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f v W y FOR USE IN TRANSPLANTING Inner- Receptacle In Box Lifts Out and Slides Fall Away—Handy for Gardener. A device to facilitate the trans planting of flowers and bushes has been designed b> a Minnesota woman. It enables the gardener—particularly the amateur gardener to remove plants' from their pots or boxes with out Injury either to (he roots of the former or to the latter. The Invention mentioned comprises a box with an Inner rind an outer shell. The outer shell Iras not bottom and merely fits •round the Inner receptacle to sup port the sides which are hinged at the bottom Hnd would otherwise fall -open The Inner shell has a bottom and the sides are adapted to be bent over at. the top to engage the tops of the sides of the outer member. The whole apparatus must bo together when the hush Is planted In it. When Box for Transplanting. the husk has grown to a size that makes transplanting necesary, all that need lie done Is to lift the Inner re ceptacle out of that which holds it to gether and the sides fall away and loaves the plant, with the earth cling Ing to its roofs, ready to lie installed In th<' ground. With (lie old-tashion ed flower pot the removal of a plant often.resulted In damage to the lat ter of breaking of the pot. SPHINX DOES LITTLE HARM Large Apple-Green Caterpillar Feeds on Leaves of Different Fruit Trees. The large npplo-green caterpillar or apple sphinx is easily recognized by the seven oblique whitish or yellowish stripes, margined with purplish rod. and the brown vertical stripe on each side of the head This caterpillar. ▼ Apple Sphinx. when full grown. Ib about two and one-half Inches long, and bears a rather conspicuous horn similar to that of the common tobacco worm at the posterior extremity of the body, ■ays Country Gentleman. This species feeds upon the leaves of apple, pear and ash and the wax myrtle. Myriea. It is rarely abundant enough to cause any material injury. FLOWER BOXES IN WINDOWS Nothing So Softens and Beautifies Stiff-Looking House—Plants Should Be Watered Daily. (By IUTTH MAHSII I Nothing so softens and beautifies a stIff looking bouse—or any other kind for that matter as window boxes. Make a box eight inches deep and ten Inches wide. I'se only rich black soli to fill it A bucket full of ferti lizer worked Into the soil will improve It. Pill the box level full mid then let 1t stand for a week. Then stir up the soil to loosen it and plant. Ferns should be planted In the rear ot the box. ltd ween them place ger aniums, red or pink preferred. In (be, front of these plant a row of purple ageratum seed and for good measure mix in a few of candytuft. For a fronl row, plant sweet alys sum. The alyssum will fall over the front of the box and form a pretty border. Give the plants plenty of room to arrow and-.they will make a better ap pearance than many in one box, stun ted for lack of room For a large porch box. with plenty of room. « few dwarf nasturtiums may take the place of the sweet alyssum. Ollier flowers suitable for boxes are pinks, pausies. marigolds and low growing plants. When the plants, raised from seeds, are an inch high thin them out to about two inches apart. The box should be watered daily morning and evening, especially If it is exposed to the sun all day. TREES SOFTEN SEVERE WINDS —%— Evergreens Planted on West Side of Yards and Buildings Break Force of Wintry Blasts. A double row of evergreens as n windbreak is of equal value for pro tection with a board fence of the same height. The general method of plant ing evergreens around feed yards, houses, gardens and small fruit or chards Is to plant the trees In double or triple rows, so that there will he no space between the trees for the wind to find its way through. When planted on the west side of the yards or buildings they soften the ; /.i * Scotch Pine Grove. rigors of winter and add many dol lars worth of value to the appearance of the farm. A large number have been unsuc cessful in growing these trees, hut with proper care and the right meth ods of starting the young trees it is quite easy to start an evergreen tree. The only condition of succes is that their roots must be kept moist. Foreign varieties, when imported, are not so sure to thrive and do as well as the native trees. When trees of small size are started they should be set in small beds convenient for watering in case of drought, and , shaded with brush or cornstalks a few inches high—above the tops of the plants—covering the surface with leaves or straw or old hay—also a cov ering of the tops of the young plants in winter will insure their wintering in good condition. When they are firmly established with new end fibrous roots they are ready to be set nut for good, and it will be found b< si to set in rows about six feet apart and from three to four feet in the row and give good care and cultivation as would be given a garden for two or three years until the trees shade the ground. In ail cases cultivate well the fore ] part of the season and keep down the weeds and grass. By close planting an upright growth is procured, and as the trees become too thick they may be thinned out and the best ones left until they have obtained their growth. Nut trees are also worthy the at tention of all farmers and in many cases they will bo found profitable to the grower and easy to get started. Black walnut, chestnut, hickory, and butternut trees are propagated by gathering the nuts in the fall before they have become dry and mixing them with a layer of dirt of a depth so that they will not. freeze, and plant ing in April in nicely prepared ground as deep as the diameter of the nut, either where they are to grow or in a row in the garden—In the latter cast> they should bo taken up the first winter and buried beyond the power of the frost. If one-half of the tap roots are pruned before setting the young trees, the lateral roots will put forth a more vigorous growth and the trees are more sure to make a good, healthy growth. It is to be hoped that trees of this kind will receive more atention In the future than they have in the past, as there are few farms that do not have fence rows or waste lands that could ho made useful by planting to some variety of nut bearing trees. The world ran never have too many apples. , Soil for poach growing should be a good warm, sandy loam type. Whenever you find cross branches rubbing each other cut one of them out. Careful selection is more than half the battle In the keeping of fruit over winter. See that the ladders are safe beforo using them. Cnsafe rounds may mean broken legs. The main reason why fruit does not keep well Is because wormy and rot ten fruit is stored with it. The high-headed tree is easier cul tivated. but the low-headed tree makes the fruit picking easier. The ground dries out more quickly under a high-beaded tree and more fruit is blown off by the wind. The jar of springless wagons, or of the sleds used in some localities, has caused more damage to fruit than growers realize. No matter how still the day. better I take down your ladders at night The I wind may come up before morning and spoil a good ladder in no time. Flowers should have a friable, very fertile soil in which to grow. They often make a brave display in rather poor soil but they appreciate good care Plenty of stable manure cultivation and judicious pruning will, almost without exception, bring back to bear ing an old orchard that seems to be beyond hope. Some of the late blooming plants, such as asters and nasturtiums, may be lifted and potted before frost and kept alive and blooming Indoors fot several weeks. 7V0TES. rnDOftk M^evrm In. —— , J Hrood sows on the average farm may be almost entirely supported by waste products. And those same *aste products form the best sort of balanced ration. Skim milk, butter milk, windfall apples, parings, a run In the orchard, with shade, and after the litters are weaned and growing nicely, a run in the stubble to clean up every kernel of grain, and In the clover fields after hay has been cut. Sow sc*me rye for fall green forage for the poultry. It lasts until snow comes and Is there in the spring for early picking. It makes fine pasture for the turkeys even if at Quite a dis tance from the house. It disinfects the soil and Is a good crop to sow on the poultry runs this month to rid the soil of impurities. Train the colts, don’t break them. Many a good horse has been spoiled by breaking him when a colt. Get his mouth accustomed to the bit be fore a harness is put on him. Be gentile and patient and you can make a good horse out of almost any colt. "Candling” eggs upon their arrival in the city results In throwing out many thousands of dozens each year. Five per cent, of them all are culled as “dirties" and sold at a reduced price causing the loss of millions of dollars every year. The best medicine for poultry Is good care. Cleanliness, light, warmth, dry houses, sound feet and pure wa ter are better than the whole list of remedies. These are the “ounces of prevention" ttatat save the “pounds of cure.” Unless free from lice, no flock will thrive as It ought, and the owner should help the chicks rid themselves of these pests by providing proper dust baths nnd occasionally dusting ihem himse’f with insect po..der. It is a good plan to give the young pigs a good start along early in lifrfr Very many make the mistake of crimping the pigs, thereby expecting to get more lean meat. The muscles grow when the pigs grow. There are jet a few dairymen who think they can judge a cow by her conformation. To satisfy yourself, keep the accurate record of every cow in the herd and see how form and per formance coincide. A poultry house need not be artifi cially heated to be warm enough for the hens to be comfortable and lay eggs, but It should be built very tight and snug, so as to exclude all drafts of cold air. It Is easier to make a man a better dairy feeder by suggestion than by command. That's why the test asso ciation is so valuable. When he Bees how it helps he is a willing learner. Mulch dahlias, cannas, raladiums and like plants with coarse manure and deluge with water. If water can not be had, withhold the manure, as manure alone is drying. Eggs and meat are the foundation of the poultry tmsines. Let us aim for this standard more, then wo will have better "standard breed” and more profitable poultry. The safest rule is to commence feeding In good season if the pastures begin to fail and not wait until the cows actually begin to fail in milk production. To supply good food for the dairy It Is necessary to exercise fore thought and plan for the fall season which Is sure to come every year. Many horses have sore shoulders be cause their owners try to fit their horses Into their collars rather than getting collars to fit their horses. There are bee-keepers all over the United States who, with a favorable locality and good management .are making an excellent living. Probably no single cause tends more to check milk secretion than the fail ure to remove all the milk secreted it the time of milking. A tread-power rigged up to run the separator will save a lot of hand labor and give the ram or bull much needed exercise. Ducks and geese should have plenty of fresh water to drink as soon as they are hatched. There is no one stated ration that thould be fed to poultry or laying kens In winter. Are you getting the best possible results from your bees? Cows that are expected to reiur.. profit must have liberal rations of the kinds of food adapted to their needs. They must have dry, comfortable and well ventilated sleeping places and be kept free from excitement caused by exposure and neglect The practise of allowing the dairy herd to run over the farm and be herded by dogs and children and compelled to eat frosty clover and forage cannot be made to return a profit, even though they may consume waste fodders and forage. Saving the best, ewes is not the only thing. lie must not in-breed, but must buy the best sire he can find, not only in blood-lines, but also in individuali 1 ty, a ram that looks like a sire, with strong head, well-sprung ribs, and large heart girth, a ram with a strong bone, two good ends and a good, straight back. The breeder must not consider his pocketbook. Potnto growers who “feed" their potatoes well, and give them good care, and select the best potatoes for planting do not need to change their seed stock every few years in order to maintain the yield, because by so doing they maintain the yielding pow er in the potatoes they already have. Every thinking farmer knows that there arc certain essentials that can not be neglected at any season of the year if the cows are kept in condition to give milk, and that if any or all of these essentials are neglected there is sure to be a falling away in the milk yield. In making a kerosene "emulsion of any kind for the eradication of lice, mites, flies, etc., great care must be taken to see that the combination is surely emulsified or serious re sults may follow and more hide be "eradicated” than anything else. # _ Two things that deserve constant attention at this time are the bits and the blankets. Never allow a frosty hit to come in contact with the horse's mouth and never leave the team without being well and com fortably blanketed. For the average dairyman it is cheaper to raise his own cows than to buy them. Besides, if he has good cows to begin wit'll he ran more wise ly select the calves because of an inti mate knowledge of the work of the mothers. The black rot of tomatoes is a dif ficult disease to control. Applications of Bordeaux Mixture, If begun when the tomatoes are just forming and continued until they are fairly well grown, will prevent the disease. It has been predicted by an author ity that the time is not far distant when the small dairyman will not be able to afford pasture. If this time should come, then indeed would the silo come Into its own. While the value of the birds to the farmer, orchardist and planter has for years been recognized, it is believed by the authorities that their Impor tance in preserving the forests Is not generally known. A hen should be fed some grain that she doesn’t have to scratch for. Al though exercise is necessary to keep her in good health, she needs time to rest and dust herself In the middle of the day. Some hens are born layers, others acquire the laying habit, others get credit for being good layers when they are not. The trap nest picks them out and leaves no guess work. Do not run the risk of perpetuating weak characteristics in your herd by breeding animals that are uncertain. The progeny Is sure to Inherit all the fruits of the parents. As a rule very little can be done for dopy chickens. The cause of this condition is usually constitutional weakness; lice, or, error in feeding and management. lull selection of potatoes may some times be beneficial for the purpose of selecting the best strain where the potatoes consist cf two or more strains. Selling the breeding stock because feed is dear is just as sensible as selling seed grain because you can get a good price for it. Think this over. Is the binder properly stored away for the winter, or will the first snow storm still find it Just where it was left when drawn out of the field? During the hot months pansies will not bloom much; try cutting the plant back for fall flowering. Hot weather blooming weakens the plant. One good cow is superior to three poor ones in the dairy; the differ ence is the cost of the feed and the product of the cows. We would like to see more bee keepers at the state fairs, and have them put up a display of bees and honey. Any good type of colt will sell for more per pound when three years old than a calf. Better quarters for the poultry need not mean more elaborate or more ex pensive houses. Hogging off the corn Is a cheap va of aornlng off the hog. EXTERMINATE BROWN RAT; WORST MAMMAL NUISANCE Little Animal Is Most Active Agent In Disseminating in. factious Diseases and Should Be Destroyed. (By DAVID K. LANTZ.) The brown or Norway rat is the worst mammal pest in the United States, the losses from its depreda tions amounting to many millions of dollars yearly—to more, probably, than the losses from all other inju rious mammals combined. Several species of rats are known as house rats, but the brown rat Is the commonest and most widespread in this country Not one of these species is a native, but all were imported from the Old World. The brown rat Is practically omni vorous, feeding upon all kinds of ani mal and vegetable matter. It makes its home in the open field, the hedge row. and the river bank, as well as in stone walls, piers, and all kinds of buildings. It destroys grains when newly planted, while growing, and In the shock, stack, mow, crib, granary, mill, elevator, or ship's bold, and also in the bin and feed trough. It invades store and warehouse, and destroys furs, laces, silks, carpets, leather goods, and groceries. It attacks fruits, vegetables, and meats in the markets, and destroys by pollution ten times as much as it actually eats. It carries disease germs from house to house and bubonic plague from city to city. It causes disastrous conflagrations, floods houses by gnawing lead water pipes; ruins artificial ponds and em bankments by burrowing; destroys eggs and young poultry; eats the eggs and young of song birds and game birds; and damages foundations, floors, doors, and furnishings of dwellings. Hats have developed so much in telligence and such extraordinary cau tion that attempts to exterminate them have rarely succeeded. The failures have been due not so much to lack of effective methods as to the neglect of certain precautions and the absence of concerted action. First in importance, as a measure of rat repression, is .the exclusion of the animals from places where they find food and safe retreats for rear- j ing their young. The best way to keep rats from i buildings, whether in city or in coun try, is by the use of cement construc tion. As the advantages of this mate rial are coming to be generally un- i derstood, its use is rapidly extending j to all kinds of buildings. Dwellings, j dairies, barns, stables, chicken houses, j ice houses, bridges, dams, silos, tanks . cisterns, root cellar, hotbeds, side Guillotine Trap. walks, and curbs are now often made wholly of cement. Granaries, corn cribs, and poultry houses may be made rat-proof by a liberal use of concrete in the founra- J lions and floors; or the floors may be j of wood resting upon the concrete | Objection has been urgpd against con- j crete floors for horses, cattle, and j poultry, because the material is too good a conductor of heat, and the health of the animals suffers from contact with these floors. In poultry houses, dry soli or snnd may be used as a covering for the cement floor; and in stables, a wooden floor resting on the concrete Is just as satisfactory so far as the exclusion of rats is con cerned. Probably the greatest factor in the increase of rats, mice, and other de structive rodents in the United States has been the persistent killing off of the birds and mammals that prey up on them. Animals that on the whole are decidedly beneficial, since they subsist upon harmful insects and rod ents, ate habitually destroyed by some j farmers anil sportsmen because they occasionally kill a chicken or a gam, bird. The value of carnivorous mammals and the larger birds of prey in de stroying rats should be more fully recognized, especially by the farmer anil the game preserver. Rats actu ally destroy more poultry and game both eggs and young chicks, than ali the birds and wild mammals combin ed; yet some of our most useful birds of prey anU carnivorous tnauunats are persecuted almost to the point of ex tinction. An enlightened public sen timent should cause the repeal of all bounties on these animals and afford protection to the majority of them. Owing to their cunning it is not easy to clear premises of rats by trapping; if food is abundant it is im possible. And yet trapping, if per. Pit Trap. sistently followed, ts one of the most effective ways of destroying rats. “Guillotine” traps have marked ad vantages over the old style traps and many of them can be used at the same | time. The more simply they are con-1 at meted the better. Probably those made entirely of metal are the best, as they are more durable and are less likely to absorb and retain odors. Guillotine traps should 1*> baited with small pieces of Vienna sausage, fried bacon, or a small section of an ear of corn. The pit trap consists of a stout, nar row box sunk in the ground so that the top is level with the rat run. It is fitted wih a cover of light wood or metal In two sections; the sections turn on rods to which they are fast ened. They are weighted near the ends of the box and so adjusted that they saving easily. An animal step ping upon the cover beyond the rods is precipitated Into the box, while the cover lmmedlataely swings back to its place. Besides rats, the trap Is well adapted to capture larger ani mals, as mink, raccoons, opossums, and cats. It is especially useful to protect poultry yards, game preserves, and the like. The trap should b« placed along the fence outside the yard, and behind a shelter of boards or brush that leans against the fence. BENEFITS OF GOOD SILO Summary Given Out By Missouri State Experiment Station Tells of Numerous Advantages. Missouri state experiment statloi summarizes the value of the silo aa follows; 1. Silage keeps young stock thrifty and growing all winter. 2. It produces fat beef more cheap ly than does dry feed. 3. It enables cows to produce milt and butter more economically. 4. Silage is more conveniently ha» died than dry fodder. 6. The silo prevents waste of corn stalks in the manure when silage 1* J* C. The silo will make profitable food of stufT that would not otherwise M eaten. 7. It enables the farmer to preserve food which matures at a rainy time o the year, when drying would be next to Impossible. . . 8. It Is the most economical metnoo of supplying food for the stock during the hot, dry periods In summer, w , the pasture is short. MISSOURI PRIZE MILK COW Chief Josephine, the prize cow at the Cniversify of Missouri, has given a milk yield in eight months that is greater by 2,100 pounds than any other cow that ever lived. Here are some of the figures: Production for six months, 17,008.8 pounds milk, 529 pouhds butter; production on last day ut the six months, 95 pounds 1,1 '93.S erago dally yield for six nion pounds. Crown Gall. ^itb Raspberry plants affer e ^ rrown gall should be dug burned. There la no cure.