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; Farmers’ Educational
j [nl and Co-Operative Union of America _ Matters Especial Moment to u the Progressive Agriculturist A full pockctbook makes a sleepy conscience. To a brave hearted man his farm Is his country. A drop In the bucket Is worth a whole haK pint in the whisky barrel. This fall will witness the long need ed and general conservation of the straw shark. A hen as a bird Is a poor singer, hut nobody objects to the practise she Indulges In. All Is not gold that glitters, but a good many people take comfort In thinking so. The conservationists who forget to conserve men miss the prime end of all conservation. A thick coat of manure on the corn land means warm coats for mother and the girls next winter. If you fool with every agent that •omes along some agent Is sure to come along who will fool you. Some men are sure they were meant for a better world because they have made such a mess of this one. Just as soon as a man Is at* old as he wanted to be he Is suro to begin wishing he were younger than he is A merry heart doeth good like a medicine. Cultivate the habit of cheer fulness, It Is contagious and should bo cultivated. It Is good business to get a good thing for the least possible money, and there Isn't any secret In how to go about It. The farm workman who Is always afraid he will do more than he Is paid for. Is not going about It In the right wny to get more pay. Most of ns like to say mean things shout rich men, but very few there sre who would refuse to change places with them. If we had the chance. Nine times out of ten. bad luck Is nothing less than shiftlessness. There are a great many more fools In the world than wise men. but the latter manage to control things pretty much their own way. PROGRESS MADE IN DAIRYING Probably Greatest Advance Achieved in Co-operative Enterprises In That Industry. Probably the greatest advance In co operative enterprises among American farmers, with the possible exception of fruit growers, is found In the meth ods practised by dairymen, says Or ange Judd Farmer. The growth of co operative creameries throughout the middle west, especially during the past 12 or 15 years, has been very ex tensive. This movement began with the establishment of separating sta tlons for receiving whole milk from farmers at the time of the introduction of separators of large capacity. Some times these plants were owned by farmers’ associations and operated upon (he co-operative plan. Some times they were owned by large creamery concerns, who received the milk from the farmers, separated It and paid each patron according to the amount of butterfat actually received. Sometimes this cream was sold in hulk to the big creamery concerns, while in other plants it was churned and the butter marketed direct. The most complete co-operation is found in those plants where the entire operations are carried on by the farm ers themselves, but there are certain elements of co-operation in all of them. For Instance, a number of farmers could club together for the delivery of milk to the separating station and the return of skimmed milk to the farms, thus reducing the expense and labor for all concerned. These receiving stations for whole milk have been dis placed in nearly every instance by cream receiving stations This has been brought about to the extensive introduction of hand separa tors, so that the actual work of sepa ration is done by each farmer for him self and only the cream disposed of in mail' sections this cream is re reived by local creameries, owned either Individually or by farmers’ as sociations. Is churned and the butter marketed direct from there. In this case there are largo amounts of but termilk to bo disposed of as a by prod net. If this is apportioned among the farmers, according to t lie amount of cream received, the amount given each Is too small to be of any value Ko it Is customary to have the creameries dispose of the entire output of butter milk for a year in advance to some in dividual farmer or group of farmers, accoriling to the highest bidder, and a return of from 25 to 50 cents per bar re! may thus he obtained by the creamery for a by product Cottonseed Hulls for Cattle. For long or short fattening periods experiments at the Texas station seem to clearly indicate that when cotton seed hulls <ost three to four dollars per ton and cottonseed meal $12.to *1*. it seemed most profitable to feed cuttle five or six pounds to every pound of meal When less than two and one-half pounds of hulls are fed to one pound of meal, the appetite is disturbed acd indigestion produced MARKETING OF COTTON CROP Committee Appointed by Texas Cotton Growers' Association Makes Prac tical Suggestions. At the recent meeting of the Farm ers' congress at College Station, a com mittee was appointed by the Texas Cotton Growers' assoeiation was ap pointed to study and make recom mendations as to what was best to be done relative to the erop this year, says Co Operator. This committee met In Dallas and discussed cotton growing, ginning, hauling, baling and marketing, and with the view that there might be system and co-opera tion in marketing Issued under their signatures the folowlng recommenda tions to the public: To the Cotton Planters of Texas and the Entire South: We. your commit tee on best methods of handling and marketing the cotton crop, beg now to recommend: 1 That with the present prospects of a short crop, no cotton be sold at less than 16 cents per pound, middling basis, Interior common points, and that the same bo marketed at a rate of not more than ten per cent, per month. 2. That we urge upon all the great Importance of diversifications as the greatest factor that will enable the planter to control his cotton by living at home, and to that end we urge the planters to avail themselves of the education advantages of all demon stration work carried on by the gov ernment. 3. That we Indorse the Idea of ma king cotton grading a part o# our pub lic school curriculum, more especially In the rural districts, and appeal to our state legislature to make provision therefor. 4. We urge the proper warehousing and rare of cotton, to the end that It will become a safe and ready collateral and urge the hearty co-operation of hankers and financiers In assisting the planter to hold his cotton when so desired, by making liberal advances on same 6. We deplore the slovenly manner In which the present square bale, as a rule, Is prepared and sent to market, and the gross extravagance In and careless handling of same from the glnner to the spinner, entailing need less time and expense in shipping, recompressing, etc., and recommend some package acceptable to the trade that can be compressed at the gin and go direct and rapidly from the gin to the mill or the ship's side 6. We finally urge the planters to cover their cotton entirely with heavy bagging and keep same under shelter, either on the farm at the gin or in the cotton yard, in order to prevent country damage, waste, etc. We realize the consummation of the above suggestions to a large ex tent depends upon the widest public ity and we therefore request the press of the south at large to give space to same, and to our bankers, merchants, J business men generally and brother farmers to give us their ablest counsel and co-operation in the common cause of educating and upbuilding the agri cultural classes, the bulwark of our national prosperity. Respectfully sub | mitted, W. B YEARY, Pres.. H. O. BOATWRIGHT, J TOM PADGITT, MRS. J. T. PADGITT, N. T. BLACKWELL. W. B. Yeary of Farmersville is a member of the Farmers' union and is a large cultivator of cotton and other farm products, and his advice, being in line with common sense and good Judgment, is well worth heeding. TOO LAZY TO GROW COTTON Attempt of British Government to ! Make Egypt Rival of Southern States Proves Failure. The British govermcnt has failed In its attempt to make Egypt a rival of our south in cotton growing. A few years as;' considerable uneasiness was felt in this country lest the Brit ish would be nble to develop the in dustry along the Nile to the extent that it would hurt our cotton growing But after spending millions of dollars irrigating areas and in experimental work the crop last year was smaller than the year before. haziness on the part of the natives j is the principal cause. They will not j work but prefer to steal or beg for a j living. One enterprising planter took j over a large number of our southern i negroes in the hope that they would make ideal laborers on his cotton plantations but in a year or two they got as lazy as the natives and also re fused to work. In that country a strip of cotton is all thnt a man needs in the wav of clothing and as all he has to do to secure his food is to steal a few ha uanas every da> work seems to him a useless effort. The British government Is very much discouraged over the expert ment so far and it looks as though the future is not likely to hold any fur ther terrors for our American growers unless some enterprising Yankee in vents some mechanical cotton picker and adopts plows and cultivators that will run under their own power. Profitable Farming. The man that grows on the farm all that lie consumes on It saves a double transportation the hauling homo ol what he buys and the hauling to mar ket of what he sells to pay for it. say; Rural Home. These two items of cos! help very materially to make up the difference between profitable and un profitable farming. INJURY BY BEETLES ' 9 Nuts and Fruit Attacked by Great Variety of Insects. j If Fallen Product Is Carefully As sorted and Worthless Specimens Fed to Hogs or Burned, Many of Larvae Is Destroyed. Nuts are attacked by a great va i riety of insects, but the most serious j injuries are done by moths and snout beetles. The larvae of several species of moths may be found in chestnuts, beechnuts, hickorynuts, hazelnuts and acorns, particularly In nuts that have ; their shells broken so ns to permit j easy entrance to the kernel by the \ insects. The damage wrought by the J Nuts Showing Work of Beetles Insects known as snout beetles, how ever Is greatly in excess of that done by all other kinds combined. The term "snout beetle" is applied to the adults of a group of Insects on account of the peculiar structure of the head, the front part of which is prolonged into a snout or proboscis In some species this snout is short and stout and in others it is long and slender and wire like. In the females of some of the nut weevils it is longer than the rest of the body. The mouth, which is armed with a minute but strong pair of jaws, is situated on the apex of the snout and the apendage is used for piercing or puncturing vari _ Apple Curculios as Work. our kinds of plant tissue to obtain food and to provide an opening in which to deposit eggs. The plum curoulio is a snout beetle about one-flfth of .an inch long. It is armed with a curved snout one-third as long as the body. The snout of the apple curoulio Is almost as long as the rest of the body, or three times the length of that of other species. This snout is carried projecting forward like an elephant's trunk, as Is the case with the plum snout beetle. In attacking the fruit the apple Eggs of Snout Beetle. eurculio bores through the skin, in a manner similar to that of the other species, but after the puncture is com pleted and the egg laid, only an indis tinct speck is left on the surface to mark the place of an injury whereas I the pl«in eurculio makes the conspic uous crescent-shaped mark. The larvae of most of the species of beetles and eurculio remain in the nuts and fallen fruit some time after they drop to the ground. If these are all gathered carefully and thoroughly and the worthless ones fed to hogs or burned many larvae will he destroyed and the generation of beetles that would injure the n> xt season’s nuts be greatly reduced. FOR SOILING AND ENSILAGE Cowpeas Are Very Satisfactory and Furnish Abundance of Succulent Green Feed. _ As a soiling crop cowpeas are very | satisfactory and furnish an abundance of succulent green feed, although per haps less palatable than alfalfa. Used alone, the cowpea does not make an exceptionally good quality of ensilage, due to the large quantity of water in the green vines, making a water silage that keeps poorly and is not well relished by stock. When in combination witti corn, in the proportion of about one fourth cowpeas to three-fourths corn, tt makes an excellent silage that keeps well and is relished by all classes of stock. This combination lias greater feeding value than corn silage, for the reason that cowpeas, being relatively high In protein, make the cowpea-corn sllagp a more nearly balanced ration. Professor Call says It Is a common practise In dairy sections to grow cowpeas and corn In separate fields and mix them as the silo Is being filled It would seem a more desirable practise to grow the corn and cowpeas together. An experiment along thts line was conducted at the Kansas experiment station during the years 1903. 1904 and 1905, the corn and cowpeas being planted together in rows. When plant ed the right thickness—corn 13 to 24 inches, and cowpeas four to six Indies apart, in drill rows three and a half feet apart—each grew equally well and produced from 10 to 14 tons of green fodder per acre. The cowpeas twined around the corn stalks, making the crop eaay to harvest with the corn bln^e' FEEDING SORGHUM TO STOCK Excellent for Cattle as Substitute for Hay and Corn Fodder When Pastures Are Short. As a substitute for hay and corn fod der. It Is most excellent for cattle. I purchased in October, last year, some polled Angus heifers weighing about 700 pounds each, and when our blue grass pasture became short in Decem ber we turned them into the barnyard around the strawstack and fed them in it movable manger with sorghum They ate it readily and almost without waste We gave them no grain and the seed had been removed from It, hut we sold them In the middle of February at a profit of about $0 a head. 1 saw them on the hooks and they were in fair beef condition, al though not so fat as prln.o heof cat tle, says a writer In Tribune Farmer. I havf made the claim for years, and have never seen reason to modify It, that an acre of sorghum (even with out the seed; in winter will feed more stock than two or three acres of corn fodder or hay. If. on the other hand, It is fed seed and all. It would largely Increase the number of cattle that could be kept from the growth on an acre and at the same time be a better fattening ration There is noth ing T have ever tried In more than sixty years of farming that has given better returns or more healthful food than sorghum. We feed It to our cat tle all winter, ami I can carry on my little farm of 90 acres 20 head of cat tle for feeding and not use a pound of hay; and if it Is fed with the seed on It can be fed without other grain. In short, the claim which I made many years ago was below the actual truth when I claimed that a man with a 40 acre farm who grew sorghum could carry more stock than a man on 100 acres who managed the usual way. I imvH never nan ail animal nijureu vj it since I rommeneeil feeding It, now more than twelve years ago. I prefer not to plant sorghum until the weather Is settled and It would come up quickly and start Into vigor ous growth. It can be cultivated al most entirely with a two-horse culti vator with fenders. Any ordinary corn ground will give a good growth and a heavy yield of sorghum. The best time for planting is about the middle of dune My first crop was planted June 11, and matured so we began feeding It In August. It was one of the dryest years I ever experi enced in Ohio; no rain fell for 50 days, and a quarter acre of It cut and fed to three dairy cows gave them full ration and kept up their flow of milk until Thanksgiving Since that date, which was In 1893, I have grown It every year, so that hay Is not fed at all to either horses or cattle on my farm except to my team during the working season. I have learned much about growing and handling sorghum during these years The first two or three years I used the wheat drill for seeding, put ting on from one and a half to two bushels of seed an acre and cutting with the mowing machine, then straightening out the stalks and shock ing them for feeding during the win ter. When the corn hinder came Into general use 1 began the thinner seed ing and used only a third the amount of seed and found It an advantage In every way. ^General Fdrin Notes \s work on the farm crowds, do not neglect the pigs. Salt at the rate of about one ounce per pound of butter. Wool prices are better than ever In the history of the country. The ewe flock is the pear! of great price to the successful sheepman flood pastures are the basis of suc cessful live stock or dairy farming. There is such a thing as a chicken getting so sick that nothing will cure It Disease lurks in a filthy, sour swill barrel, and is often the cause of un thrifty pigs. In making new lawn three or four bushels of seed to the acre makes a nice turfy sod. When only a small amount of butter is made, the butter may bo worked with a ladle in the churn. Mnny weeds, besides occupying the ground in place of the grass, are actu ally injurious to the health of the cattle Apples do not do well on poorly drained soil where water is liable to stand on the surface or about the roots of the trees. Cull out the unnecessary i»ouUry stock and sell as roasters: pick out the youngsters not wanted for breed ing and dispose of them as broilers. There Is a constantly increasing tendency for city consumers to prefer getting their perishable products like butter and eggs direct from the pro ducer Turkeys eat more insects than they do grain; but you cannot make your neighbor believe this if your turkeys take a notion to range in his wheat or oat field. Digs that are not receiving enough exercise and that are fat from rich feeding are often attacked with thumps or palpitation of the heart, and die off Men who every season make money from their lambs find that if they flush the ewe flock each fall—that is, feed them better for several weeki before golug to the buck—there art more tw ins and more milk at lambiu* time BEE CULTURE PROFITABLE INDUSTRY WHEN UNDERSTOOD Means of Obtaining for Human Use Natural Product Wht Would Otherwise Be Lost to Us—Extremely 'cb Fascln.stlng Pastime. (By E. F. PH1UUIPS. Ph. IV) Bee keeping for pleasure and profit is carried on by many thousands of people in all parts of the United States. As a rule, it is not the sole occupation. There are, however. Smoker. many places where an experienced, bee keeper can make a good living by devoting his entire time and attention to this line of work It should be cm only the bright side of the ieave it to the new bee cover that there is often another ,£ When any financial profit is derg bee keeping requires hard work l*1 work at just the proper time wise the surplus of honey may be mlnished or lost. Few lines of* requires more study to insure succl In years when available nectar T limited, surplus honey is secu*c<j by judicious manipulations and ft only through considerable cxperleacs and often by expensive reverses that the bee keeper is able to manlpu^ properly to save his crop. Anyon. can produce honey in seasons of p|£ ty. but those do not come every »«, in most locations, and it takes a too* bee keeper to make the most of po« years. When, even with the best of manipulations, the crop Is a fai|ur. through lack of nectar, the bees must be fed to keep them from starvation The average annua) honey yield w colony for the entire country uniter good management, will probably b< 25 to 30 pounds of comb honey or t» to 50 pounds of extracted honey. Tit A Well Arranped Apiary. phaslzed that it is unwise for the aver age individual to undertake extensive bee keeping without considerable previous experience on a small scale, tlnce there are so many minor details which go to make up success in the work. These must be thoroughly un lerstood before there Is any hope for continued success It Is, therefore, nost desirable to begin on a small scale, make the bees pay for them selves and for all additional apparatus, is well as some profit, and gradually o Increase as far as the local condi tions or the desires of the individual permit. The annual production of honey :ind wax in the United States makes agriculture a profitable minor Industry □f the country. From Its very nature it can never become one of the leading agricultural pursuits, but that there Is abundant opportunity for its growth cannot be doubted. Not only Is the honey bee valuable as a producer, but it Is also one of the most beneficial □►Insects In cross-pollinating the flow ers of various economic plants. Bee keeping fs also extremely fas cinating to the majority of people as a pastime, furnishing outdoor exer rise as well as Intimacy with an Insect Pepper Box Feeder. whose activity has been a subject of absorbing study from the earliest times It has the advantage of being a recreation which pays Its own way and often produces no mean profit It is a mistake, however, to paint money return to be obtained from tt» crop depends entirely on the market and the method of selling the beacy. If sold direct to the consumer, extract ed honey brings from 10 to 20 ceau per pound, and comb honey from U to 25 cents per section If sold la T \ " T mi'* Bee Veil With Silk Tulle Front dealers, the price varies from six t* ten rents for extracted honey »» from 10 to 15 cents for comb honey All of these estimates depend larfstf on the quality and neatness of til product. From the gross return mm be deducted from fifty cents to «■ dollar per colony for expenses other than labor. Including foundation •» tions, occasional new frames hives and other Incidentals--not, no* ever, providing for increase. Above all it should be emphasix* j that the only way to make bee ■ ing a profitable business is to pro u only a tirst-class article Too m "J bee keepers. In fact the major tj. too little attention to making t goods attractive. They shotiU r nize the fact that of two jars of honey, one In an ordinary fruit jar or 1 with poorly printed label. other in a neat glass jar o I design with a pleasing, attrac j .m bri«« **, ! more the extra cost <if <n package. It is perhaps unto honeJ but nevertheless a fa< t ' ^ j sells largely on appearance. ^ geessivo bee keeper will a,’i’ ^ strongly as possible to the ej I customer. GOOD ROADS MEAN PROFITS Improved Highways Permits' Farmer to Curry Much Larger Louda to Market With Ordi nary Team of Horses. Illy HOWARD H. GROSS.) A Pittsburg paper has the following Item "H. E. Beasley, living three miles east of Pittsburg, has sold about 3,000 bushels of corn within the past ten days to the Pittsburg Elevator coin ; ny. receiving 50 and 60 cents there to! This is not only a good dead on the part of the farmer, but there Is an other thing In connection therewith. In delivering this corn Mr. Beasley Is able to haul from 60 to 70 bushels at a load upon a wagon with an ordi nary team, there being a good gravel road from Pittsburg to his farm. Farm ers from other directions where the good roads movement has not been I prolific of results, haul irom bushels to the load . -ua This Is In no sense an except» ^ stance. A farmer In the corn Illinois told the writer to tnx^ "I had 6,000 bushels of (''>r" s0;4 ket and at on« time 1 could ^ for 62 conis, If I could have 1 it, but 1 could not. Later i ^ 60 cents. With good roads ^ have had the top price, an havo saved as much more ^ able to haul larger loads fejt» I would have been at , had » per bushel better olT >• e0ft ^ud good hard road instead of * ^ road to use. Wifc W l\fTl 0er«« acre .he loss was two dollars P^ for that one crop " atverslfl*4 With good roads a more ^ crop ran he raised; the a ‘ y pro*5 ket gardening, which h gonA able, is more than doubled W ^ permanent highways 1 ani*^* farmers Increased opportu • wbld city people a better ****„** to purchase supplies. -onus#1* the best Investment aM can make.