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New Ulm review. (New Ulm, Brown County, Minn.) 1892-1961, April 05, 1922, Image 6

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(The New Republic)
America and Chinese Education.
A Chinese student who is now in this
country and who was an active leader in
the Student's Revolt in 1918 in Peking,
recently remarked to me that the conduct
of the Chinese official delegation in Wash
ington had led him to reflect upon Chinese
higher education. Or rather, he thought
their course was a reflection of Chinese
education in certain of its phases. He re
garded the delegation as having failed
essentially in their task. He recognized
that conditions in China and also the
exigencies of American politics—or what
the American representatives took to be
such—had a large share in the failure
of China to accomplish her aims. But he
said there was another failure for which
the Chinese delegates were responsible:
there had been at Washington no repre
sentative voicing of existent Chinese na
tional sentiment. Certain practical fail
ures might be conceded to be inevitable
but there was only one explanation of
the failure to express the active contem
porary attitude of the Chinese people,
and that was found in unrepresentative
qualities in the delegates.
So far his view of the situation is of
primary and practical interest to the
Chinese. It concerns Americans only as
they are sympathetic with China and de
sirous of seeing her just aspirations prop
erly expressed. But the connection of
the fact he cites—if it be a fact—with
the state of the higher education of the
Chinese touches us closely. All three of
the delegates are American educated
two ol them studied in missionary insti
tutions conducted by Americans in China
before they came to America to study.
And these two—the diplomats of the dele
gation—are those whose methods have
been most unsatisfactory to Chinese at
home and in this country. The third
member, the one who had not come under
missionary auspices in his preparatory
education China, is the one who is
regarded as most nearly representative
of present day China. Now the educa
tional conclusion which the student-leader
had drawn was that American missionary
education has failed to develop indepen
dent, energetic thought and character
among even its most distinguished grad
uates. It has produced rather a subser
vient intellectual type, one which he
characterized as slavish.
The literal correctness of his premises
and his conclusions need not be categori
cally affirmed. It is easy to deny the
premises, or to hold that they are too
slight to bear the burden of the conclu
sion. There are not many non-Chinese
who know enough to judge the situation
and I do not count myself among the
few who can judge. But one thing can
be positively affirmed. The view in
question expresses a belief that is widely
and increasingly held in China. It con
tains elements that are of prime impor
tance. It suggests the attitude of the
Young China of today as distinct from
that Young China which figures in the
writings of men like Mr. J. 0. P. Bland,
who if not important in himself is impor
tant as the spokesman of a definite class
of foreigners in China who have been the
most influential persons in purveying infor
mation and forming foreign opinion about
The Young China of which the Bland
School speaks consists of a group of
foreign educated men, of whom the two
diplomats of the official delegation at the
Washington Conference are good repre
sentatives. Young China viewed from
this angle means men who have gone
into politics, domestic and diplomatic,
with Western, usually American, precon
ceptions, and who have tried to force
Western, usually American, political con
ceptions and methods upon China. They
have failed, failed tragically, it is said,
because of the intrinsic unfitness of their
conceptions and methods to immemorial
traditions and customs and engrained
racial traits of the Chinese people—im
memorial, atavistic and racial are the
literary slogans of this school of foreign
commentators on China. Tfye failure
goes back to the well-meaning efforts of
missionaries who have bungled because
of their ignorant attempts to fojst alien
ways of thought and of political aption
upon China. With this condemnation
of Young China and its foreign sponsors
goes a condemnation of all attempts of
China to become republican in govern
ment and to transform its/culture.
I do aot Jmpw to what extent this
picture ever truly represented a Young
China. But events move rapfdly in
China, and certainly the Young •Ghina of
today has nothing in common with this
picture. Present ]foung Ca is bent
upon a genuine transformation of Chinese
culture—sometimes a revolutionary break
ing with the past, but in any case a
transformation. It is democratic, but its
democracy is social and industrial there
is little faith in political action, and not
much interest in governmental changes
except as they may naturally reflect
changes in habits of mind. There is in
it little sympathy with missionary efforts,
not because they represent the West, but
because it is believed that they do not
represent what China most needs from
the West, namely, scientific method and
aggressive freedom and independence
of inquiry, criticism and action. JHence
the remark quoted earlier about the cause
of the failure of Chinese diplomacy in
Washington and its root in the weakness
of the education given by Americans in
In wanting a transformation of their
country, the Young Chinese have in
thought of a Westernized China, a China
which repeats and imitates Europe or
America. They want Western knowledge
and Western methods which they them
selves can independently employ to de
velop and sustain a China which is itself
and not a copy of something else. They
are touchingly grateful to any foreigner
who gives anything which can be con
strued as aid in this process. They are
profoundly resentful of all efforts which
condescendingly hold up Western% insti
tutions, political, religious, educational, as
models to be humbly accepted and sub
missively repeated. They are acutely a
ware that the spirit of imitation at the
expense of initiative and independence
of thought has been the chief cause -of
China's retrogression, and they do not
propose to shift the model they intend
to transform the spirit.
There is nothing which one hears so
often from the lips of the representatives
of Young China of today as that educa
tion is the sole means of reconstructing
China. There is no other topic which is
so much discussed. There is an enormous
interest in making over the traditional
family system, in overthrowing militarism,
in extension of local self-government,
but always the discussion comes back to
education, to teachers and students, as
the central agency in promoting other
reforms. This fact makes the question
of the quality and direction of American
influence in Chinese education a matter
of more than academic concern. The
difficulties in the way of a practical ex
tension and regeneration of Chinese educa
tion are all but insuperable. Discussion
often ends in an impasse: no political re
form of China without education but no
development of schools as long as military
men and corrupt officials divert funds
and oppose schools from motives of self
interest. Here are all the materials of a
tragedy of the first magnitude. Apart
from this question of education what is
done and what is not done in Washington
is of secondary moment. It makes vital
the matter of American influence. There
is a great and growing philanthropic
interest in America for China. It shows
itself in support of educational schemes
and in generous relief funds. It is not
motivated to any considerable extent by
economic considerations, by expectation
of business profits, nor by political ex
pediencies. It is motivated largely by
religious considerations. It is well in
tentioned, but the intentions are not al
ways enlightened in conception nor in
execution. It was not a disgruntled for
eigner nor a jealous, anti-foreign Chinese
who told me that American missionary
colleges in China had largely simply
transplanted the American college cur
riculum and American conceptions of
"discipline" and that instead of turning
out graduates who could become leaders
in developing the industries of China on
an independent Chinese basis, it had
turned out men who when they went
into industry took subordinate positions
in (foreign managed industries, because
of their training especially in the English
language. There is no difference in effect
between this statement and that quoted
at the beginning of this article about
fostering the dependent, the slavish, mind
and,, character. And a missionary ac
tively engaged in educational work was
its author. American influence in Chinese
education should have something better
to do than to 'train .commercial, political
and religious compuadores, .V,*/*^
Something can be done by encouraging
such American managed institutions as
are trying to develop a better type of
school by freeing those *me» w&o are «a
dapting $Jieir curriculum and methods*
to Chinese conditions against the petty
opposition and nagging thej {now |neets
from reactionaries, "piere are a few in
stitutions in China where the Chinese
members of the ifacuity are put on
same plane of vSalayy, jof social pUgnijty anpl
administrative importance as the foreign
ers, i»et the philanjjhropically. Inclined
whose philanthropy Ifis something mpre,
than a cloak for fanatic "meddlesomeness
or selfishness select these institutions for
aid.' Not many know that at present*£JTI£|IS[S
some American millions of a special fund
are being spent in China for converting
souls that they go only to those who have
the most dogmatic and reactionary theolo
gical views, and that the pressure of these
funds is used to repress the liberal ele
ment and to put liberal institutions in
bad repute as /weH as in financial straits.
That is a shameful business from *any
point of view, and it ought to fee met by
a generous and wise business. China does
not need copies of American colleges, but
it does still need colleges supported by
foreign funds and in part manned by
well trained foreigners who are capable
of understanding Chinese needs, alert,
agile, sympathetic in their ^efforts tp meet
But of .course the chief work nrust be
done in distinctively Chinese institutions,
staffed mainly and managed wholly by
Chinese. Instead of carping at mission
aries we should remember that they have
been almost the only ones in the past
with a motive force strong enough to
lead them to take an active interest in
Chinese education. It would seem as if
the time had come when there are some
persons of means whose social and human
interest, independent of religious eonsi
derations, might show itself in upbuilding
native schools. Above all else, these
schools need modern laboratories and li
braries and well trained men of the first
rank who can train Chinese on the spot
to the use of the best methods in the
social arts and the natural and mathe
matical sciences. Such men could train
not only students but younger teachers
who are not as yet thoroughly equipped
and who too often are suffering from lack
of intellectual contact. First class men
to go to China in this spirit with nothing
to "put over" except their knowledge,
their methods and their skill will meet
with a wonderful response. Somewhere
in America there must be men of means
who can give their money and men of
science who can contribute their services
in this spirit. Their work will not be
done for the sake of the'prestige or com
merce of the United States but it will
be done for the sake of that troubled
world of which China and theUnited States
areintegral parts. Build up a China of men
and women of trained independent
thought and character, and there will be
no Far Eastern "problems** such as now
vex us there wjll be no! need of confer
ences to discuss—and disguise,—the
"Problems of the Pacific American in
fluence in Chinese education will then be
wholly a real good instead of a mixed
and dubious blessing. John Dewey.
Bully jfor Senator Xing! His three
resolutions on Haiti and Santo Domingo
are a breath of fresh air to all who are
weary of mere lip-service to Americanism
and desire some material evidence that
our legislators will really uphold funda
mental American principles. The resolu
tion demanding our withdrawal from
those two republics was discussed in a
recent issue of The JSfation. A second
resolution (S 234) asks the Navy Depart
ment to furnish data on the cost to the
United States of the two naval occupa
tions. This information will interest our
tax-payers., Most' v|tal, however, for the
moment, is his resolution (S 233) against
the pending loan to .JIaiti. Whije the
Haitian question is sub jiidice in Congress
and beginning greatly to interest the
American people, the Occupation is nego
tiating with three banking-houses for a
$14,000,000 loan which would compel
continued American control of Haiti until
[email protected]! Dr. Hudicourt, Haiti's envoy to
the Second Hague conference, testified
before the Senate Committee last week
that the Hainan people would repudiate
that loan if rthey were given fi?ve minuses
of liberty., t^hat the eights and aspira
tions of Dominicans and Haitians, if the
McCormick-Pomerene commission has its
way, wifl continue to be as flagrantly dis
regarded as in the last six years may be
judged from tjhe appointment of Briga
dier General John S. Russell as American
IJjjgh Commissioner in ,$J[aiti, Not only is,
a military man to he the dictator of this
formerly Iree people, but this dictator is
the *very man whose name in Haiti is
synonymous jpth .oppression and ,tyranny.
Under him Haiti was taught what Jim
Qrow *ne ^Even the churches have
provided separate \inajses |qr ,whites^.v
General iUssett is dejjes£ed
Hajti. Perhaps at is just as ^eH* Theue
can he np solution of the Haitian and Do
minican .questions short of withdrwal
of ©ur military forces and restoration to
both peoples of the Independence and
whisht $*ejr lighter
Only by1i!lfi&mj$tftotm>ir
.1 $op fiave for sale can you iiUs
pose of it* Let the Review do your
selling for you.
(Continued from page 1.)
The Board is nevertheless obliged,
on account of evidence of disharmony
and lack of co-operation, not to renew
your contract for the ensuing year.
I can assure you that no personal
feeling has entered into the Board's
Trusting that some attractive field
,may open up to you. a $
Very truly yours,
Arnold Gloor
Discussing this letter, Mrs. Krook
charged Supt. Gloor with the same
fault that he charged against Mrs.
Steinhauser, a lack of co-operation.
Mrs. Krook asked Mr. Gloor whether
he had ever called Mrs. Steinhavser's
attention to the disharmony and lack
of co-operation in order that she niight
be given a chance to work more har
moniously if there was such dis
harmony. She told the Board that
they had never consulted with Mrs.
Steinhauser, had never visited her de
partment and knew nothing about the
matter except what their Superinten
dent told them. She also told them
that they hjad re-elected a teacher, a
relative of one of the members of the
School Board, about whom there had
been many complaints during the
year, a teacher whose work had been
condemned by State High School in
spectors. Mrs. Krook told Mr. Gloor
that he needed the support of the
Board member who was a relative of
this teacher and that was why she was
re-elected. Mr. Henle at this point
expressed his opinion that Mrs. Krook
was taking too much liberty but Mrs.
Krook informed them that she was a
taxpayer and she had aright to express
her opinions of the Star Chamber
Sessions of the School Board.
Board Action Criticized.
Louis B. Krook spoke to the Board
telling them that he realized that each
member of the Board was a very busy
person having his own business matters
to attend to and that he felt that the
School Board members had taken the
recommendations of Mr. Gloor in
various matters at different times with
out investigating as should have been
done. It seems that at the time of the
re-election of the teachers, Supt. Gloor
was questioned by Dr. Hintz concern
ing his recommendation for re-election
of the teacher he had been condemming
all year, but Mr. Gloor gave the Board
to understand that he wished to have
her re-elected. Although Supt. Gloor
was re-elected to his office it seems
there has been considerable opposition
ito his re-election also and Dr. Vogel
reminded the Board that at various
times in considering the superinten
dency of the schools all of the members
of the Board had agreed that Mr.
Gloor was not the man for the super
mtendency of the New Ulm schools
but that they did not know of any one
to fill his place and let the matter go
by, although Dr. Vogel strenuously
opposed his re-election. Dr. Hintz
is also said to have voted against Mr.
Gloor. Mrs. Krook informed Mr.
Gloor that she intended to make it her
business to see that there is a cleaning
As President Mueller refused to per
mit the discussion of the petition Or to
give Mrs. Steinhauser a hearing with-*
out first having the .matter gone over
in Board meeting, the taxpayers dele
gation left, very much dissatisfied
with the treatment that they had re
The regular meeting of the Board
followed but there was no discussion of
the matter taken up. The only sub
jects of any importance related to the
salaries of two of the teachers, Miss
Hensel and Miss Conway. These
teachers had made it known to the
Yvou can get trousers jnade to match
your coat at our special showing to
day. F. P. Zschunke, Columbia!
Clothing store. Adv. 14c
.Holland -Salt Herring in
bulk and in kegs. -r
$* Spiced Herring in bulk and
pail*. F% ^^^%A^""
fancy Boneless Codfish, in
i-*b. packages. J^"
?_:# Canned Salmon, aJU grades.
Vf Fresh Smoked White Fish.
Sardines, domestic awUm.
rJ-Brick ^tCheese,^ Cream
Cheese,J^imburger, Pimento,
Swiss, ^nd Cottage Che©**^i
Phone 188. 101 S. Minn. St.
superintendent that the proposed
•salary that they were to receive was
not what it should be according to
their experience and it was decided to
give Miss Hensel $50.00 more than
had been agreed upon the previous
iweek and Miss Conway $20.00 more.
fli HI II Ull
^^frTM^' f*
1 \m%^
1. iffl**^8^*
1 I1L\I
ft IE
il ft \m
!f v&rr
Currants $ $ IA
Raspberries fe-jl
Mrs. Inra Scott, daughter of Mr.
and Mrs. Anton Leibold who came
back from England in February ar
rived here Sunday afternoon for a
visit with her parents. She has with
her, her five year old son and expects
to remain for several months. •$&
re^mnm •WMWW—*W^Hi
10th Anniversary Sale
Continues until April 5th.
We offer a liberal discount
on every garment
•»•*•.• in our
Our buyer of this department is
now in New York City and
we are receiving new and
beautiful creations in Suits,
Cloaks, Dresses, Etc., every
Ladies', Men's and Boys'
Wearing Apparel.
Bring the size of your room and we
will show you how cheap you can
have your room papered.
Telephone 151. New Ulm, Minn.
viooa Baking is an Art
—and much of the result is dependent
upon the quality of flour used.
Compass Angelina Flours
always insure uniformlyfineresults. They
are used every day by the best cooks and
are equally good for baking bread or
Ask Your Grocer—or Order Direct From Us.
liver Promptly.
MILL CO..,.,.
I1 .,M 11, Tf
4 Growers and Propagators
of Forest Fruit, t)rn&mental Trees and shrubs, down to
Perennial Flowers.
Good Assortment of Evergreens
\i fit
A few of our specialties are! ^4
We De-
-A. I
%Msw Mmx Minn.
SSTA^and DAKOTA GRAPES. ^These are hardy a
need no protection during winter. Annual bearers of^
good grapes nearly aslarge as Concord. *W*M&
Hardy Roses ,J| a Trees Rectos ete,^c.
We make plans for planting up home grounds.
iParks, etc., and do the pjaptijig if requested!
for piM* Catalog.
We will be pleased to advise you on any spraying
*I "i *%^diA
The New Plow" -..Afc*K
originated by Prof. Hansen at Brookings, S. D. such1 as
Banska, Waneta, Opata and Sapa are superior to the
varieties growp heretofore, wmx^jrsmp **fc*1V«$:
$ ^fetfEverbearing Strawberries
Apples & CrabsJ^jBrida Wreath
€ompass Cherry ^Snowball
Shade Trees Wli4 Hydrangea

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