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The Nevada County picayune. (Prescott, Ark.) 190?-current, September 13, 1910, Image 3

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The Caves of Konosu.
Less than two hours by rail brought
to Konosu. from which point we
Lk hasha. A basha is an ugly one
horse wagon, with a wooden cover;
passenger, enter from tb- rear by
means of a step; the driver sits on a
front seat; two seats run lengthwise
If the body of the vehicle, each suf
ficient for three medium-sized Jap
anese six passengers, then, is the
supposed and intended limit of ca
pacity, and for comfort they should
be little passengers. The basha was
waiting close by the station, two pas
sengers already in their seats. The
driver had a load of freight with him
In front, and when we stepped in he
started promptly on the six or-seven
mile drive that lay before him. We
ourselves were bound for the famous
caves five miles from Konosu village,
and a little before the terminus of the
basha line. We had gone no great
distance before we picked up two
more pus-tug rs, and our little wagon
was more than comfortably tilled. We
rode nut through a level country occu
pied by rice fields. It is the time of
rice harvest. In all the little fields
men, women and children were busy.
Horses were being brought in, loaded
down with sheaves of the yellowed
grain In yards about houses and out
houses shocks were spread out to dry.
Handfuls of the loaded stalks were
taken and drawn through coarse metal
combs to separate the grains; these
still in the husk were further cleaned
bv flailing with flails quite like those
of Europe of a hundred years gone
by. Two or three or more persons
threshed in unison or alternately, and
a pretty sight it was to see the move
ment of the falling instrument and to
note the rhythm.
When it had accomplished half its
course, the basha stopped for Its
midway rest. An old woman brought
out a tabako-bon at which the passen
gers might warm their hands or light
thirty years ago and public attention
called to them by Professor Tsubol
of the Imperial university. There
has been a good deal of discussion in
regard to their use. Tsubol himself
believes that they were dwelling
Places, and attributes them to a pre
Ainu population. Most writers, how
ever, among them Aston and Basil
Hall Chamberlain, consider them the
burial places of an olden time. They
have been taken possesion of by the
public authorities and are maintained
at government expense. Stopping at
the office where we paid the trifling
fee demanded from visitors, amounting
to one cent of our own money, we be
gan to climb about the face of the
white cliff It Is perhaps 100 to 150
feet in height. Chamberlain says that
■ t is “a gray, tufaceous sandstone,”
which we are in no position to deny.
■ t is soft, especially when moist and
not < xposed to the open air; it Is
probable that It is easily excavated by
means of a cutting instrument—
knife, or even spade. The cliff pre
sents itself in two slightly separated
faces exposed to the midday sun; that
is, facing southward. Where dry and
long exposed the material is almost
chalky white and nearly hard. At
the base and on the summit of the
■ ldge and on the slopes beyond the
exposed cliff faces there Is a growth
of pines sprinkled with maples,
the latter of which were in flue color
ing. There is comparative!} little
diversity in the caves. They have
rectangular openings ranging from
l\ia to U feet or so in height and
of somewhat lesser breadth. Very
commonly there is a ledge or platform
preceding the doorway and excavated
from the mass Itself; passing through
the little door, one finds himself in a
small rectangular vaulted chamber;
the floor, level with the bottom of the
entrance doorway, forms usually a
narrow aisle running from the front
A Shlmadal.
their cigarettes. She also served hot
tea and little cakes. Those who
wished to avail themselves of the re
freshment did so, and left upon the
*ray on which the tea was served five
fin (one quarter cent) or one sen
(one half cent) as they chose. Our
animal was a sorry one, our progress
■low and jerky. Long before we
reached the eaves we looked anxious
ly for some sign of their existence.
The country through which we rode
•eemed unfavorable for caves. It
was an almost level plain, and the
only hills of consequence seemed In
deed far distant. Just before us,
however, waa n little Irregularity
which looked promising, and, as wo
came nearer, we found that there was
■ low ridge of considerable extent,
composed of soft calcareous or arena
ceous rocks. This we followed for
•ome little distance, and nt last, after
making a considerable detour about
Its base, we suddenly saw, off to our
eight, a beautiful rocn cliff, almost
white In the bright sunshine, which
•■as perforated by scores and scores
cf small rectangular openings. There 1
were so many of them, and they were
so close to each other as almost to
Warrant the expression “honey- i
combed" in reference to the cliff We
bad not been prepared for seeing so
many at one time In so small n
■pace. We knew. Indeed, that almost
40h caves existed In this immediate
neighborhood, but had supposed that
they would extend over a considerable
The driver of the basha told us that
be should return at 2:30, and that he
would expect us nt that time If we
wished to make the train, as the
basha was punctual In Its service and
he would have no time to wait for us
If we were tardy. It was but a few
minutes’ walk from the place where
we descended to the cave*.
These caves were discovered some
to the rear of the cave; on either side
of it there Is a platform or bed of
the original rock some eight inches to
a foot higher than the floor; these
platforms are usually bordered by a
narrow rim or margin 1% to 2 inches
wide rising above their general level.
While this form may perhaps be eon
sldered typical many of the caves
hnv but one platform or bed instead
of two; a very few havo three, the
third transverse witn reference to the
others and at the rear of the apart
ment. Of course, where there is but a
single platform-bed the flooring of the
central aisle Is extended over the re
maining section of the room. The
chambers range perhaps from six to
eight feet square to twelve; the usual
height at the highest part is from six
to seven feet. At the office we had
Been some undent pots-presumably
found In connection with the caves.
We had time to examine perhaps
twenty of these curious affairs Per
sonally we are inclined to believe with
Tsubol. and against almost general
contrary opinion, in the Idea that
• hey were dwelling places originally.
It was no uncommon thing among
cave-dwelling peoples for the old cave
to he afterwards used for burial pur
poses. and it is possible that such has
been the case In this locality But.
that the chambers were originally
made for living and not dead per
sons. seems to us quite clear. 1 he
fact that practically all of the neatly
400 caves face southward is a strong
argument for this point of view; the
living call for the surfs warmth and
ll„ht' the dead need no heat. The
raised platforms usually bordered by
narrow elevated margin seem to
‘ intended for beds or sleeping
i a They are curiously like the
claimed, the Japanese name tok»
* means a sleeping place 1t
Z™ not be inappropriate to apply
the term directly tothese curious con
structions. While w* agree complete
ly with Tsuboi in his Idea that these
little caves are sleeping-places, we
are by no means equally convinced
that they were made for or by n pre
Aftiu population
From the caves to the highroad is
j a matter of five minutes’ walk. At a
• midway point is another curious and
| Interesting object. Whatever may be
the material of the ridge in which the
caves occur, a neighboring ridge Is
composed of calcareous material with
flimsy nodules scattered through it.
This limey- lidge Is cut by a narrow
gulf, and in this gulf is perched a lit
tle temple or rather shrine to the
goddess of mercy, Kwannon. The lit
tle shrine Is wedged in between the
rock walls in queer and pretty fash
Ion, and is raised high on a cobwork
of supporting poles and posts. To
reach it one climbs up a rickety stair
way. When he reaches the level of
the little shrine he sees excavated in
the cleft of rock behind him a little
niche in which Is a strong figure of
the goddess. The shrine is in no way
of special importance or interest apart
from its picturesque position. There
seems to be no resident priest or
caretaker, and the place is sadly neg
lected. The shed before the altar
contains indeed some curious votives,
among them a great board on which
are represented in brilliant colors and
poor art the heads of something like
300 horses, each accompaned by a
written name. Why- these horses
should be here represented by a
votive we cannot say, but Interesting
surmises might be framed. On either
side of the supporting cobwork there
are cavities within the limestone rock.
One ot them is directly under the shrine
itself The other has been cut into
the opposite wall of the rock cleft
diagonally through to the natural
front face of the ridge. In both these
cavities there are today ranged great
numbers of little figures of the kind
ly goddess. They make a strange im
pression of loneliness here in their
chilly, unsunned, neglected caves.
But we hear the tin horn of the
basha driver, hasten back to the road
side, and crowd our way into the un
fortunate vehicle.
Japan is a great country of con
noisseurs and collectors; it Is a land
of perennial exhibits Yesterday we
bad the pleasure of seeing a curious
collection by a well-known connois
seur, a man of wealth, education and
position. It was the collection of
toys of Marquis Tokugavva. The
marquis is a younger member of the
family of the last of the Shoguns of
Japan. He has a beautiful property
behind the Shiba park. On his prop
erty a large building is devoted to
his private library, one of the best In
all Japan. He is interested in vari
ous subjects in ethnography and an
tkropology, and among other things
has made a very considerable collec
tion of toys, not only Japanese, hut
from all portions of the world. These
have been on exhibition to invited
guests for the past three days, and
it was this exhibition that we had
the pleasure of seeing.
There had been a large attendance
of visitors, and printed catalogues
were given to all. Several large halls
were devoted to the display which
was arranged upon a series of tables
and to some degree upon the walls.
A classification had been adopted, and
the specimens arranged w ith reference
to it Japan, as everyone knows, is a
veritable children's paradise. Nothing
is too good for the little ones. From
the hi ginning of the year at January
1, with its kites and battledore and
shuttlecock, on to the closing of the
year, the childrens’ year is marked
by a succession of toys appropriate
to the season. Lafcadio Hearne never
wearied of mentioning the variety and
daintiness of these devices Well,
here they were displayed In all va
riety. Notable ,of course, were the
different kinds of dolls. In which
Japan delights There are dolls In old
families that have boon passed on
from generation to generation through
200 years. In the dolls of such col
lections one may follow something of
the history of hairdressing among
these people There are dolls of
every size from little creatures less
t)mn a half inch In height to dolls as
large ns the children for whose amuse
mont they were fabricated. Most curi
ous perhaps of all are the dolls with
little heads of peas, and clothes of
ancient .damasks and brocades; these
are 200 years or more of age. Also
notable among the toys of Japan are
the great variety and range of wire
puzzles; we have ourselves some of
these, but In comparison with the
Japanese ours are nothing In kite
flying perhaps no people reach the
Chinese, but certainly the Japanese
are a close second. The walls of a
whole hall were occupied with dif
ferent types of kites
The local variation of toys In Japan
is rather interesting. The same toy
may have characteristic differences In
different areas. A whole room was
devoted, in connection with the ex
titbit to a great table-map of the em
„ire'and upon this map were care
fully arranged In geographical posi
tion the characteristic types of some
of the more common toys, giving a
most suggestive Illustration of the
difference in art ideals and technique.
'* will he seen that the marquis has
an educational Idea underlying his dls
nlav In a handsome lecture hall in
[he library building, during the three
days of the exhibit, lectures were
given upon the subject of toys In
their historical, ethnological and edu
cational aspects. When we were
there yesterday a professor of the
Women's Normal school was ipMk
Inn to an audience of perhaps 200
persons upon the subject of the edu
rational meaning and value of chll
djpsn's toys
tCQlJ right. 1*10. by W. O. Chapman.)
In the Case of Colored Fabrics ti Is
Ecst to Leave It to Pro
While there :.:e simple home reme
dies for stains that are apt to be suc
cessful It is the wisest and most eco
nomical plan In the end to take the
soiled garment at once to a profes
sional. In some eases the exportment
ifg at heme results In Hie ruin of the
entire garment. This Is especially
free in regard to colored fabrics.
White goods may he safely treated
at home, hut In the ease of colored
materials o: e has not only to consid
er the nature of the stain, but also
the color of the goo-ds The stain may
ho obliterated by certain applications,
but frequently the color comes away
also or changes fo another tone. The
original color may he restored hy an
application of a solution of one part
of ammonia in twenty parts of water.
Should this fall try ether or chloro
form, keeping away from the fire
during the process. If the stain re
fuses to respond there is nothing to
do but to consult a professional, but
he will charge more than he would
had the fresh stain been brought to
May Be Better Than the Old Methods,
and Anyway Is Well Worth
T rying.
Pake two cakes of compressed yeast
in a cupful of blood-warm water, with
two teaspoonfuls of granulated sugar.
I.i t it stand about fifteen minutes.
Now sift a bowl full of flour, about
two quarts, make hollow in center,
into which place one tablespoonful of
salt, one-quarter cupful of sugar, and
a tablespoonful of lard. Melt the lard
if you like. Now two cupfuls of milk
and one of water, heat inilk in water
until blood warm, and if you use kss
milk just add more warm water;
place this in the bowl with the yenst
added- and mix gradually with the
flour (I use a wood paddle for this.
A paint paddle which conies with a
fresh ran of paint with holes In It is
excellent for this and rosts nothing, as
you can get one for the asking at any
department store) until it can be
handled. Place back in the bowl,
cover with the bread board, and let it
stand 15 minutes. This is necessary,
as this does the work of kneading
Now butter raising bowl, place dough
in and turn over to butter top; let
raise again and bake. This recipe
makes four medium-sized loaves.—Chi
cago Tribune.
Apple Kucken.
One quart of bread flour, 1 cup of
sugar, 1 teaspoon salt; sift into a
large bowl and rub In cup of but
teh; add ifc cup raisins washed and
cut in halves, grated rind and half
the juice of 1 lemon; beat 2 eggs and
add to a cup of warm milk and 1 yeast
cake dissolved in warm water; mix all
together and cover and raise over
night; in the morning turn out onto
floured board and divide into fi pieces,
shape each piece and roll out with
rolling pin to fit either an oblong or
round tin; brush the tops with melted
butter and cover with sliced apples,
with cinnamon and sugar sprinkled
on top; let rise light and hake a nice
brown: when done sprinkle top with
powdered sugar.
Wild Grape Marmalade.
Take the wild green grapes, cut
open with a small knife and remove
the seeds. Allow a pound of sugar to
each pound of fruit. Cut the grapes In
the preserving kettle with a little wa
ter and boll twenty minutes. Add the
sugar and cook until a drop poured In
a cold saucer will hold Its shape. Re
move at once and pour In cups or
glasses. In putting up the winter
store of jellies it is always a good plan
to fill some small cheese pots or egg
cups for use In the children's lunch
Baked Cauliflower Caper Sauce.
After boiling the cauliflower until
tender In salted water, drain well
and mash into a Bmootli paste. Add
one cup of thick white sauce, five
eggs well beaten, salt, pepper and
nutmeg. MIX well and poud Into a
well buttered baking dish, and hake
ten minutes. Just before serving take
out of the oven and let stand a few
minutes before turning out on a plat
ter, when it should t>. covered with
a thick white sauce to which capers
have been added, and sprinkle with;
Cough Syrup.
Thkc four tablespoons of the cough
sirup each day, one after each meal
and one before retiring More would
not Injure you. A cough remedy that
has been used In our family with good
results 1b: Boll 1 lemon whole (skin
and all) In a quart of water untH soft,
then eut lemon Into small pieces, add
a cup of sugar, and drink as often as
needed. Above all, don't neglect to
be out of doors all the time If pos
Biscuit Gtaee,
One and a half pints cream. 12
ounces sugar, yolks of eight eggs, one
tablespoonful extraot of vanilla.
Hound six ounces crisp macaroons to
fine dust. MU cream, sugar, oggs and
extract. Place on lire and atlr compo
sition until I* begins to thicken Strain
and run through a fine sieve Into a
basin. Put Into lKWW. When near
ly froton mix In macaroon dust, an
other tablespoonful extract vanliia god
finish. freeslDi
1 >
Americans In Canada Not Asked to
Forget That They Were Born
Farm produce today t* remunera
tive. and this helps to make farm life
agreeable. Those who are studying
the economic* of the day tell u* that
the strength of tho nation lies In the
cultivation of the soil. Farming is no
longer a hand-tomouth existence. It
means Independence, often- affluence,
but certainly Independence.
Calling at a farm house, near one of
the numerous thriving town* of Al
berta, In Western Canada, the writer
was given a definition of "indepen
dence" that was accepted as quite
original. The broad acres of the farm
er's land had a crop—and a splendid
one, too, by the way—ripening for tho
reapers' work. The evenness of the
crop, covering field after field, attract
ed attention, as did also the neatness
of the surroundings, the well-built sub
stantial story and-a-half log house, and
the well-rounded sides of the cattle.
His broken English—ho was a French
Canadian—was easily understandable
and pleasant to listen to. lie had
come there from Montreal a year ago,
had paid $20 an acre for tho 320-acre
farm, with the little Improvement It
had. He had never farmed before, yet
his crop was excellent, giving evi
dence as to the quality of tho soil, and
the good Judgment that hod been used
In Its preparation. And brains count
In farming as well as “brow." Asked
how he liked It there, he straightened
hi* broad shoulders, and with hand
outstretched towards the waving fields
of grain, this young French Canadian,
model of symmetrical build, replied:
"Be gosh, yes, we like him—the
farmin’—well, don’t we, Jeannette?"
as he smilingly turned to the young
wife standing near. She had accom
panied him from Montreal to his far
west home, to assist him by her w ifely
help and companionship, In making a
new home in this new land. "Yes, we
come here wan year ago, and we never
farm before. Near Montreal, me
father, he kep de gris' mill, an' de
cardin' mill, an' be gosh! he run de
cheese factor’ too. Ho work, an’ me
w'ork, an’ us work tarn har’, be gosh!
Us work for de farmer; well ’den,
Eometin’ go not always w'at you call
Luiiuairs of Yirld of Whrai in YYrctrrn < inadi for
1910 More Thin One Humlrrii Million Bushels
de‘ right, an' de farmer he say de'
mean t’ing, be gosh! and tell ua go to
—well, anyway he tarn mad. Now,"
and then he waved his hand ug&tn
towards the fields, “I 'ave no bodder,
no cardin' mill, no grls' mill, no cheese
factor’. I am now de farmer man an'
when me want to. me can say to de
Oder follow! you go--! Well, we
like him—the farmin’.’’ Ahd that was
a good definition of Independence.
Throughout a trip of several hun
dred miles In the agricultural district
of Western Canada, the writer found
the farmers In excellent spirits, an
optimistic fueling being prevalent
everywhere. It will be Interesting to
the thousands on the American side
of the line to know that their role
tives and friends are doing well there*
that they have made their home In a
country that stands up bo splendidly
under what baa been trying conditions
In most of the northwestern part of
the farming districts of the continent.
With the exception of some portions
of Southern Alberta, and also a por
tion of Manitoba and Southern Sas
katchev'Xn the grain crops could be
described as fair, good and excellent.
The sa*he drought that affected North
and South Dakota, Montana, Minne
sota, Wisconsin and other of tho
northern central states extended over
Into a portion of Canada Just men
tioned. But In these portions the
crops tor the past four or five years
were spivlidid and the yields good.
The great province of Saskatchewan
has suffered less from drought In pro
i portion to her area under cultivation
than either of the other provinces On
the other hand, Instead of the drought
being confined very largely to the
south of the main line of the C. P. R
It Is to be found In patches right
through the center of northern Sas
katchewan also. In spite of this, how
ever, Saskatchewan has a splendid
crop. A careful checking of the aver
ages of yield, with the acreages In the
different districts, gives an average
yield of IBVfc bushels to the sere.
In 8outhern Alberta one-fifth of the
winter wtcat will not be out, or h?a
been re-sown to fced. There are In*
dividual crops whld- will run as high
as 45 bushels on acre# Of 500 and 1,000
acres, but there ore others which will
drop as low' as 15. A safe average for
winter wheat will be 19 bushels. The
sample Is exceptionally fine, excepting
in a few cases where It has been wrin
kled by extreme heat.
The northern section of Alberta has
been naturally anxious to Impress the
world with the fact that It has not
suffered from drought, and this is quite
true. Wheat crops run from 20 to 30
bushels to an acre, but In a report
such as this It Is really only possible
to deal with the province as a whole
and while the estimate may seem very
low to the people of Alberta, It Is fair
to the province throughout.
When the very light rainfall and
other eccentricities of the past season
are taken Into account. It seems noth
ing short of a miracle that the Cana
dian West should have produced 103
million bushels of wheat, which is
less than 18 million bushels short of
the crop of 1909. It Is for the West
generally a paying crop and perhaps
the best advertisement the country
has ever had, ns It shows that no mat
ter how dry the year, with thorough
tillage, good seed and proper methods
of conserving the moisture, a crop can
always be produced.
As somo evidence of the feeling of
the fnrmers, are submitted letters
written by farmers but a few days
ago, and they offer the best proof that
can be given.
Maidstone. Sask., Aug. 4, TO.
I cnmo to Maidstone from Menomi
nee, AVIs., four years ago, with my
parents and two brothers. AA'e all lo
cated homesteads at that time and
now have our patents. The soil Is a
rich black loam as good as I have ever
seen. Wo have had good crops each
year and In 1909 they wero exceeding
ly good. Wheat yielding from 22 to 40
bushels per acre and oats from 40 to
80. AA’o are well pleased with the
country and do not care to roturn to
our native stato. I certainly believe
that Saskatchewan Is Just the place
for a hustler to get a start and make
himself a home. AVages here for farm
labor range from $35 to $45 per
month. Lee Dow.
Tofleld. Alberta. July 10, 1910.
1 am a native of Texas, tho largest
and one of the very best states of tho
Union. I have been here three years
and have not one desire to return to
tho States to live. There Is no placo
1 know of that offers such splendid
Inducements for capital, brain and
brawn. 1 would like to say to all who
are not satisfied where you are. make
a trip to Western Canada; If you do
not like It you will feel well repaid
for your trip. Take this from ono
who's on the ground. AVe enjoy splen
did government, laws, school, railway
facilities, health, and last, but not
least, an Ideal climate, and this from
a Texan. O. L. Pughs.
James Normur of Porter, Wisconsin,
after visiting Dauphin, Manitoba,
says; "I have been in Wisconsin >5
years, coming out from Norway. Never
have I seen better land and the crops
In East Dauphin are better than I
have ever seen, especially the oats.
There Is moro straw and It has heav
ier heads than ours In AA'tseonsIn.
“This Is Just the kind of land wo
are looking for. AVe aro all used to
mixed farming nnd the land we havs
seen Is finoly adapted to that sort of
work Cattle, hogs, horses and grain
will be my products, and for the llvo
stock, prospects could not be better.
I have never seen such cattle as ars
raised hero on the wild prairie grasses
and the vetch that stands three or
four feet high In the groves and on
tho open prairie.
3ir Wilfred Laurler Talks to Amts
Sir Wilfred Lnurier, Premier of
Canada, Is now making a tour of
Western Canada and In the course of
his tour he has visited manf of the
districts In which Americans have set'
tied. He expresses himself as highly
pleased with them. At Craig, Sas
katchewan, the American settlers
Joined with the others In an address
of welcome. In replying Sir Wilfred
said In part:
"I understand that many of you
have come from the great Republlo
| to the south of us—a land which Is
akin to us by blood and tradition. I
hope that In coming from a free coun
try you realize that you come also to
another free country, and that aV
though you came from a republic you
have come to what is a crowned
democracy. Tho King, our sovereign,
has perhaps not so many powers as
the President of the United States,
hut whether we are on the one side
of the line or the other, ws are all
j brothers by blood, by kinship, by ties
of relationship. In coming here as
1 you have come and becoming natural
ised cttlsens of this country no one de
sires you to forget the land of your
ancestors. It would be a poor mas
who would not always have In his
heart a fond afTeetfen for the land
which he came from The two greatest
countries today are certainly the
United Kingdom of Oreat Britain and
Ireland and the Republic of the Unit
ed States. Let them be united to
gether and the peace of the world
will be forever assured.
“I hope that In coming here as you
have, you have found liberty, Justlc*
and equality of rights. In this coun
try, as In your own, you know nothing
of separation of creed and race, for
you are all Canadians here. And If
I may express a wish It Is that you
would become a* good Canadians as
you have been good Americans and
that you may yet remain good Amer
icana. We do not want you to forget
what you have been; but we want you
to look more to the future than to th«
past. Let me, before we part, tender
you the sincere expression of my
warmest grstltude for your reception.”

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