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The War Arms Of Great Britain and Germany.
(bvm/pjvav Of w rm/vcz/rm JmwG-mormoC/fiF/iT is at tom i ' "1 The most Important factor in con sidering the German strength Is the personality of William 11. He Is com monly beliered to be an impulsive young man of 50; a reckless rhet orician, a Jack-of-all-trades, a journal ist with an actor’s personality who is never happy unless In the limelight. •No solid foundation exists for this view of the character of the com mander-in-chlef of the German army, •and the lord high admiral of the Ger man fleet. The atmosphere surround ing the magnetic personality of the Emperor William 11-. is mystical and religious. The German war lord be lieves in*the Divine right of kings, and in absolutism as sincerely as did Charlemagne or Charles V. Being in his own view sacrosanct as the agent of the Most High, he 1b as convinced as Mahomet as to the reality of his liigh mission. The commander-in-chlef of the German army is probably the best informed white man in existence. He and his brother. Prince Henry of Prussia, speak English with only the faintest accent or no accent, at all. The German emperor, like Napoleon, Is the greatest factor in his army 1 . He Ib its soul; he created his navy him self, his army he inherited'and im proved until it is the largest and best organized flghtlng-machine in the world. To form an intelligent antici pation of how that army will be led Jn time of war we must judge the em peror’s personality; not by his fre quent speeches, but by his unequaled knowledge, fiery energy, pure life, and substantial judgment. On all the ques tions of European policy the com mander-in-chlef of the German army is better Informed than any other liv ing person. He speaks the languages of the great European states. Unlike the late and present czar of Russia his majesty never suffers himself to be submerged in the sea of detail, or to be hedged in by a zareba of forms. Twelve Experienced men in his cab inet, for example, devote their lives to the stndy of English military re sources all the world over. The wis dom that comes from intelligent study of history is the emperor’s. He knows that Napoleofljthrew away his chances of the domjJng 1 of the world by en gaging in England, when he had two or three other wars on his own hands. The emperor avoids that mistake. His majesty’s recreation is the read ing of history. • It is no slight tribute to the emperor's genius that as early as 1850 he had extracted from the teachings of history the irresistible conclusion that the future of Germany was on the water. The kaiser’s position as commander in-chlef of the German army to-day is that of Napoleon at his zenith. The British fleet alone stands between him and the dominion of the world. He is master of Europe. On her western frontier Rusisa is undefended. For a century ahd a half the Russian west ern frontier has been sedulously guarded. The troops and guns with drawn through .he exigencies of the war with Japan have not been re placed, and both Moscow and Peters burg at the time of writing are vul nerable to German attack. On Ger many’s western frontier, facing France and Belgium, mobilisation is an in stantaneous process. Everything Is A-eady. The troops are on a war foot ling. To one who doubts the great genius Of the German emperor the existence of the German navy is evidence to re fute him. The emperor inherited no navy to speak of. The obstacles in the way of Its creation were stupen dous. A lesser mind than the emper or’s might have bought or built quite as many ships of war as Germany now possesses. The emperor did more., In vivid contrast to his friend, the czar, he breathed into the German fleet his own indomitable spirit. In considering the telatlve strength of national defenses, it is Important .to remember that ships, guns, and munitions are not the most Important factors in organised national forces. ▲ “Dreadnought” manned by ill-trained seamen is useless, for discipline, which exists for the natioq, is re quired to prevent the ship becoming a shambles and a disgrace on the day of battle. The best admiral is not only the best tactician, but the best dis ciplinarian. “Dreadnoughts,” “Indom itable*,” and numbers do not alone constitute efficiency. It is the man not weapons or numbers, that is the winning factor. How do the British stand as regards discipline? The dis cipline and the spirit of the British navy are as good as, even better than, they were in Nelson’s day. Plenty of training and practice, smart handling, good gunnery practice, good man’-o’ war training, willingness all ’round, and captains knowing their admiral’s plans—these are the things that mean efficiency. An efficient small fleet will always beat a half-trained large fleet History shows that maritime battles are decided not by quantity, but by quality. How does the British fleet compare with other nations in respect to those mental and moral factors which are of even more importance for fighting purposes than the material factor? The British navy is inspired by stately traditions possessed by the fleets of no other nation, yet tradition has not fossilized the British navy. Re forms have taken place from within. In less than seven years the accuracy of British gunnery has been trebled. At the last maneuvers in the North sea not one of the 132 pennants were detached from the flag owing to a breakdown. British fleets require no pilots. Their navigating officers, un like those of other nations, rely on their own knowledge of every coast and harbor in the world. Notwithstanding its small size, the British army contains more officers with actual experience of war than any nation in Europe, except Russia. The regular army at home consists of 115,107 competent troops, and 128,984 army reserve, with 76,155 regulars on the Indian establishment. The Indian army since Lord Kitchener's reforms were carried into effect, is considered by the highest authorities, foreign and English, to be the most efficient fight ing force of its size in the world. Nominally, the effectives of 1908 number 739,045, including the reserve and the territorial forces; but the reg ulars alone receive continuous train ing in peace-time. The new British territorial army re quired, if wanted at all, to meet picked German troops receives no continu ous training, except a few days in the summer. Its war training begins only after mobilization for war. The effect of the new system will be to tie the British regular army to the island shores until the territorial are suf ficiently trained to repel raid or in vasion by picked foreign troops. The situation to-day is this: Human ly speaking, invasion in force is im possible; but if England presses Ger many, Germany attacks France. France and England are virtual allies, and without infamy England cannot hold aloof when France is attacked by Germany. If the British fleet destroys the Ger man fleet, the German army would be on French soil in a few hours. The French, single-handed, cannot be ex pected to pull the German chestnuts out of the fire for England, bnt the British army to-day is not la a posi tion to discharge its irrevocable obli gations either to France in Europe, or to itself in Egypt, or in the Persian gulf. The conclusion of the whole mat ter is a choice between the organise tion for the army for war and a great ly increased navy, or a generation of inevitable struggle between the mas ter of Europe and the British people MAKES WORK CIENTISTS. Eminent Men Busy Investigating Fea sibilities of Radium. Hie University of Vienna, which has received, through the Vienna Academy of Sciences, an anonymous donation of 500,000 kronen for the establish ment of a “Radium institute,” is rap idly becoming famous among phy sicists for its experimental work on the wonderful radium emanations. The rarity and great cost of radium neces sarily restrict the number of inves tigators, and Sir William Ramsay, who in his recent experiments has gone far toward proving the suspected transmutation of radium Into helium and other elements, was recently spe cially honored by the Vienna Acade my of Sciences by the loan of a frac tion of a gramme of radium for the purpose of enabling him to continue his valuable investigations. A gramme of radium, it has been calculated, has stored up in It energy equal to one horse power for 16 days; but it parts with its energy so slowly—it cannot be stayed or hurried —that it takes some 30,000 years to exhaust Itself. Chimney Money. One bygone tax that Mr. Lloyd George is not likely to revive is “chim ney money.” Pepys records on March 3, 1662, that “on this day the parlia ment hath voted two shillings per an num for every chimney in England, as TO ACCOMPANY ROOSEVELT ON AFRICAN HUNT These two naturalists will be in President Roosevelt’s African hunting party as representatives of the Smithsonian institution at Washington. Maj. Mearns will be the physician of the trip. He has had 25 years' experi ence as an army doctor, is well-known as a naturalist and collector of historic specimens and is a crack shot. Mr. Lorlng has been on numerous collecting trips through the United States, British America. Mexico, Switzerland. Ger many and Belgium. He is 38 years old and a fine shot. a constant revenue forever to the crown." But It was desperately unpop ular from the first, says the London Chronicle. At the end of June, 1662, "Much clamor against the chimney money; and the people say they will not pay it without force.” It was not until October, 1666, however, that it was successfully “moved that the chimney money might be taken from the king, and an equal revenue of something else might be found for the king, and people be enjoined to buy off this tax of chimney money forever at eight years’ purchase, which will raise present money, as they think, £1,600,- 000, and the state be eased of an ill burden and the king be supplied of something as good or better for his use.” The Cave-In on Gatun Dam. A cave-in or slide of a portion of the preliminary work on the Gatun dam is causing considerable comment. The chief engineer of the canal commis sion, however, states that the mishap is of slight importance, and affords no cause for anxiety as to the stability of the dam Itself when it shall be com pleted. SCENE OF POSSIBLE FUTURE WAR War between Brasil and its neighbor, Argentina, is among the possibili ties of the future, say in three years. Both countries are being placed upon a war footing. The authorisation of an expenditure of $70,000,000 by the Ar gentina chamber of deputies is a step long contemplated. The first appro priation was so small that the people protested. They declared that Brasil would in a few years be able to annihilate the Argentina government. A bit ter, Jealous feeling exists between the two countries- STILL KEEP ANCIENT CUSTOM. Curious Medievsl Ceremony In Law Courts of London. One of the most curious survivals of the quaint methods of other times was witnessed the other day in one of the Ixmdon law courts. Here the solicitor of the city of London attend ed before the king’s remembrances to render quit rent services in respect of certain properties in the city of Lon don and the county of Salop. On the table were a block of wood, two fagots of twigs, six horseshoes, and a bag of nails. Warrants were read calling upon the tenants of the properties concerned to “come forth and do their service,'' whereupon the city solicitor gravely placed one of the fagots on the block and cut it with a hatchet. Then he cut the fagot with a billhook and afterward tendered the six horse shoes and counted out 60 nails, in heaps or ten, adding one extra nail, at which the King’s Remembrancer said: “Good number." Then the city solicitor asked: “Has his majesty any orders with regard to these imple ments?” and the King’s Remem brancer replied: “I will take them to be at the disposal of his majesty.” This ended the ceremony, which dates from over 600 years ago. Not Calve’s, But Calves. That butcher shops are the places for startling revelations of various sorts was illustrated the other day when a passerby, glancing in at the window of one of them, saw two sur prising exhibits. One was a tray con taining brains; the other was a very fine liver. On the first was placed a placard neatly lettered by hand; on the second was another: One read: “Calve’s brains;” the other "Calve’s liver.." There was no spacing between the last two letters of the first word in either case, and the possessive mark was over the letter "e.” But the shock soon passed when the butcher assured the passerby he had no desire to convey the impression that the famous French singer had been dissected. Rubber Asphalt Pavement. Our consul general to France writes of a rubber-asphalt pavement which is being used in that country. The ma terial is a product resulting from the association of asphalt and rubber. It j is said to be more plastic and more ad hesive than pure asphalt, and to resist higher temperatures. Experimental work covering a period of six years in such cities as Paris and Lyons has given good results. MIXING OF SOLUBLE OILS FOR SPRAYING Solutions Which Are Less Trouble to Prepare Than Is Lime-Sulphur —By J. L. Phillips* Entomologist. The lime-sulphur spray is one of our most important insecticides, and is destined to play a prominent part in the horticulture of the future. It Is eminently satisfactory for use against the San Jose scale and some other insects; and a number of fungous diseases, such as peach leaf euri. and peach blight. It also aids in a gen eral way in clearing up and Improving the condition of the trees. Its good points are sufficient to outweigh any objections to its use for the above purposes, except in special cases. Every one is famtllar with the fact that oil does not readily mix with water. There are processes, however, by which an emulsion inay be made with the oils, and this emulsion will mix with water at almost any desired strength. Some patented brands of emulsions have been on the market several years, and have gained wide publicity as substitutes for lime-sul phur. One of the main objections to these prepared oils is their cost. Prof. Kettle for Preparing Llme-fiulphur—Also Suited for Preparing Soluble Oils. Penny of the Delaware experiment station, published recently a method of preparing the oils for spraying pur poses, the products of which he termed "Home-made Miscible Oils.” These preparations appeared to be so promising' that we undertook, during the spring of 1908, to test some of his formula. They are less trouble to prepare than lime-sulphur, though the method is a little more complicated from the fact that more materials en ter into their preparation. By care fully following directions, however, no trouble should be experienced. The cost is a little greater than that of lime-sulphur. There are three distinct processes in the preparation of the home-made soluble oils: Ist. Making the “soap solution.” 2d. Adding the required amount of oils and water to make the soluble oil. 3d. Diluting the soluble oil with water to make the emulsion ready for applying to the trees. Formula for the Soap Solution. Gallons. Menhaden oil 5 Carbolic acid (liquid. crude, straw color, 100 per cent, pure) 4 Pounds. Cauatic potash 7% Gallons. Heat to 290 or 300 degrees Fahren heit, and add the following quantities of kerosene (refined) and water, while it Is still hot: Kerosene 7 Water H This will cost about 17 to 21 cents per gallon. Do riot forget that this mixture Is highly inflammable while hot. and that disagreeable odors are given off from It. For these reasons It is well to conduct the operations out of doors, or under an open shed roof. Heat (foes not readily escape from a mixture of this consistency, and very little heat Is required to raise the temperature to the proper point. About three-quarters of an hour is sufficient to make up one lot. The Menhaden oil, carbolic add. and caustic potash should be put into the kettle before it gets hot. The mix ture should then be stirred for a shprt time, to prevent the potash from cak ing to the bottom of the kettle, after which the kettle should be covered. The kettle should not be more than half full, for when foam ing begins, at about 260 degrees, it may overflow. Keep the fire well under control, and raise the tempera ture gradually from this point even re ducing the fire. If necessary, to pre vent a rapid rise in temperature. At 290 to 300 degrees, either remove the material quickly, and put Into a bar rel before adding the oil and water, or . throw earth on the fire to almost extinguish it. The oil must be added while the mixture Is hot, but should then be allowed to cool down to about 212 degrees before the water is added, to prevent any slight explosion that might be caused by the rapidly rising steam. The whole should then be stirred, so as to mix it thoroughly, after which it ahould form a somewhat ropy soap mixture, that does not separate or de teriorate upon standing. It will evap orate to some extent, if left open, hence a cover should be placed over the barrel. A sample, left open in a warm room in a 500 c. c. graduate, lost about 15 per cent, of Its bulk In a month's time. No heat is required after the soap solution is prepared. It may be mixed with the oils even at a freezing tem perature. but mixes better when mod erately warm, and much less stirring is then necessary to bring the mass to a good soluble oil. The oils should be kept In a moderately warm room in cold weather, so they will mix bet ter. The formulae we have tested are given below. It will be necessary to reduce the quantities by one-third or one-half in formulae 1 and 2, if the mixing is to be done in a 50-gallon barrel. Formula No. 1. Gallons. Soap solution 9 Crude oil 20 Rosin oil •*> Water 7H Cost, about 11 Vi eents per gallon. Contains about 69 4-5 per cent, of oil. Formula No. 2. Gallons Soap solution 0 Crude oil 3> Paraffin oil 10 Rosin oil 0 Water Cost, about 12 4-5 cents per Ration. Contains about 78 per cent, of oil. Formula No. 3. Gallons. Soap solution 0 Paraffin oil 40 Rosin oil 6 Water I'4 Cost, about 16% rents per gallon. Contains about 88 9-10 per cent of oil. Keep distinctly in mind the fact that there are three separate steps in this process: Ist, preparation of the soap solution; 2d, making the soluble oil; 3d, dilution of the soluble oil to make the emulsion ready to apply to the trees. Wasting Portion of Corn Crop.— “Do you know,” says P. J. Julian of Kossuth county. lowa, “I think the time is passing when we are going to have our big corn fields, with 40 per cent, of the value of the corn plant left out in the field, to be worth per haps 50 cents an acre for cattle to pick over? We have got to stop that, and we are going to do it by the silo. We cannot afford, with land worth SIOO or more per acre, to al low nearly half of this valuable prod uct to He out of doors.” Like Dark Nests.— Hens like rather dark or hidden nests In which to lay. This condition can be met by tacking dark pieces of cloth in front of nest boxes so that they will hang like cur tains. When nests are located and ar ranged to suit the hens' tastes they will not so readllj' seek other places to, lay and hide their nests. It is beßt to have all the laying done where the eggs can be conveniently gathered each day and their age accurately known. Express Company Responsible. A woman the other day won a suit for damages against an express com pany for carelessly exposing her fowls to the biting frosts of winter, thereby causing the loss of combs. Even express companies must recog nize the fact that pure bred fowls have a value above that of ordinary scrubs, although It may take a legal strug gle sometimes to prove it to some people. Make JVomsn’a Work Easy.— Man’s work on the farm Is long, but wom an's Is longer. Therefore make the bouse attractive and supply all labor saving devices possible, particularly he to the water supply.