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m STACKING CORN FODDER
_lllt|on Is Necessary to Prevent jjUny w«l Selins—Twc Meth ods Illustrated. £crn fodder can be stacked, but it ?l,res rare, as ventilation of tbe lJck I; necessary to prevent heating Z. spoiling. A cool way is to make Chimney in tbe center of the stack, “lacing some rails upright in a sort rforal round a tree chaining them to Stack Around a Tree. ketiser at the top till the stack Is com pleted. The rails are so placed that [(opening is left on each side when L stack is built, for the wind to How through freely, as shown In the Hffitratlon. Arranged in this way, it Clearly Impossible for the sown fod fer to become Injured by heating, if Be walls of the stack are not much Hider than the length of the bundles, [gut It often happens that such trees It the right height are not at hand, Using Forked Sticks. Id a much Improved modification Is Rained by inserting two forked sticks I the ground, about ten feet up to keforks, and at a convenient distance Rit ami plai*ng a horizontal pole Ithem The length of this pole will •ermine their distance asunder, ben set a number of rails nearly up lilt or slightly loaning, with the up ff ends against the horizontal pole. Jainst these vertical rails the oblong Ick is built, open at the ends, kich the wind freely blows. A se ts of forks will admit of the stock og made as lung as may be desired rany amount of fodder. MS FOR SAVING STRAW Be Needed for Feed Owing to Shortness of Hay Crop—Keeps Live Stock In Comfort. 0*tng to the shortness of the hay hp, straw will be valuable this wln lor feed It should be put into the • after threshing. If ricked In the Ward make one large, long, high 1- Keep the middle full and well Iron down, and make a good steep After the rick settles, top out, off the loose straw from all sides, wire down to prevent the top (•tog off The rick should be fenced •* prevent the stock eating Into the Oat straw, tr it is not damaged makes a better fodder than JUitraw Mules, young cattle and <P tan be carried through the wln on oat straw und a small dally nl Ce of grain. We always give Wwa a good forkful of clean dry * after they have eaten their ted, have had an hour's ex Z® end been watered, says the American. (^rge portion of the straw will be •Od what Is left Is used for bed A forkful of wheat straw Is hi i.eaCh cow ,n the morning arid . 1 t evening. Cows, mules and Mock hav® ah the straw they _ 0 tat and have also a good. Mraw bed. The straw from 30 "heat and 10 acres of oats Is hi i,!*1 eTfcry Eeason: the stock Is rich l°rafort* Rn<1 » large quantity ><mure is made, which is out and spread over the grass tomak mad° A tblck toat 01 ma" oni-„ ,es a rlck 9°d. Rr,d 8°d makes ta to feed the stock. K ®heep an<t Potato Vines. J0uA'VaiU t0 K(>t rld of ,he we potato field,” said a cc*n tork arm®r the other da)', *‘t tks. . S ir('P in, and they ' l!e ei,n l°b °t it and not hart Tlnp ’ This is only Hr as;,. . • 13 u*iiy or Wvamagea of keepluK a one ep on the farm the Whey Itovrt , w ley to 155 degrees Una, ‘ f( tdlng value and i i of the objectloni * fou»«l In cheese. -t fairMfe W‘tb Co,t* fedkva t0 exf,<ict tt mar* fi Hd ... w°rK and suckle a v I tlu ',M hungry colt wit dances of feed? PUT CONCRETE TOP ON TANK Stout Platform Should Be Erected Ju«t Level With Top to Hold Cover Until It Is Set. In reply to a query as to the best way of putting a concrete top on a circular stone supply tank, about 9 feet in diameter, the Breeder's Ga zette makes the following reply:' “Make a stout platform in the’tank just level with the top to hold up the cover until it is set. As this platform should be quite tight, it had best be covered with building paper or other such material. As one will want a manhole to take out the lumber, ho can cut out the boards where this is to be and replace them by having cleats nailed under them.. The form for this manhole should be made tapering and out of fi inch boards, say 18 inches at bottom and 22 Inches at the top. On each side of the manhole lay an inch round rod and have some stout wire fencing cut ready for rein forcing. After placing an inch of concrete place the bars and the fencing which should be double and then fill In the concrete to 4 Inches, if the cover Is not to be for sustaining any weight but its own. If it is to be the floor of a building, then put in 6 Inches of concrete. As soon as the concrete is set, or after one day, take out the manhole box, line the hole with paper and fill this with concrete, not forj getting to put in some kind of ring by v. hich to lilt it. After a week or ten days lift out the cover of the manhole and remove the wooden platform. 'T his cover can be made on a plat form on the ground and then placed on the tank. To do this it will be best to use a reinforcing of half-inch steel i ods placed 6 inches on center each way and tied with wire at inter sections and then make the thickness only 3 inches. Use a mixture of one, two and three. That Is. one of cfr ment, two of sand and three of crush ed stone, none over half an inch In diameter. BRACKETS FOR CELLAR SHELF Considerable Work Required in Mak ing Framework if Not Done While Wall Is Being Built. The erecting of shelves against a cement or stone wall usually requfres considerable work in making the framework; this could be replaced by placing three-eighths-lnch iron rods in the mortar of the wall when it is built, says the Homestead. These should project far enough so the boards used for shelves can lay on same, in the manner shown In Ulus- , tratlon. Where the wall has been I constructed the holes can be drilled in same way by employing a miner’s drill of the right size; it is then an easy matter to slip the rods into I. • . Handy Brackets for Cellar Shelves. these holes. As the rods can be re moved when desired the shelves can bo erected and taken down at will, thus making them a very handy feature In the cellar. The holes should not project over six Inches In the wall, which would be ample to hold the shelf and weight upon same, if the rods aro spaced three feet apart. The foul cistern spreads disease. It is not advisable to add to silage. The nurse crop is going out of busi ness. Flow up the grasshopper egg infest ed fields this fall. You can raise this amount on three acres of good land. There should be a place for every thing—but not out of doors. Buckthorn makes a splendid hedge. It is hardy and easily grown. Put the corn into the silo as near as possible at tbe hard-glazing stage, j Nine millions a year are spent on the maintenance of roads in England. It is encouraging to see how quickly the pastures respond to frequent rains. High, well-drained soil is best, but the grape will grow on most any kind of soil and exposure. The general hay crop is short, and the careful farmer will save every pos sible bit of corn fodder. A silo ten feet in diameter and 2C feet deep will hold 40 tons silage, or euough to feed ten cows seven months. Feta'ion is as necessary to the grow ing of profitable crops as variety of food Is essential to the health of the Individual ltye cut about the time it begins to head and run through the cutter Into the rilo and well packed will make very good silage. There are two kinds of wheat smut, loose smut and stinking or ball smut Both can be prevented by treating the seed und rotating tbe crops. DESTRUCTION OF BOLL WEEVILS Address Made by G. H. Alford, Special Agent of the Farmers’ Co-operative Demonstration Work, at Brookhaven, Miss., October 7th. We must reduce the number of wee vils to the minimum and grow an early crop of cotton in the weevil territory. I call your attention to the destruc tion or weevils. There are four methods of reducing the numlxT of weevils to the minimum, liist-, completely denude iiie cotton Stalks of foliage, the weevils' sole food, plow the stalks under good and deep, or burn the stalks at the earliest pos sible moment in the fall; second, at some time during the winter, destroy tlie rubbish in and about the fields which might serve us hibernating quarters for weevils; third, when the weevils appear on the little cotton early in the spring, pick them olT and destroy them; fourth, pick up the punctured squares and de stroy them for at least one month after the first squares form on the cotton. The results obtained by the Tinted States Bureau ot Entomology, the Tann ers’ Demonstration Work, the Louisiana State Crop Test Commission and thou sands of successful farmers point to the supreme importance of the early fall destruction of the boll weevil's sole food supply, the squares, small bolls, and foliage on the cotton stalks. The con clusion reached by thousands of experi menters justify me in making the state ment that the most important step in producing cotton in boll weevil territory is the early fall destruction of the foli age, squares, and immature punctured bolls on the cotton stalks. In fact, 1 feel almost justified in saying that the early fall destruction of the cotton stalks outbalances all other remedies that may be employed to destroy the weevils. In an experiment performed by the Bureau of Entomology in Calhoun coun ty, Texas, the stalks growing on 410 acres of land were destroyed early in October. Careful records kept during the following bcusoh showed that the destruction of stalks on this land in creased the yield $14.56 per acre. An experiment was conducted on opposite sides of the Uuadaloupe river near Vic toria, Texas. The stalks were burned on one farm the latter part of Septem ber, and on the other they were allowed to stand until in the spring before plant ing time. Forty acres on the farm on which the stalks were destroyed made fifteen bales. Forty acres on the other farm made three and one-half bales. Experinietns conducted by the Louis iana State Crop Test Commission are summed up in the following extracts from Circular No. 28: Where the cotton plants were destroyed before Oitcber 15, only 3 per cent of the weevils survived the winter to infest the present year's crop. Where the stalks were destroyed from October 15 to October 27, an aver age of about 15 per cent of the weevils passed through the winter successfully. Where the stalks were destroyed be tween November 1st and 25th, an aver age of approximately 22 pec cent of the weevils survived the winter. Postponing fall destruction of ccttow stalks until the middle of Dcivmber, or later, per mitted over 43 jH*r cent of the weevils to survive the winter and attack the next crop. Where the stalks were de stroyed before October 15th only 3 per cent of the weevils passed the winter. Where the stalks remained in the field until December 15th over 43 per cent of the weevils survived the winter. These figures will certainly silence nil opposi tion to the early fall destruction of the boll weevil's food supply. The farmers in the weevil Infested districts of South Mississippi have picked millions of weevils off the little cottou and have picked up tons of punc tured squares this year. Millions of weevils appeared on the little cotton be fore the squares began to form and the expense ami trouble of picking them was a very considerable item. Ami let us not forget that the expense of picking weevils this year has been compara tively light, on account of the early freeze last fall. The effectiveness of the early freeze last fall was almost equal to the complete early fall destruc tion of cotton stalks. However, one lesson has, or shonl.l have, been thor oughyl learned, and that is the urgent need of so reducing the over-wintered weevils as to reduce the cost and labor of picking the weevils and squares to the minimum. The heat and dryne«ut of the season for the last few weeks have everywhere caused the bolls to open so that the crop can be picked at an abnormally early date. If the farmers will accept the opportunity that nature has pro vided and devote the same enthusiasm and energy to picking out the crop early that they have to picking up punctured squares this year, the cotton stalks can all be destroyed by October 20th. The farmers are urged to rush picking with all available labor until the cotton i* all picked ami then destroy the food supply of the weevil at the earliest date possible. No definite rule can be laid down as to the exact time for destroying the sole food of the hull weevil in the fall. However, the rule should he to destroy the squares, bolls, and foliage ou the cotton stalks at the earliest possible mo ment in the fall. It is much better to turn the eattlc in tin1 field, cut the stalks into pieces and plow them under pood and deep, or cut and burn the stalks at an early date and thereby de stroy a sii.all amount ot cotton than to defer the wotk until a later date. When the weevil's only food is d.tatroyed early in the fall, they will either starve for lark of food before cold diives them Into winter quarters or will go into win ter quarters "lank uud lean" and very few will survive for spring depredations. There are three methods of destroying the squares, bolls, and foliage on the cotton stalks, (1) pasturing, (2) plow ing under, (3) bur-sing. Pasturing cotton fields is a good method of destroying the squares, bolls, and foliage—the sole food supply of the mature weevils and the incubators of the immature weevil*—where the cotton held* are fenced and the number of cat tle turned into a field is sufficient to eat all the squares, bolls and foliage in a lew days. However, let it be distinctly understood that the practice of turning a few head of cattle into a fifteen or twenty acre cottou or corn field accom plishes no particular good. We all know from observation that two or three head ot cattle .per jeven whe" 1 ■■ i to the cotton field, will eat very little of the green foliage in one week. And let us not forget that it is necessary to completely destroy the food supply of the mature weevils and the breeding places of the immature weevil* at the earliest possible moment. flowing under cotton stalks is n good method of destroying the only food sup ply of th(> nurture weevils ;ind of ending the life of all tlio immature weevils where there 'are few stumps ftuU roots, small cotton stalks, and where large plows and strong teams can be had. T have held the plow handles in the piiiev woods, in the prairie section and in the rich bottom lands and 1 know whereof I speak when 1 say to you that it is very difficult to completely bury average size cotton stalks. 1 have hitched three large mules to a twelve-inch steel beam turning plow with a log chain attach ment and failed to completely turn un der average size cotton stalks on land clear of stumps. 1 have failed to turn under large size cotton stalks with four large mules hitched to a thirty-inch disc plow. In fact, farmers who have attempted to plow under green cotton stalks early in the fall laugh at the advice sometimes given to plow under the stalks at all times and under all conditions as a means of destroying the food supply of the weevils. However, let us use large plows and strong teams and completely bury the stalks wher ever it can be done. There is an insufficient number of cat tle on many farms and plantations to thoroughly and completely denude the cotton stalks of every vestige of foliage, squares and bolls in a short time and it is impossible, hence, it is absolutely necessary to burn tbe stalks as soon as the cotton is picked out. When the stalks are burned, the food supply of t lie adult weevil is destroyed at once, the weevils in the immature stages in the squares and liolls are all destroyed at once, and the large majority of the adult weevils perish in the flames, espe cially wliieu the stalks are burned after j sundown^ Weevils retire for the night J on the cotton stalk piles at about sun down. They seldom move about at night. If the farmers are careful not to shake the stalk piles when applying the torch latter sundown, practically all the wee vils on the stalk piles will be burned. Of course, if the stalks are allowed to remain until a heavy frost has conic I and practically all of the mature weevils | have gone into winter quarters, it is not advisable to burn the stalks. It is then j advisable to turn the stalks under as 1 deeply as possible. Practically all lbe weevils that hiber nate m tie- corn fields, in old sorghum and cane tields, along turn-rows, fences, hedges, ditch banks, and in the vicinity of the cotton tields can be destroyed. If the corn stalks, sorghum and cane shucks, grass and trash are thoroughly plowed under for several inches deep very few weevils will survive lor spring depredations. Surprising numbers of weevils have been found hibernating in cracks and holes in the ground and under grass, weeds, and other trash. In January, 1907, in one instance, the Bureau of En tomology found 5,870 weevils per acre, of which 70 per cent were alive. Most of tbe many examinations that have been made by the Bureau of Entomology have shown more than 1,000 live weevils per acre in the cotton tields. Deep winter breaking and the turn ing under of the trash, earn stalk* and so on means death to thousand* of wee vil*. The thousand or more weevils per aere in the eraeks and hole in the ground and under the gra*s, weeds, and trash can practically all be killed by deep winter breaking of the land. There is enough rainfall in this section to thor oughly saturate the soil many times and for this reason it is only necessary to plow under the trash and weevils. It is not all necessary to burn ^he corn stalks, grass, oat and pea stubble and other veg etable matter, livery aere in cultivation in the weevil territory should be plowed good and deep this full and winter. Many weevils will escape from the cot ton fields but all will not fly beyond tl«* reach of the farmer. Many will he found along the fence rows, hedges, ditch banks, and in decayed logs and dead trees. The cleaning and burning of the hedges, ditch haunts, and fence rows and the burning of sap on logs, stumps, and dead tree* in and around the fields will destroy many weevils that would live to do great damage. fanners who destroy the squares, bolls and foliage—-the sole food suppl.v ot the weevil on or before October ~Oth and add strength to this almost knot kotit : blow by plowing under all the weevils 1 in the cracks and holes in the ground and in the grass and trash on the ground by destroying practically all the weevils hibernating along turn-rows, fences, hedges, and in general in the vicinity of the fields and follow up the destruc tion by picking the qeevils off the I'ttle cotton until the equate* begin to turn and by picking up the punctured squares lor at least one month alter the squares begin to form will certainly ieduce tae numb r of boll weevils to the minimum. Hawaii is pouring out money Hko wa ter in support ul her public schools. 5* INTEREST SHOWN IN BOX PACK FOR SHIPMENT OF APPLES It is Commercial Proposition and Cannot be Made Successful Unless Grower Will See That Fruit Is Well Sprayed. Grown, Picked at Risfht Time and Properly Assorted. There is, a woeful lack of realiza tion of what the requirement a of a food box pack are. Those seen on the market show no system of pack ing, or If they were once placed In the Dox in regular order the pack was lo loose that the apples did not remain in position. Instead of a bulks when the boxes reached the commission house there was an open space under neath tho lid. Nor has a sh.Klo box that the writer saw on the market Grading Board. been graded. Some were fairly uni form as to size—at least on top. The commission men said they wore no bet ter in the middle than the provelblal barrel pack, but others showed no uni formity whatever in size. The quality was usually "something awful,” the fruit being, in most cases, third-grade stuff. The first requisite in catering to the box trade in apples is to grade the fruit as to size and quality. One of the illustrations shows a grading board which is used only at the start, because men and women soon train their eyes to recognize differences in sizes. The board is about 2 feet long. 6 Inches wide, and the holes vary in diameter from 2% to 3^ inches. The apples must not be small enough to drop through any one of these holes, in order to meet the size of the varl ous grades. The packing table, found most use ful, is shown herewith. It is about 3 feet high, 3 feet wide and 3 feet long. The bars are made of 2x4-inch mate rial. and beveled off at their tops so as to leave no corners which would bruise the fruit. The sides are 6 inches high and 1 inch thick. The top is covered with canvas, which is allowed to sag rather loosely. In order to save bruls Styles of Packing. ing the fruit rubber hose is nailed around the top of the table. A board is nailed across the end and another at the side to serve as supports for the boxes, which are placed at an angle, as shown. The tray shown at the left is for holding paper, which is wrapped about each individual apple. Apples of only one size are brought to the packing table at one time, so as to facilitate packing The packer begins by first lining the sides of thw box with paper a Irtllo smaller than the length of the box. The ends are rarely lined. Next a layering paper Is I placed on the bottom, and as layers I nf apples are packed other layers ot I paper ,ate blared .between. th-c-tn,. zuA I tn the »op, before the lid Is nailed on. I The apples are placed In a variety or [ ways In the boxes. As the boxes nro nailed, the fruit must bo slightly rounded toward the middle, so that when the top Is nailed on there will be a slight bulge. After the boxes have been tilled, they are placed on the nailing table. This table has a vacant space In the middle over which the box Is laid. An upright clamp Is applied to hold the top down by means of a lever operated with the foot. As soon as the nails are driven, the lever is released and the box removed. Details for the construction of this table, together with sizes of paper, boxes, etc., havo rnurxmy ■ been published in pamphlet form by the New York State Agricultural col lege at Ithaca. Theso are for free distribution. CONDITION OF LAYING HENS Little Surplus Fat Indicates Thai Her Bodily Wants Have Beeu Well Taken Care of. A hen in the best laying condition has some surplus fat on her body. This means that her bodily wants have been supplied and that there is some food to spare. A very fat hen seldom lays well; a poor hen cannot lay well. The first part of the egg which Is made is the yolk, which contains 30 uer cent, albumen and 64 per cent. Tat. New growth and egg production only come from the surplus food not need ed to keep up the body. Corn is an ex cellent grain, but is so relished by the fowls that they are liable to overeat. Wheat, with its by-products, is tho most useful grain to the poultryman. liens are natural}- worm and insect hunters, and they must have meat in some form iu order to do their best. Fresh meat is the best form, and hens prefer it cooked. Cren cut bone is ex cellent. The handiest forms* are the ■> commercial scraps and beef meal Skimmed milk is also a valuable source of animal protein and should b« - fed liberally, if possible, not only tm» moisten the mash, but also as a drlnfcr. Fine-Wooled Sheep Best. Flne-wooled sheep, as a rule, are longer lived than the medium or coarse-wooled. ERECTION OF DURABLE GATE The gate shown In the Illustration can bp made any height or length, and of lumber of any size. Use six boards 1 by 8 Inches and 15 feet long. Three upright pieces, the first 2 by 8 Inches, the second 2 by 6, and the third 2 by 4. Four boards 1 by 8 Inches and 5 feet long two of them to go on either side of the three uprights to furnish a strong support for the upper hinge, another to be bolted between these and the top board of gate, and the fourth one to be fastened at one end of the bottom gate board on which to rafaten the bottom hinge. For a braee, one board 1 by 8 Inches and 13 feet. For the two end pieces, boards 1 by 8 inches, C feet long For the latch Itiards and br-nces four pieces 1 by 8. feet long and on; latch board 1 by 1 inches, 7 feet long The upright pieces taJie up one-third jf the length of Kate, leaving It feet I for brace to hold, which makes It very strong. The gate Is fastened to the post with strap hinges made of old wagon tire. Hinges must be long enough so they may be bolted onto <aoh of the tnree upriget pieces. Punch hole in end and double back 3 Indus. Punching the hole through makes a stronger hinge. The butts are made of old buggy spindles. Feed for Fattening Sheep. Clear corn Is far front being the best feed for fattening sheep, especial ly fattening lambs. A little wheat In some form, even If damaged badly, will help greatly. A little bran or shorts, or oats will to an extent take it e place of wheat, and good wheat .'.creenings ere still better Sheep should be gotten onto a corn diet very slowly, and. if lambs, should never be fed corn exclusively.