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and Lo-Uperatsve Union of America Matters ;,r Especial Moment to the Progressive Agriculturist If you borrow trouble, prepare to pay the highest rate of interest. Of what use is a hot air" farm pa per? Paper the chicken house with it. It is only the unfair and jealous man who calls friendly rivalry in busi ness—fighting “Save your money and buy a farm' was pretty good advice Pity more did not heed it. More sugar for $1 and fewer free garden seeds is what the people want, Mr. Congressman A stitch in time may save nine, but unless we keep on stitching, the rent will continue to grow Just because’ a man saves his legs by riding on the plow is no sign that his brains are lazy It some folks could see themselves as otlit rs see them, they would never have any more use'for the looking glass. Sheep are not much in a fight, and ask but small returns for permitting the other fellow to do all the wool pulling. Neighbors tire sometimes envious of the money you are piling up but never of your chances of going to heaven. Take it year In and year put you will line! that a hired girl conies cheap er than patent medicine and a doctor at the last. A resolution that Invariably leads to at least partial success on the farm Is to perform every task with pains taking care. Some men think the necessities of life are those they need for their own comfort and the luxuries those their wives want. Fanning is a profession requiring more shrewdness than law, more tech ntcal training than medicine, more up rightness than theology, more brains and resourcefulness than pedagogy. It is its own reward. PROMOTE FARMER'S WELFARE St. Louis Conference Reached Conclu sion That Organization and Co Operation Must Be Perfected. That systematic organization and determined co-operation are necessary to promote the material, social and mental welfare of the fanner was em phasized at the recent meeting of the Farmers’ Educational and Co-operative Union of America, at Si Louis. Every meeting of the Farmers' union (together with the American Soviet of Equity, which met in eon Junction) resolved itself into a pb-a for organization livery speaker who touched oil till Mihji et was given the most ear. fill attention and invariably was heartily applauded, while the farmers in attendance were broad minded and lrank enough to ncknowl edge that the efforts to organize and co-operate in the past had failed, mainly because the farmers them selves had failed to live- up to their contracts and to keep their agree ments. Individual pledges were re peutedly made that hereafter farm ers would stand together and abide literally by every contract both ver bal and written. The fact was re pratedly emphasized that the farmer is the only business man in the world who does not set u price upon hi. productions, but who is compelled io take the price assigned by the pur chaser. To the end that this condition of affairs may lie done away with and tie farmer take his stand alongside of the manufacturer and all fellow cr.-a tors it was decided that organization and co-operation must be perfect I and maintained all along the line The affiliation with tie labm unb-n was simply the lirst step in this earn paign. win- m iu« m.0-,1 jira. le u addresses of the t mvi ntion was delivered I>> John A Miller, president of tin Mis t-ouri Stale union, who narrated his exporleiie* s in organizing the 1 arm era of ills community He stated that when corn was selling on tin Si Louis market at i j cents per bushel, (lie commission men in his home town offered but L! cents p. r bushel Mr Miller believed that if the farmers v.ould cooperate they could name their own price anti materially benefit themselves To this end he secured the agreement of half a dozen farmers to withhold Ironi the market 10,(101) bushels of corn util the local corn nrstion men paid approximately the St Louis market price. Two days after this agreement was entered into the commission m< n rais< d their ot fer from id to .v, cents per bushel, within two t ents of the St Louis price and Mr Miller ami his a --crimes ac cepte.l the offer ami disposed of their 10,000 bushels at an increase ot $700 for this one instance of the organiza tion Mr. Miller confessed, however, that hr tentative efforts to better the farmers' condition and to raise the price of corn fell flat because of the farmers withdrawing ftom th* ir agree, meut. Mr. Mill* r admitted that all efforts to organize and co-operate would fail as this plan failed if the farmers would not resolve to stand by their contracts and to sink or swim together 'co-operate in live stock Many Benefits to Be Derived From Community System of Work— Prices Secured. Hy K. .1 tl'DINGS. COLORADO AOItl i TI.TI li A 1, < 'OLLKGK.l Various communities in Colorado have for several years been success ful in co-operative effort for the grow ing and marketing of various kinds of melons and fruits Kx a triples are the cant, loupe growers' and the fruit growers' associations. The live stock turn have also been organized. The local stockmen’s as sociations, through a state organiza tion, an able to command many bene fits from the state that would other wise not lie secured, such its adequate records of brands, protection of fl icks from the depredations of human and other enemies, and control of disease. Through representatives in the legis lature and state administration the united live stock interests are able to secure much of the state’s aid and at tention. Co-operation in live stock work, however, can lie carried further, and another class of benefits secured. Such benefits are represented by the com munity system of work. Ninety-five per cent of the farmers of Denmark are members of co-opertitive dairies. Cattle, there, are slaughtered co-oper atively and eggs are handled by a co operative egg export society. Wau kesha rounty, Wisconsin, is breeding both 1’ercheron horses and Berkshire swine on the community plan. in using the community plan, the farmers organize In counties or other small units for the production of a certain kind or breed of live stock. If Beiaheron horses are selected the organization will buy one or more stallions and will contract in behalf of sevt ral of the farmers for a large number of pure bred mares, thereby getting tench more favorable prices than a single farmer could secure. The organization will provide for the rotation of the stallions through the district that all may secure the services of a good stallion, and yet not be forced to practise in-breeding. Once the industry is on its feet, a market must be provided. The or ganization is able to advertise for the farmers of the community much more cheaply than each can do for himself. The annual sales of pure bred stufT, widely advertised, may be conducted by the breed organization. The organization, as a rule, keeps in touch with the experiment station of the state and secures what aid and help tin' station can furnish, it also promotes the study of breeding prob lems and aids in the dissemination of knowledge of feeding and caring t'or pure k’ed animals and means for more useful and intelligent citizen- | ship. The islands of Jersey and Guernsey, j in the Knglish channel, have a world- I wide n putation for the excellence of these two breeds of cattle. Certain j districts in New York are widely ; known for Holstein cattle. Certain 1 districts in Wisconsin specialize in j Guernsey cattle and in other lines, : as be; ere me ntioned The 1) iroc-Jer soy intn of tin Arkansas valley, Col orado. are now organized. No don’ t other communities will find it wise and pi ofltable to specialize on a cer- j tiiin It- e<l or breeds and promote the ; specialty b\ organized effort. Brood Sows. In selecting gilts front any young lit ter for raising as breeders, the number of teats should always be ascertained. A sow can rear no more little ones than she has teats, for i rich keeps jeal ously to its own. says the Rural World of Kngland. And. singularly enough, if one of the litter dies, it Is rarely, ii ever, that one of the sur viving youngsters takes to the spare teat Tie- number of teats that sows have varies from 10 to lti, hut 14 is quite a goodly array. The numbers vary with the breeds a bit, and most of our big. free-breeding sows are pretty well furnished with teats. This is as it should lie, else many a little ptvg.v would come on tin si ne with no font to run to. Good Draft Horses. A h--; vy draft h< rse should he long rihbi <1 If a horse is short ribbed be i is light iti his middle and i m arly al : wavs a poor fm ih-r His stomach is 1 too small to contain erne gh feed to - -- \e him from m • non! to another When put iii'o liard work lie general j ly has a fagged out appearance. A light ci nteied horse seldom weighs j well, and weight in a draft horse, R ;t conies from hone sinew and mine i ole, goes a long way toward deter mining his eoininen-ial value Co-Operative Creameries. Nine co-operative creameries in the j northern part oi Iowa have organized | what is called the Northern Iowa j I >: . i y association. This is not a| i-t, but the patrons of these cream cries joined together and hired an ex i ii. n dairyman to go among them and teach them better methods of dairy j liit: than the. In g ru ral use Tilt* is entirely a new venture and the r© suits will he wall in d with In' -rest. Dairymen Form Combination. The milk producers in various part: of the country are forming strong com binations to enable them to get a j least tair prices from the city dis tributors. In Chicago and some othei Large cities, independent distributing 1 companies, whose stockholders are ai i tariuers, are being formed. FARM By t n T W MW— ill —EM Tir Ml I»I m II ■ Give the chicks grii. Little pigs like green feed. The young horse has many things to learn. Skim milk is good for the chickens this time of year. The root maggot of cabbage comes .roiii the egg of a fly. The dwarf nasturtium makes an ex sellout border plant of medium size. A very desirable and useful tool which is not found on all farms is a level. The finer the teeth of the cultivator the finer and more satisfactory the work. • n the training of colts a blow 'houb] never be struck, or a loud or violent word used. Stale drinking vessels breed disease A few cents’ worth of disinfectants will soon save dollars' worth of poul try. It pays to keep livestock on the 'arm for the manure they make and he unmarketable feeds they can turn nto money. A thorough investigation of the methods of feeding young turkeys shows to what extent general rules ire followed. Three harrowlngs of young corn may be given, one just before the corn s up, and one when the young plants ire several Inches high. There is a very laudable movement tow in progress among the shippers of fresh fruits looking to the uniformity if packing and the standardization of fruit. The work team should have a little exercise every day and not stand day after day In the stable and then be taken out and made to do a heavy day s work. Th" beef raiser who alms at the greatest po.- tide probr from his busi ness must use little i specially adapt 'd to th " purpose and p rfi. ted to a ai ,b <b grot-. Corn should be cut for th>> ~ilo when it is iairly wi 11 matured, that is, when the kernels are in what 1 known its the dough stay.-," all or nearly all of the kernels being denti d. Clover and rape seeded for hog or alf pas' ,re make cheap feed. A small patch of this will save the buying of t good deal of bran and other concen trates. a dollar saved is two dollars earm d. I he best way to begin the poultry business is in a small way. As you I arn iron; experience, the best teach er. you can increa-e your flock and Ibid out the be. t. markets for your products. Spring pics can g< t along verv well without l eper. e\op' from rain, until fall, then if you are so shiftless a- to fail to pi , j,| ■ I , ; vr tlie\ are better able to stand the cold and rain. Hut they will not thrive. Drones usually take their flight during the middle part of the day, mostly from ten to three o'clock during a warm, pleasant day, when they can he s> en flying in large nuns hirs in front of the hives and over the apiary . Water in the sell is continually on tie imwi', omei hues fast and at other times slow. r When it stops raining au l the surface of the soil becomes dry, then the moisture in the earth begins to move upward, from one soil particle to another, by capilarity. There are many other and better uses for flowers than to pile on cof fins tit funerals. They an « . ,mt for living folks Then let us have some in our front yard, y and the hack yard too. and under tin* eav< s it the side of the house and over by the gul den fence, it is a thousand times bet ter to grow flowers for your family to enjoy while they nr a l i \. than to buy them at ~'i cents a dozen to pile on their graves after tln-y are dead. Fine celery can be grown as easily as any garden v. g aiiib, if one has go'd plants, by heavy mulching lie tween the rows when the plants are six to twelve inches high, and by pour ing water or house wastes over the mulch during the summer. This does not take much time for a small family bed. Celery can be well blanched by setting boards along the rows. ' Keep lip the fight against lie©. A good dairy sire is always desired. It is useless to try to pet a hungry I animal. Steel cut oatmeal stands foremost as a tiny chick food. _ Strawberry plants may be set out as late as the middle of summer. _ I The foliage of the nasturtium is ('finally as beautiful as the blossoms. Turkeys are perhaps the most prof itable of poultry kind if properly han dled. Burnt wheat may be fed if fowls eat it readily—that is, good conditioned I fowls. _ i Dried red blood, meat meal and hoof meal contain from 10 to 11 per cent, of nitrogen. Morses very often lose their eyesight through dust and hay seed farting into their eyes from the loft above. A new style In baby beef has been set. The kind that Is going to market at present is the 300 to 500-pound ; type. It is easily possible almost every where to make a hon produce three dollars' worth of eggs a year on $1.50 worth of feed. Soy beans require conditions and cultivation similar to those required by corn. Good preparation of the soil is nooesary. For dry and cloddy corn fields, either before or after the corn is planted, a heavy roller is better than either the harrow or drag. Barnyard manure adds quite a little plant food to the sol! besides contain ing considerable organic matter which will go toward the formation of hu mus. To secure the greatest benefit from a green manuring crop care must be taken in turning it under to have the soil harrowed and packed as fast as it Is plowed. A proper handling of the milk ts most essential Too often it is drawn from the cow in stables in which the air is filled with dust and put in un clean vessels. Live stock needs water r.t all sea sons, but water during warm weather is more essential. P epnro now for a good water supply for the animals during the summer months. The color of milk does not Indicate the richness of it. Oftentimes milk which is rich is blue in color and of*> ntiuit's milk which is yellow and riclt looking is of a rather poor qual ity. Proam, on the average, will weigh about eight pounds to the gallon, but it varies, according to the per cent, of butter Lit which it contains. It is well known that butter fat is lighter than milk. Success in poultry culture Is simply tin ri ■<ij 11 of looking after all the little de-alls r-onnerted with the business. Anyone can bo successful if he will use a little diligence and common sens* Most of tjie brood mares in tho central west are dual purpose in char acter They not on'y raise colts but me r of them put In eight or tmi hours of strenuous labor every day after the colt is ten days or two weeks old. Fertilizers too rich in nitrogen she ;id not he applied to the field in tended for oats, because the growth will he too rank and the production of grain will tie retarded. The same is true in a very limited measure of corn. If young hogs are kept In close con finement and fed heavily on corn alone, the) will most likely develop leg weakness, as they require nitro genous foods In which sklmmllk should take a large par*. In order to grow good, solid bones. Not how much, but how well. Is a good motto for folks who are In the chicken business. Better to hatch and raise a small number of fine, thrifty early chickens than to hatch a hun dred or two and lose or stunt them for lack of care or suitable accommo dat Ions. Wheat containing kinghead seed is cut in price, because it is almost im possible to remove them, and if they are ground with the wheat the flour is discolored and lowered in grade It is an annual, living only one year Horn the seed. It infests tho border , ,f sin unis In any region where rains , ;utso surfftee flooding This is be - the seeds have air chambers ini-mod by the surrounding seed coat and tire king points or crown. Beet ground ought to he thorough!) rolled and packed with Just an inch or two on top of line mellow dirt. Nc iii tillage tools ought to be used in preparing land for beets, except in I plowing The plowing might to be a good depth, but after that work the vui lace and thoroughly pack the sub , soil. One man skilled in raising sugai beets says that the ground ought tr be so thoroughly packed and preparer that when the hurras walk over It is drilling, their feet ought uot to si .k into the ground. PRACTICAL SOLUTION OF GOOD ROADS PROBLEM Highways Belong to Everybody, and Government, State - Townships Should Contribute Their C n<* Respective Shares. Smoothi <Ry HOWARD H. GROSS.) 1 The split log drag is a very vain- j able road implement which, if intel ligently and persistently used, will be of great benefit to the highways, and Mr. King, the man who produced it, is entitled to the thanks of the pub lic. The writer is glad to take off his j hat to him. Tiie road drag, however, is being | greatly overworked so far as the | press is concerned and sadly under- j worked upon the highways. We ought ; to understand once for all that the | road drag is not the solution of the | good roads problem, it is merely one i of several steps before we reach sat- , isfactory conditions. Such headline j as "Good Roads Without Money" are j tommy-rot, and do more harm than 1 good. No community ever had or ever will have good roads without j paying for them, and good roads are expensive. We may as well make up j our minds to that first as last; we j cannot get something for nothing, and it is foolish to try. Let us be sen sible. practical and conservative and meet the good roads question as it j ought to be met, with stout hearts j and a well defined, comprehensive , plan and an adequate scheme of fi j nancing tlie proposition. Every few days we note in the press clippings where the business j men's association of some town or ! city lias passed the hat and raised ! one or two thousand dollars for road i improvement. This is good so far as it goes, but it is only a drop in the j bucket. You could not make bricks I without straw in the olden days, and you cannot build good roads now without money, and stone, gravel, brick or its equivalent is necessary. The writer has spent years in the study of the good roads problem, and | particularly as to the best method of I financing the same, and how this tre- | mendous burden should be taken up and carried. Space does not permit going into details. It is not fair nor equitable to ex | pent the farmers unaided to build and j care for the roads. The roads belong ! to everybody. The government use-| most of the main highways for rural mail delivery. It has authority to j build and maintain post roads, lienee 1 the government can, and in the judg ment of the writer should, use its rev enue and credits to help build tin roads it uses. I he state | also help by either a tax, or still better, I a long time bond issue placed against till the property of the state. The initiative, and one-tihrd of the ex pense, should be left to the people of the respective townships where (In roads are located More titan three-fourths of the ] traffic passes over one-fourth of the I road mileage. If these main high ways were improved the good roads ! question would be practically solved. About 150,000 miles of good roads have already been constructed in the United States If 400,000 more were built it would give 550,000, miles of Improved highways out of about 2, 220,000. This would cover the main highways The cost of construction would be anywhere from $1,000 to $8,0011 a mile; the average something less than $4,000. lienee if the fed eral government should assume one third the expense of improving this 400,000 miles of road, it would require approximately $5,000,000,iiiii) to do so. The federal government can borrow ng Drag. this money at from 2U to 3 per ce , The higher rate would impose an il terost charge of $15,000,000 per year There are neaVly 100,000,000 of'peo! pic now to pay it and soon there will he more. Upon this basis the annual tax for interest would be 15 cents pe person. p r The secretary of agriculture say. that the loss due to bad roads Is more ihan $3.50 per person per year. Sena tor Bankhead of Alabama, a man who has given the subject a great deal of thought, says good roads would save the government between $7 000000 and $&,000,000 per year on the cost of rural delivery alone. This is one half the interest charge on the bonds. Good roads make the parcel post ros sible. The state of Illinois, for instance, could follow ttie example of New York to advantage and issue $25,000,000 to $30,000,000 of bonds to h.-lp build the roads. A tax rate of six-tenths of a mill would carry the bonds aDd pay them off in due course within 30 or 40 years. This state tax on an at erage 100 acre farm would be less than $2 a year. It would never be felt. With two-thirds the money supplied as indicated, the township could take tip the building of hard roads to the full constitutional limit and in 10 or 12 years all the main roads of the state could be improved as first-class gravel or stone roads, and have then all paid-for within 25 or 30 years, ma king a fair distribution between the present taxpayers and those who come after us. The burden would be so distributed that no one would feet it. Ten cents per acre per year would pay the total farm tax re mitred. The economies resulting from the building of roads would pay for then many times over, and the building o( the roads would add to the value of the property of the state and the na tion several times the amount of money expended to build them. Good roads are an Investment and not an expense. If the federal government were to Issue the $r,u i,uoti,iie i of bonds, the bonded debt p>-r capita would be only one third that of (',< rn any. one-fifth to that of Great liritain and one-nicth of France. M any hands make lie lit work, let all join in the work and let half tbo I'xpens" go on to the next generation, As an implement for breaking dowi small clods and making a line level surface the smoothing drag as shcn in the illustration, is worthy of » place on the farm. It is made of pieces *1 by G inches about 8 feet il length bound together by cross piece* C c Iron pieces w ith . yes as ibowi at A are used for th«* hitch. i Variety of Vegetables. Plan for a varlt ty of vegetables. Tff Swiss chard, kale, endive, HruM« - [.routs and others not usually fix* In the home gardens. V«ceM» which aru liked the best by your to ily should be planted lu smcessi* This matter Is too often overlook There might he a line lot of two weeks, but why not have then W two or three months Such (’r°f18 peas, bush beans, sweet corn, and radishes should be planted * j ten als of t« n days or two weeki supply a succession. PLACE MILK IN COLD WATER yi u/i The boat results In keeping milk ■sweet and maintaining the highest sjuallty of cream are obtained by a^r *' 14 Thew ting the cans In cold Wa tie H as shown should be near and Ice house.