantry, one of
whose.': battalions figured- in the
Brownsville incident, was ordered to
sail for the Philippines from San
Francisco on the transport Buford on
*%uly 25. *'J
Explains the Poverty That Drove Him
to Mean Crimes—Cross-Exam
ination Reaches Steunen
berg Murder.
Boise, Idaho.—The defense Wednes.
day carried the cross-examination of
Harry Orchard down to the actual
crime charged against William
Haywood—the murder of Frank Steu
nenberg—and as it progressed assailed
the testimony and the theory of the
state resting upon it.
The Steunenberg crime was reached
at midday, and counsel for the defense
directed their efforts to^an attempt to
cloud the earlier purposes and move
ments of Orchard with uncertainty
and indefiniteness. Then they em
phasized the abandonment of all effort
to kill after Orchard first tracked
Steunenberg to a hotel in Boise and,
with a skeleton key had gained en
trance to the very room in which the
governor was living. Here they de
layed for a moment to prove that Or
chard twice wrote and once tele
phoned to Bill Easterly at Silver City
to urge him to come and join in the
crime, and the direct implication was
that Orchard was endeavoring to in
veigle another federation man into
the crime which would bring discredit
and dishonor to the organization.
Then the Steunenberg crime was
temporarily thrust into the back
ground and the witness carried over
his long journey into north Idaho,
and his crimes there, including the
dark plot to kidnap and hold for ran
som the Paulson children, were force
fully emphasized. Orchard swore that
David Coates, former lieutenant gov
ernor of Colorado, and then a pub
lisher in Wallace, Idaho, first suggest
ed the kidnaping to Pettibone and
himself at Denver.
Then the defense showed the wit
ness in the commission of a series of
mean crimes and reduced to poverty,
in which he had to resort to a pawn
shop, borrowing and theft to live for
a long period.
The defense wanted to know why,
if he were in Idaho on a mission of
murder for Haywood, Moyer and Pet
tibone, and with unlimited credit from
them, he did not send to them for
more money, instead of borrowing
and stealing.
Orchard replied that he did send a
letter to Moyer at Butte and got $100,
but he did not send for more because
he was temporarily off the Steunen
berg murder errand and away from
where Steunenberg lived, and he did
not want to send for more money until
he could show that he was back to work
Oyster Bay Gives the Roosevelts a
Heary Welcome.
Oyster Bay, N. Y.—President Roose
velt and his family are at home at
Sagamore Hill. The trip from Wash
ington, which was begun Wednesday
morning in a drizzling rain, ended in
sunshine at 5 o'clock in the afternoon.
At Jersey City and Long Island City
crowds surrounded the car, shouting
greetings to the president, and when
the train drew in here the station
platform was thronged with neighbors,
who extended Oyster Bay's usual dem
onstrative welcome.
After both the president and Mrs.
Roosevelt had shaken hands with
everyone, the family entered a car
riage and were driven to Sagamore
Hill. A chorus of cheers followed
Salvador's Army Defeats the Nica
raguans and Revolutionists.
Mexico City.—According to a cable
gram received in this city late Wed
nesday afternoon, the Salvadorean
army has defeated the invading forces
which captured the port of Acajutla
Tuesday and has driven them back to
the coast.
One of the leaders of the invading
army was John Moisant, a former res
ident of San Francisco and an Ameri
can citizen. He is reported to have
been captured by the forces of Pres
ident Figueroa.
Explorer Butchered in Liberia.
Berne, Switzerland.—The govern
ment has received information of the
murder in the Hinterland of Liberia
of Walter Volz, the well-known Swiss
explorer. Volz was captured by na
tives, fettered and imprisoned in a
hut in which he was burned alive. A
portion of his charred body was re
Severe Storm in Indiana.
Evansville, Ind.r—Another severe
wind and electrical storm passed over
southern Indiana Wednesday after
noon, doing much damage.
Sues to Preserve Indian Graves.
Leavenworth, Kan.—Lydia B. Con
ley filed a suit in the United States
circuit, court here Wednesday to en
join Secretary of the Interior Garfield
from disturbing the graves in, the
Huron cemetery, Kansas City, Kan.,
an old Indian burying ground. Fol
lowing an act of congress, Secretary
Garfield recently appointed three com
missioners to sell the property, and
the effect of the suit will be to. tie, up
the sale. Miss Conley is a descendant
of the Wyandotte Indians and a law
Murderer Dies in His Cell.
Bloomington, 111.—Thomas Baldwin,
awaiting trial for the murder of an
entire family in this county, was
found dead in his cell at the county
jail here Wednesday. He had been in
poor health since his capture.
Bands Quit G. A. R. Parade.
Canton, O.—Because a nonunion
band had been engaged to take a part
all the union bands engaged here at
the state Grand Army encampment ~w.»~
withdrew Wednesday afternoon just. habit of chewing tobacco and smok
ajs t*mde start**: tag cigarettes. ,.„
Line Up for Land.
Dulut/i.—Although the next land
apening at the local office will not
take plarse for three weeks, a line al
ready has been startad. Anton Das
kari was the first man to take up his
position in front of the office. A
companion of Daskari, who has been
investigating the land, returned to
day in time to take the second place
in the line.
The land which will be opened for
settlement July includes 2,000 acres
of ceded Chippewa Indian lands in
the Fon du Lac reservation. Alto
gether there is land for about twelve
claims. Some of the land is said to
be fine agricultural land and it is
likely that before the three weeks
are up a half a hundred or more ap
plicants will be in line awaiting a
chance to file.
Mayors Must Enforce the Laws.
St. Paul.—Attorney General B. T.
Young has won the St. Cloud "lid"
case in the supreme court. A decis
ion by Justice Brown was filed affirm
ing the lower court in the quo war
ranto action against J. E. C. Robin
son, former mayor of St. Cloud.
The decision holds that any mayor
is under obligation to see that the
state laws are enforced. It he fails,
the attorney general may sue for civ
il damages, and may also bring pro
ceedings to have the mayor ousted
from office.
The Robinson case was appealed on
a demurrer and will now go back to
the lower court for trial. Only the
civil case will be tried, as Robinson's
term as mayor has expired. He is
now a member of the state senate.
New Experimental Farm.
St. Paul.—Minnesota is to have an
experimental fruit farm, where work
similar to that conducted in Califor
nia by Luther Burbank may be car
ried on. The last legislature pro
vided an appropriation of $16,000 to
buy land, with a suitable mainten
ance fund, and those interested are
looking for a place where the farm
may be located. Two or ihree sites
have been looked at, but none has
yet been selected.
The land, which is to consist of a
quarter section, is to be purchased by
the board of regents of the state uni
versity, with the approval of the hor
ticultural society. It will have to be
located at some place not far from
the Twin Cities, so that it may be ac
cessible for supervision.
Receipts From State Institutions.
St. Paul.—Receipts from the state
penal and charitable institutions for
May amounting to $52,903.05 have
been received by the state auditor,
and include the money of the in
mates, as provided under the new
laws. The individual receipts follow:
Anoka asylum, $1,410.09 Hastings
asylum, $1,501.33 Fergus Falls hospi
tal, $3,839.05 Rochester hospital, $4,
595.27 St. Peter hospital, $2,046.62
Pairbault school for the feeble-mind
ed, $4,747.77 Owatonna state public
school, $1,842.35 Red Wing training
school, $647.82 state prison at Still
water, $21,199.74 twine receipts, $11,
The actual receipts from the vari
ous institutions amounted to $25,490,
20, and the money belonging to the
inmates totaled $27,412.85.
Aeronaut is Drowned.
Granite Falls.—Entangled in the
ropes of his parachute, John Puepura,
an aeronaut of Utica, N. Y., met
death by drowning in the Minnesota
river near this city.
Puepura, who was employed by a
carnival company made the ascension
at 8 o'clock in the evening. The wind
quickly carried the balloon up the
river, and when he had traversed
about half a mile the aeronaut de
tached hi9 parachute.
In some unexplained manner his
arms and legs became entangled in
the ropes, and when the parachute
struck the water he was unable to
save himself. The body was recov
ered later.
Pioneer Mason Dies.
Minneapolis.—Maj. Thomas Mont
gomery, grand secretary of the Min
nesota grand lodge of Masons, died
at St. Luke's hospital after a short
Maj. Mason wan born in Mount
charles, Donegal county, Ireland, on
June 4, 1841, and came with his par
ents to Minnesota in 1856. He enlist
ed in the Seventh regiment, Minneso
ta volunteer infantry, in August, 1862,
and served through the Indian and
Civil wars. He was appointed in 18S9
grand secretary of the grand lodge, A.
F. and A. M., and has been elected
to that office each successive year.
Burned by Varnish.
Minneapolis.—Mrs. M. Krouth, liv
ing at St. Anthony Park, was serious
ly burned at her home. A can of
varnish which she had placed on the
stove exploded and caught fire. Mrs.
Krouth's clothing became ignited
and before neighbors, to whom she
screamed for help, could extinguish
the flames, she was badly burned.
Fell From a Train.
Hanley Falls. George Lowe of
Cottonwood, returning from a ball
game at Granite on the night train
on the Great Northern, stepped off
the cars into space, falling twenty
five feet, narrowly missing a rock
pile on the river's edge. He thought
the train was at the station when in
fact it had stopped for a crossing and
his coach was on the bridge crossing
Yellow Medicine river. He was not
discovered until late the next morn
ing. Several broken ribs and inter
nal injuries may result fatally.
St. Paul,—The Minnesota Steel!
company, which is to build the great
steel mills at Duluth, filed articles of
incorporation with the secretary of
state. The capital stock is $10,000,000,
for which the filing fee was $5,025.
Austan.-rGolden Rule, the famous
performing horse which has been
traveling with a circus, dropped dead
here just after the afternoon perform
ance. Death was due to tobacco
heart, the horse havin^ been in the
Roosevelt Delivers a Notable Address
at Jamestown, Va.
Speaks Before the Delegates to the National
£ditorial Association—Touches Upon
Important National Questions.
Jamestown, Va.—TI,e following Is the
address of President Roosevelt before
the National Editorial association at the
exposition here:
It is of course a mere truism to say that
no other body of our countrymen wield as
extensive an influence as those who write
for the daily press and for the periodi
cals. It is also a truism to say that
such power implies the gravest respon
sibility, and the man exercising it should
hold himself accountable, and should be
held by others accountable, precisely as
if he occupied any other position of pub
lic trust. I do not intend,-to dwell upon
your duties to-day, save that I shall
permit myself to point out one matter
where it seems to me that the need of
our people is vital. It is essential that
the man in public life and the man who
writes in the public press shall both of
them, if they are really good servants
of the people, be prompt to assail wrong
doing and wickedness. But in thus assail
ing wrongdoing and wickedness, there
are two conditions to be fulfilled, because
if unfulfilled, harm and not good will
result. In the first place, be sure of
your facts and avoid everything like
hysteria or exaggeration for to assail
a decent man for something of which he
is innocent is to give aid and comfort to
every scoundrel, while indulgence in hys
terical exaggeration serves to weaken,
not strengthen, the statement of truth.
In the second place, be sure that you
base your judgment on conduct and not
on the social or economic position of the
individual with whom you are dealing.
So much for what 1 have to say to
you in your capacity of molders and
guides of public thought. In addition
I want to speak to you on two great
movements in our public life which I
feel must necessarily occupy no incon
siderable part of the time of our public
men in the near future. One of these is
the question of, in certain ways, re
shaping our system of taxation so as to
make it bear most heavily on those most
capable of supporting the strain. The
other is the question of utilizing the
natural resources of the nation in the
way that will be of most benefit to the
nation as a whole.
Need of Foresight.
In utilizing and conserving the natural
resources of the nation the one charac
teristic more essential than any other is
foresight. Unfortunately, foresight is
not usually characteristic of a young and
vigorous people, and it is obviously not
a marked characteristic of us in the
United States. Yet assuredly it should be
the growing nation with a future which
takes the long look ahead and no other
nation is growing so rapidly as ours or
has a future so full of promise. No other
nation enjoys so wonderful a measure of
present prosperity which can of right
be treated as an earnest of future suc
cess, and for no other are the rewards
of foresight so great, so certain, and so
easily foretold.
The conservation of our natural re
sources and their proper use constitute
the fundamental problem which underlies
almost every other problem of our na
tional life. Unless we maintain an ade
quate material basis for our civilization,
we can not maintain the institutions in
which we take so great and just a pride
and to waste and destroy our natural
resources means to undermine this ma
terial basis. During the last five years
efforts have been made in several new
directions in the government service to
get our people to look ahead, to exercise
foresight, and to substitute a planned and
orderly development of our resources in
the place of a haphazard striving for
immediate profit. The effort has been
made through several agencies.
In 1902 the reclamation service began
to develop the larger opportunities of the
western half of our country for irriga
tion. The work includes all the states
from the great plains through the Rocky
mountains to the Pacific slope. It has
been conducted with the clear and defi
nite purpose of using the valuable water
resources of the public land for the
greatest good for the greatest number in
the long run in other words, for the
purpose of putting upon the land perma
nent home makers who will use and
develop it for themselves and for their
children and children's children. There
has been opposition, of course, to this
work of the reclamation service for we
have been obliged to' antagonize certain
men whose interest it was to exhaust for
their own temporary personal profit nat
ural resources which ought to be devel
oped through use, so as to le conserved
for the permanent common advantage of
the people as a whole. But there will be
no halt in the work of preserving the
waters which head in the Rocky moun
tain region so as to make them of most
use to the people as a whole for the
policy is essential to our national wel
Operations of Land Laws.
The public lands of the United States
should be utilized in similar fashion. Our
present public land laws were passed
when there was a vast surplus of vacant
public land. The chief desire was to
secure settlers thereon, and comparative
ly slight attention was paid as to exactly
how the lands were disposed of in de
tail. In consequence, lax execution of
the laws became the rule both in the land
office and in the public mind, and land
frauds were common and little, noted.
This was especially true when a system
originally designed for the fertile and
well-watered regions of the middle west
was applied to the dryer regions of the
great plains and to the mountains and
the Pacific coast. In these regions the
system lent itself to fraud, and much
land passed out of the hands of the gov
ernment without passing into the hands
of the home maker. The department of
the interior and the department of justice
joined in prosecuting the offenders
against the law but both the law and
its administration were defective and
needed to be changed. Three years ago
a public lands commission was appoint
ed to scrutinize the law and the facts
and to recommend a remedy. Their ex-
Employment Given to Thousands of
Needy People in Aiden.
The celebrated "Smyrna carpet" is
not made in, Smyrna it is a product
of the vilayet of Aiden, of which
Smyrna is the capital, says a consular
report. The chief places of manufac
ture are the villages of Uschak, Koule,
Ghiardis, Makri, Melessos, Kirka
gatsch, Axar and Demirdji. The in
dustry gives employment to thousands
of needy people, especially women,
who are obliged to do the work almost
entirely, while the men spend their
time in the coffee-houses drinking
strong coffee and smoking numberless
cigarettes, all in true oriental fashion.
Little girls are compelled to take up
the work early, at seven or ten years
of age at the latest, and they keep at
it unceasingly until they go to their
The market for the wools is held
every Thursday from dawn to sunset
to thf bazar of Uschak, which is then
amination specifically showed the ex
istence of great frauds upon the public
domain, and their recommendations for
changes in the law were made with the
design of conserving the natural re
sources of every part of the public land
by putting it to its best use. Attention
was especially called to the prevention of
men, and to a
by unrestricted grazing on the open
range a system of using the natural
forage on the public domain which
amounts to putting a premium on its
destruction. The recommendations of the
public lands commission were sound, for
they were especially in the interest of
the actual home maker and where the
small home maker could not utilize the
land, it was provided that the govern
ment should keep control of it so that
it could not be monopolized by a few
wealthy men. Congress has not yet
acted upon these recommendations, ex
cept for the repeal of the iniquitous
lieu-land law. But the recommendations
are so just and proper, so essential to our
national welfare, that I believe they will
surely ultimately be adopted.
In 1891 congress authorized the presi
dent to create national forests in the
public domain. These forests reserves re
mained for a long time in charge of
the general land office, which had no
men properly trained in forestry. But
another department, that of agriculture,
possessed the trained men. In other
words, the government forests were with
out foresters and the government for
esters without forests. Waste of effort
and waste of forests inevitably followed.
Finally the situation was ended in 1905
by the creation of the United States
forest service, which has stopped the
waste, conserved the resources of the
national forests, and made them useful
so that our forests are now being man
aged on a coherent plan, and in a way
that augurs well for ftie future.
Preserve Mineral Resources.
The mineral fuels of the eastern United
States have already passed into the
hands of large private owners, and those
of the west are rapidly following. This
should not be, for such mineral resources
belong in a peculiar degree to the whole
people. Under private control there is
much waste from the shortsighted
methods of working, arid the complete
utilization is often sacrificed for a greater
immediate profit. The mineral fuels un
der our present conditions are as essen
tial to our prosperity as the forests will
always be. The difference is that the
supply is definitely limited, for coal does
not grow and trees do. It is obvious
that the mineral fuels should be con
served, not wasted, and that enough of
them should remain in the hands of
the government to protect the people
against unjust or extortionate prices so
far as that can still be done. What has
been accomplished in the regulation of
the great oil fields of the Indian terri
tory offers a striking example of the
good results of such a policy. Last
summer, accordingly, I withdrew most
of the coal-bearing public lands tempor
arily from disposal, and asked for the
legislation necessary to protect the pub
lic interest by the conservation of the
mineral fuels that is, for the power to
keep the fee in the government and to
lease the coal, oil, and gas rights under
proper regulation. No such legislation
was passed, but I still hope that we shall
ultimately get it.
Prevention of Frauds.
For several years we have been do
ing everything in our power to prevent
fraud upon the public land. What can
be done under the present laws is now
being done through the joint action of
the interior department and the depart
ment of justice. But fully to accomplish
the prevention of fraud there is need of
further legislation and especially of a
sufficient appropriation to permit the de
partment of the interior to examine cer
tain classes of entries on the ground
before they pass into private owner
ship. The appropriation asked for last
winter, if granted, would have put an
end to the squandering of the public
domain, while it would have prevented
any need of causing hardship to indi
vidual settlers by holding up their claims.
However, the appropriation was not
given us, and in consequence it is not
possible to secure, as I would like to
secure, the natural resources of the pub
lic land from fraud, waste and encroach
So much for what we are trying to do
in uilizing our public lands for the pub
lic in securing the use of the water, the
forage, the coal and the timber for the
public. In all four movements my chief
adviser, and the man first to suggest
to me the courses which have actually
proved so beneficial, was Mr. Gifford
Pinchot, the chief of the national forest
service. Mr. Pinchot also suggested to
me a movement supplementary to all of
these movements one which will itself
lead the way in the general movement
which he represents and with which he
is actively identified, for the conserva
tion of all our natural resources. This
was the appointment of the inland
waterways commission.
The inability of the railroads of the
United States to meet the demands
upon them has drawn public attention
forcibly to. the use of our waterways
for trasportation. But it is obvious
that this is only one of their many
uses, and that a planned and orderly
development is impossible except by
taking into account all the services
they are capable of rendering. It was
upon this ground that the inland wa
terways commission was recently ap
pointed. Their duty is to propose a
comprehensive plan for the improve
ment and utilization of those great
waterways which are the great poten
tial highways of the country. Their
duty is also to bring together the
points of view of all users of streams,
and to submit a general plan for the
development and conservation of the tain "'maximum
filled with purchasers who have ar
rived on buffatees, camels, donkeys
and other picturesque beasts of bur
den. The spun wools are not dyed by
the weavers themselves, but by special
More than 3,000 female weavers are
employed at Uschak in the prepara
tion of carpets. The operators are
generally members of the same family,
but there are a number of girls who
earn about six to seven cents per day.
The Ghiardis carpets are generally
smaller than those of Uschak. Very
fine prayer carpets, closely woven and
of harmonious colors, are produced in
imitation of the Persian carpets.
Carpets are made into bales of 280
pounds each and covered with goat
skins. The caravans pass the night in
the open country at the foot of some
hill, the drivers under tents and the
camels and their loads in the open air.
Very large carpets, too heavy to be
packed, are folded and thrown across
the backs of the camels in the form of
a covering. When the carpets arrive
in Smyrna they are spread, out, beaten,
bloomed and repacked in bales Weigh*
ing 500 to 600
W'f PfP'*'
vast natural resources of the water
ways of the United States. Clearly it
is impossible for the waterways com
mission to accomplish its great task
without considering the relation of
streams to the conservation and use of
all other natural resources. *»nd 1 have
asked that it do so. Here, then, for the
first time, the orderly developemnt and
planned conservative use of all our
natural resources is presented as a
single problem. One by one the indi
vidual tasks in this great problem have
already been undertaken. One by one
in practical fashion the methods of
dealing with them were worked out
National irrigation has proved itself
a success by its actual working. Again,
actual experience has shown that .the
national forests will fulfill the larger
purpose for which they were created,
All who have thoughtfully studied the
subject have come to see that the solu
tion of the public lands question lies
"with the home maker, with the settler
who lives on his land and that gov
ernment control of the mineral fuels
and the public grazing lands is neces
sary and inevitable. Each of these
conclusions represented a movement
of vast importance which would -confer
large benefits upon the nation, but
which stood by itself. They are con
nected together into one great funda
the con
Upon the wise solution of this, much
of our future obviously depends. Even
such questions as the regulation of
railway rates and the control of cor
porations are in reality subsidiary t»
the primal problem of the preservation
in the interests of the whole people of
the resources that nature has given us.
If we fail to solve this problem, no
skill in solving the others will in the
end avail us very greatly.
Problem-that of
a of a 1 1 a a
Now as to the matter of taxation.
Most great civilized countries have an
income tax and an inheritance tax.
In my judgment both should be part
of our system of federal taxation. I
speak diffidently about the income tax
because one scheme for an income tax
was declared unconstitutional by the
supreme court by a five to four vote
and in addition it is a difficult tax to
administer in its practical workings,
and great care would have to be exer
cised to see that it was not evaded
by the very man whom it is most de
sirable to have taxed, for if so evaded
it would of course be worse than no
tax at all, as the least desirable of all
taxes is the tax which bears heavily
upon the honest as compared with the
dishonest man. Nevertheless, a gradu
ated income tax of the proper type
would be a desirable peramnent fea
ture of federal taxation, and I still
hope that one may be devised which the
supreme court will declare constitu
Inheritance Tax.
In my judgmeni, however, the in
heritance tax is both a far better meth
od of taxation, and far more important
for the purpose I have in view—the
purpose of having the swollen fortunes
of the country bear in proportfon to
their size a constantly increasing bur
den of taxation. These fortunes exist
solely because of the protection given
the owners by the public. They are a
constant source of care and anxiety
to the public and it is eminently just
that they should be forced to pay heav
ily for the protection given them. It
is, of course, elementary that the na
tion has the absolute right to decide as
to the terms upon which any man
shall receive a bequest or devise from
another. We have repeatedly placed
such laws on our own statute books,
and they have repeatedly been declared
constitutional by the courts. I believe
that the tax should contain the pro
gressive principle. Whatever any in
dividual receives, whether by gift, be
quest, or devise, in life or in death,
should, after a certain amount is
reached, be increasingly burdened and
the rate of taxation should be in
creased in proportion to the remote
ness of blood of the man receiving
from the man giving or devising. The
principle of this progressive taxation
of inheritance has not only been au
thoriatively recognized by the legisla
tion of congress, but it is now un
equivocally adopted in the leading civ
ilized nations of the world—in, for in
stance, Great Britain, France and Ger
many. Switzerland led off with the
imposition of high progressive rates.
Great Britain was the first of the great
nations to follow suit, and within the
last few years both France and Ger
amny have adopted the principle. In
Great Britain all estates worth $5,000
or less are practically exempt from
death duties, while the increase is
such that when an estate exceeds
$5,000,000 in value and passes to a dis
tant kinsman or stranger in blood the
government receives nearly 18 per
cent. In France, under the progressive
system, so much of an inheritance as
exceeds $10,000,000 pays over 20 per
cent, to the state if it passes to a dis
tant relative, and five per cent, if it
passes to a direct heir. In Germany
very small inheritance are exempt, but
the tax is so sharply progressive that
an inheritance not in agricultural or
forest lands which exceeds $250,000,
if it goes to distant relatives, is
taxed at the rate of about 26 per cent.
The German law is of special interest,
because it makes the inheritance tax
an imperial measure, while allotting
to the individual states of the empire
a portion of the proceeds and permit
ting them to impose taxes in addition
to those imposed by the imperial gov
ernment. In the United States the na
tional government has more than once
imposed inheritance taxes in addition
to those imposed by the states, and
in the last instance about one-half of
the states levied such taxes concur
rently with the national government,
making a combined maximum rate, in
some cases as high as 25 per cent.
and, as a matter of fact, several states
adopted inheritance tax laws for the
first time while the national law was
still in force and unrepealed. The
French law has one feature which is to
be heartily commended. The progres
sive principle is so applied that each
higher rate is imposed only on the ex
cess above the amount subject to
the next lower rate. This plain is
peculiarly adapted to the working out
of the theory of using the inherit
ance tax for the purpose of limiting
the size of inheritable fortunes, since
the progressive increase in the rates,
according to this mode, may be car
ried to its logical conclusion in a
maximum rate of nearly 100 per
cent, for the amount in excess of
a specified sum, without being con
fiscatory as to the rest of the inherit
ance for each increase in rate would
apply only to the amount above a cer-
pounds each for ex-
World's Finest Cigars.
The best cigars manufactured come
from Cuba, the tobacco for which is
cultivated in the famous Vuelta de
Abajo district, west of Havana. This
favored spot is on the banks of a riv
er, the nature of the soil being such
that in no other part of the world can
leaves of such excellence be produced.
Beggar Alone Spoke English.
People make a great mistake as to
the prevalence of English on the
continent, says Rev. A. N. Cooper in
Chambers' Journal. "In my walk to
Rome, a journey of some 900 miles,
I only once met a man on the road
who could speak English, and he was
the only man who begged of me."
Amusement for Travelers.
Games of chess and checkers for
travelers on long journeys have been
Introduced by the English Midland
Railway company. There is no charge
made by the company, and when the
game is finished the conductor col
lect* the pieces,

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