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The Caledonian-record. [volume] (St. Johnsbury, Vt.) 1920-current, December 29, 1922, LATEST EDITION, Image 6

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I " Statbtician, The National City
)., Banlr 01 'Mew York
r The problem of tlie Dardanelles
irti) lyosnort'ft has been an issue
. viiionc the ratior.s of the world
ììi;lc belore the discovery of
, America. In 145. i, thirty-nine years
t.ctore., Columbus macie li ìs first
. voyaiie .-'.cross the .Atlantic, the
Turks, vho Iwd held the cast
oni shorer. o: the .'Jardauclles and
ì:-or-poru.s, obii.iiicd r.ontrol of their
we&tern t:;.::tgf by the capture of
Criusisiiti:;.;;)if :.:-.d adjaccnt areas
ulti thus, iUfit rted the right to con
u'Ctl the navigatimi of that water
way in vicw et the f.ict that its en
tire length from the Black Sea to
the Mediterranean fdl within
Turkish territory. When a few
ycars latcr they extcnded their ter
ritorial control in Europe to in
clude the entire area fronting upon
the Black Sea, the Turks calmly
inormed ali commercial and diplo
itiatic incpiirers that the Black Sea
was a "chaste and jure virgin" in
accessible to commercial, military
ni ?,
mi ; '
or diplomatic adventurers of for
eign coimtries. This iew was
;bcn accepted by the European na-
.1 w
'TV" -i'.
7 1 ; !. ;
1 5 1
Kraal Pasha, "Leader of the Turk Na-
Iionalists. W' use Reoudiation of Treatv
of Sevrei 7; cs Conforenca at Lausanne
tions without serious protcst, even
though it incliuk-d control of a
waterway cnnnectiiiK the two
createsi scas nf the wrirld, the
Mediterranean and the lilack,
and phired under the alisoltite con
tro' of a non-coiiimercial nation the
The Dardanelles,
navigation, c!nm?rcc ar
L (allds,
oi an inani!
sentini; u t!:'.
f:M -:-nare t-.:
v. ith r-n-ij.;;
ti.cixi;.! hi.-'
I.ater. v." e
til watt
e :.rej c.
f 1 ib'.t.
iriai .,;
.rts of ih
- 't "-Jkn. . S FVtrSwife.
fronting iipon tliis vast body of
water, the Black Sea, which of it
self is doublé the size of ali of the
Great Lakes of the United States
in conibination, began to pass
from Turkish hands to that of
other nations, the protests against
the control commercially, as well
as otherwise, of that area itself, and
of the only waterway by which it
could be connected with the oceans,
grew more uumerous and espc
cially so as the comparatively level
land area through which the "Straits
passed offered the easiest route of
access between the European coun
tries and the Asiatic Continent,
of which Europe is a mere penin-sula.
of the Golden Horn LooMng Toward the Bosporus.
Against Single Nation Control
So it has bappened that during
t':c W) years since Turkey afserteil
Iter daini of the right to control
the nuiigution of the Straits oi the
Bosporus and TJardanelles. of
which hot'n froniùges stili lie en
tirely within ber territory, there
has heen a frowing desire that the
produets and commerce of the
Black Sea area of 1 (ÌUO.U(K) square
liiile.-:, now including the holnes of
100, Oliti. HO people and an annual
contniei-ce ot over $l.()(ll).()l)().OU0,
should not be controlled by auy
one natio;'.. The vassatfeways he-i.-.een
the other greiil ìnland seas
f'f the world and the oc-Jan over
v.-iiich commerce may pass ' frerty
ha ve one by one Incn held as in
violalile by the control of any one
nation. Tlie righi 01 vsssels of
commerce or military service to
entcr the Baltic has not been ques
tioned l'or many years; the en
trance to the Mediterranean is
open to the commerce and military
vesscls of ali nations: the Suez
Canal through which the Mediter
ranean is connected with the In
diali Ocean is, by the Suez Canal
Convention of 1888, "to be open in
time of war as in time of peace to
merchautmen or war vesseìs of ali
nations," and this sanie mie ap
plies with slight modification to
the Panama Canal. The Straits of
Magellan, which connect the va
ters of the Atlantic and Pacific, at
the southern end of South America
although passing through the ter
ritory of Argentina and Chile were
by the trenty of Buenos Aires in
1881 "neutraii'zed forever and free
navigation granted to the flags of
r. IT nations," while freedom of pas
sile in the Strait of Malacca, con
necting the China Sea with the In
diati Ocean, does not seem to bave
been calted in question. Even cer
tain great navigable rivers which
serve as carriers of commerce for
several nations whose territory
they touch have been subjected to
international control as to free
dom of navigation through the
fervices of commissions appointed
by the respective States through
which they flow or which they
touch. Among the rivers on which
Showini One of Ih Forts Comtructed For Ita
navigation is so controlied are the
Danube, the Rhine, and the
220 Miles of Waterway
The "Straits of the Dardanelles
and Bosporus," as is well known,
.- ? .... v ... ...:2v
include that comparatively narrow
strait known as the "Dardanelles'
42 miles in length and from 1 to 5
miles in vvidth, extending in a
northesterly direction from that
arni of the Mediterranean known
as the Aegean Sea to the "Sea of
Marniora" about 160 miles in
length, which in turn is connected
with the Black Sea by the narrow
waterway known as the "Bos
porus," 18 miles in length and from
one-half mile to W2 miles ih
width. The entire navigable
length of this complete .wa'erway
between the Mediterranean and the
Black Sea, geographically known
as the "Straits of the Dardanelles
and Bosporus" is thus about 220
miles, and its width ranges from
one-halt mile to 1 Vz miles in the
Bosporus and from 1 to 5 miles
in the Dardanelles, while the width
in the Sea of Marniora is about
45 miles. The castern frontage of
this entire waterway had long been
held by the Turks and when in
l-)5,i thev obtained control of its
Map Showinj the Straits
western frontage through the cap
ture of Constantinople and adja
cent territory they assumed the
right to reserve for their own ships
of commerce or of the military
service the exclusive privilege of
navigation upon its waters over the
entire length from the Mediter
ranean to the Black Sea, or to at
least establish" rulef under which
the vessels of other nations might
utilize its waters, and also those of
the Black Sea, of which they were
the only outlet and which subse
quently became a "Turkish lake"
through the occupancy of its ni
I 7
iCfì Se filili
va liiilH
n L
tire frontage by the Turkish Gov
ernment. PFotests Against Turkish
The continuous control by Tur
key of this passage between the
Mediterranean and the Black Sea
has not been acceded to without
protests of European and other
countrie9. Russia, for example,
after obtaining a large frontage on
the northern shore of the Black
Sea became especially anxious that
the sea and the straits which con
nected it with the Mediterranean
should be thrown open to ber com
mercial as well as military vessels
or at least that she have special
privileges for the movement of
ber great supplies of foodstuffs,
minerai oils, and forest produets to
the waters of the Mediterranean by
which they could be moved to the
markets of southeastern Europe.
Iler wheat, meats, minerai oil, lum
ber, flax and other naturai produets
were wanted by ali of Europe and
she wanted European manufac
tures in exchaige. But as ber ti r
ritorial and commercial exu-nsion
was creating commercial and poh't-
ical jealousies among certuni ot !
the European cou. tries it was cav.- !
for them to forni secret treaties !
witn Turkey which would encour-
atre ber in insistine ution ber ih-ini
to the control of the Black Sea
and its exit, especially as the Turks
were adepts in the art of diplo
macy in maintaining their daini.
Trade Privilege Treaties
It should not be assumcd, how
ever, from althis that ali of the
commerce of the Black Sea or of
that passing through the Straits
was actually carried by the Turk.;,
a non-commercial people. The
necessary trade and trade require
ments of t'.iì countrics fronting
upon that bod 01. water had grown
so large that it demanded facilities
of transportatioj a.id tinance wiiich
the Turks. csuld not themselves
supply. This demand carne espe
cially from '.. several conntries
having large' f-onlages 011 the
Black Sea, rr-bly Russia. Bul
garia, Koumania. ani the sections
of Turkey stili '-...-upying the
southern frontage ci tliat area, and
later carne al:o from the great com
mercial conntries of western
Europe vrliicl required the nat-
of the Dardanelles and Bosporus and
Establlshed by the Treaty of Sevres.
nni produets of the Black Sea
area. As a result of this growing
demand for access to the produets
of this great fertile a.ea, the Turk
ish Government during the last
centnry granted through special
treaties with the various coimtries
the privilege of maintaining com
mercial rleets, constila and other
parapbernalia of trade, finance and
banking in the Black Sea and
Straits, and these privileges were
later extended to commercial coim
tries having rio frontage on that
sea but interested in the trade of
that area. Approximately one-halt
of the quantity of mrrchandise ex
ported from Russia in 1913 passed
through the Black Sea and this
was especially true of foodstufTs
and minerai oils, and the very pow
er possessed by Turkey to con
trol this trade, especially in case
of European or world wars, of
fered enorinous possibilities in the
formation of secret or open diplo
matic relations with the country
possessing such power, and dded
to the uneasiuess of other Euro
pean powers as to the effect of
these secret treaties upon inter
national relations. The possible
importance of the control of large
quantities of foodstuffs and raw
niaterials in case of war by the ac
tion or attitude of a singie power
intensified the desire of not only
European but rertain non-Euro-pean
countries for a termination of
the conditions under which access
to this important area was retaind
in the hands of one sud especially
a non-commercial, power, ir al
though more tha.i one-half A the
Black S?a merchaiidise was car
ried under foreign flags it was stili
within the power of a single coun
try, Turkey, to terminate the privi
leges under which such service by
the shipping of the various nations
was being performed. The area to
which access might at any moment
be suspended aggregated, as above
indicated, 1,000.000 square miles,
its population 100,O(K),0OO and ita
norma! trade prior to the recent
Beautiful Lausanne
Hvar more tlian a billion dollars a
year, and of cotirse accompanied
by the necessary transportation, in
dustriai and hanking equipments,
largely controlled by financial in -terests
outside the area in ques
tion. Treaty of Sevres
This international desire to ter
minate an unusual and abnormal
control of world commerce by a
non-commerciat power, while it
could not be successfully asserted
by a single country, found oppor
tiMiity for a joint expression upon
that subjcct by several great com
mercial nations of the world w lieti
the League of Xatio.is at the dose
of the VVorld War niet at the city
of Sevres, Erauce, to fraine a
peace treaty with Turkey. The
principal participants in that con-
the International Zone,
fcrence inclitded on the nn Innd
(ire-t Britain l-'rance. Ita'. vaiti
and certain othr :f the ." 't rs
oi the Leagtte of X'ations, ., :n
the other hand, the Imperiai ('lito
man Government Uhe Government
of the Sulian) represented by cer
tain oflicials appointed for tì'.st
service r.ntl designated by tlie
treaty itself as " l'Ienipotentiar'e? "
The result of that ccmference of
the victorious allies on the or.e
li a n ù, and the forni of treaty which
they haiiiled to the Turkisli repre
scntatives on the other, was the
famotts "Treaty of Sevres," laid
before tlie represcntatives of the
Turkish Government on August 10,
and signed under protcst by
them. Its chief feature as relates
to the suhicets above discusscd was
as follows:
Artide- .T: The navigatimi of the Str.-n'is,
ircliuliiig the Dardaeellri, the Sea i. Mar
mora arni Bniiorn, sh;ill in future he njien,
iwi-.h in jieacc and w.ir, tu every r.sel ut
commerce or ot w;ir anil to nulitarv ani!
commercial aircraft. wiihrmt dutincti.-ii m"
fìn((. Thee warers hall not le Mihjpct to
hlockaiic, rior shall any Iiellicrrnt i ' -lit he
exercinl n-,r any aci , hi.atilily tic rran
tnittcìl within rhrm. unlps iia piiruam-e of
a deci5iun of Die Colmai of the Lcague of
Artide "S: The TurViih Government
recogmzes tnat il is n-es.iry to take fnr
ther mc.-.rur tu ensure thr trmlmn of
navigation ir..vi,je for in Artide .'7, ami
accordinely itdrgate, m far ai it il ten
cenicil. to a CoinmisHiun to' he calici the
"t'ommifsion of the Straits." tnr contini oi
the waters spccilied iix Artide 3').
Artide l": The aathority f the Cora
rr,isicm will eMcnrl tu ali the waters
tween the Mediterranean niouth of the Dar
rlantlles ami thr Klack Sea nintith of the
Bosporus, and to the waters within tbiee
milai of eacb of these raoatht.
Artide ari: The Commiuion ha!I be Cora
Iirvrl of rcprecntatives appointed respec
tively hy the Vnited State of America if
anri when that Government is willmg to par
ticipate), the British Empire. France, Italy,
jatian. Kusia (if and when Russia becomes
a memher of the League of Nation), Treece,
Roiimania. and Moicana and Turkey (lì and
when the two latter States become mein
bers of lo Leaguc of Natiom).
The treaty further outlined the
arca on either side of the great
fi i 1 1 ir
l!' ! " I I 1
jRfSff,"! li l 'i il i cr
waterway in qttestìon over which
this conunission should have con
trol in order to insure perfect free
dom of commerce and including
her- Conference to Decide Question of
"every vessel of commerce or of
war without distinction of flag,"
and'the area thus outlined has been
ofticially shown on maps of that
atea under the title of "Zone of
the Straits." l'nder this treaty the
Enciclopédia Britannica in its 1022
edition says:
"The Straits (Danl.melles ami Bosporus)
were thrown inien to ali uaviiiation in neace
or war wnthnnt distinction of ria ; bloct.ade
of these waters was prohibitril ; an 'Inter
national Cinnmsion of the Straits' was es
tahli'hed to control the wati-rway, and a de
milifaned -Zoi,e of the Straits' createli lo
embiace adjoitnnK coastal territory."
Treaty Not Officially Ratified
This provision of the Sevres
Treaty dedaring specilìcally that
"navigation of the. Straits shall in
future be open both in peace and
war to every vessel of commerce or
of war" was looked upon as likely
to terminate the 467 years of Turk
ish control of that great water
,vvay, and the provisions of the
treaty for the freedom of com
merce of the Straits have since
been put into operation by the
Cotcmission appointed for that
porrose. Recent developmetits,
::o A-ever, bave iliade it apparent
.'at the question as to the ac
cevance by the Turks of the
Sc-res Treaty is stili an open one.
The Government of the Sultan at
Constantinople failed to ratify the
acts of its Blenipotentiaries whose
signatures were attached to the
Treaty of Sevres, and the States
man's Vear-Book, an accepted au
thority. stales in its V22 edition
that "The Treaty of Sevres al
though signed August 10. 1920, is
not yet ratified by any of the
Turkish Nationalist Govern
ment The great uncertainty, how-
t-ver. which now prevails as to the
permrinciice or otherwise of the
freedom ol commerce in tlie Straits !
as provided by t!:e Treaty of
Sevres is found in the prospective -attitude
of tl'e politicai organia-
tton establihed in 1920 at An
i estahiislied in 1920 at An-
a. in Asia Minor, about "5 miles i
t of Go:'-i:..tUinoplc, under the
; of the 'TutkM. Xationalit
inermuent. t,-,, re.en.ttng a po-
htteal tacito:, o. lttrkey lormerly
known as the " oung Turks"
pam. Of this nrganiaiioi. a
( io eriiiuent'," repv
riter in Oim-tu Historv of Aprii.
22. says. "Tl-e power of the .Jta.e
vestui in tlu- -,-inds ol the Va-
mal A-M'ii.ii'y, liic nieiiibers of
V. 11..-:; IO';' i:
the peonie."
'-i i re uro ..i-n l t ,.t
It i..t- ..,,,1 I,
Mustupha Kemal
i asini, J-'resident r! tlie Assembiy,
v.-ho-u- snecesres in ihe lidi! against
Che Gi-ech1- were followcd by
a re-
fusai on ilio part of th
Government to in any w:
nize the demands ot the
y recog-
re.itv of
Sevres, as the conference at Sevres
was not p.irtidpatcd in by of
ficiai represcntatives of the k'ein-ali-l
or "Yir.i:n.T Tt-rl; Govern
ment. !ispau-''es i'-ont Angora,
dated N'ovet'iber J;h. state that the
As-. r.iblv h..s i.dopteii resolmi.-ms
ptirportiii!; to. ab'iìish the Sulta
nati; and prodainiinv,- a Rcpr.blic of
the Turkish State to include ali
Turkish territory; also dedaring
void ali treaties of the Constanti
nople Administration madc since
j ji y- .sii ne i.l r r rvi
March ir., 1020. a date preceda -that
of the Treaty of Sovres. Hhe
tlispalcbes from Angora state tha
the (jovernment has prtd luimeri t,-,.
death penalty against the Tuiidt'
ofticials who signed the Trea'y c-i
Whife ifustapha Ketnal, t!;t
President of the Angora Assembiy.
has . been unofficially reported ol
several occasions as expressing 4
willingness to assent to the termi
nation of Turkish- control of ths
commerce of the Straits, the en
tire question of the attitude of the
3 .
Dardanelles Takes Place
Angora Government, whicli now
claims to represent ali of Turkey,
upon this sttbject is one of the im
portant factors of the approaching
conference to be held at Lausanne,
Switzerland, and which is to bc at
tended by the Turkish Nationalist
Foreign Minister.slsmet Pasha. ami
a stalY of experts. Reports troni
Constantinople indicate that the
Sultan, who does not accept the
Angora decre for Iris abdication,
has decided not to send delegatesi
to the Lausanne conference. Re
cent dispatches also indicated that
the Russian Soviet Government has
been invited by the Allies to send
delcgates to Lausanne to partici
pate in the discussion relative to
the freedom of navigation in the -Straits.
Nothing is stated as to
whether the recently organized
gOvernments on the northern front
age of the Klack Sea including
Ukraine, Taurida, Kttban, Georgia
and the Don Republic have been
invited to attend, but as the States
man's Year Book of 1922 describes
them ashavicg dose relations with
the Government of Russia it is pre
sumed that the Russian delegates
at Lausanne will present their
views on the question of freedom
of commerce both on the Black
Sea aud in the Straits which con
nect it with the Mediterranean and
the great oceans of the world.
Wfcì W
- , . J iJJfl W Ui
iH ' Wlj5nÌ3V.1S
fj , MpJXh &Mzttl
M T&S? Tf fit t
H C-.J j.J r2 3
U1 2 MZS&V4
- ?t'.f SSS
F" ACl
.J. 1
i.a..jisB- a, .dfc,, is.ro.aa a, a.
I UPMWiAsiiAaÉW tilt
Remarkable Viltà Over the Minarets
of Stamboul Showing tli Bosporus and
the Domes of Pera Beyond
Thus, the entire iuestion of the
pi-rmancncc of the freedom of com
merce in the Straits (which stili lie
in enlirety within Turkisli terri
tory) is to be further considered bv
the Lausanne Conference, tliougli
incantimi' the allied forces continue
in control tf the "Zone ?f the
Strit" rlespite the demàtids of the
Argon Government for control of
the area in question.
Ibi r.- fu
it. I
Il , Ir M'J
!lf! ':" '1
Harbor of Constsntinopls

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