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Rocky Ford enterprise. (Rocky Ford, Colo.) 1887-1950, December 29, 1916, Image 2

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T IS now 138 years since the United
States of America was composed of 13
states, the greater number of which had
a population of little more than that of
the average city of today. Those 13
states have grown and multiplied until
there are now 48 states, with a popula
tion- of nearly 100.U00.000 of the most
virile and strongest race of men on
oarth. It has been demonstrated many
times in the past century that the strug
gles of the patriots of 1776 were not in
vain. The words "United States of
America” are an inspiration and a help
to tho oppressed of all lands. The Union gleams
out through the world as a gigantic monument of
freedom, and the lowly and persecuted of all na
tions have their eyes turned toward America with
the hope that some day they may reach the prom
ised land.
Tho American flag is the oldest flag among the
nations of today. It antedates even the present
emblems of the ancient empires of China and Ja
pan. The Star-Spangled Banner has a history un
like the flag of any other people. It Is older than
tho present flag of Great Britain, which dates from
1801; it is'older than the German empire standard
of 1870; older than that of Prance—l794—or that
of Spain—l7Bs.
Tho first legislative action of which there Is
any record concerning the design and adoption of
a national flag was taken In a resolution of con
gress at Philadelphia on June 14, 1775. hut it was
not until October or November of that year that
a committee of three—Benjamin Franklin. John
Adams and Roger Sherman—met In the old city of
Cambridge and ,entered upon their duties. After
long deliberation, this committee adopted a design
consisting of the king’s colors—the crosses of St.
George and St. Andrew—with 13 parallel horizontal
stripes, alternate rod and white. A most strange
and unfortunato selection it would seem.
Tho flng was unfurled for the first time*over the
camp of the Continental army at Cambridge, on
the 2nd day of January,
1776. When the ensign
was first displayed at Cam
bridge, the British regu
lars assumed it was in
tended as an indication of*
submission by the 13
states to the king, whoso
speech had Just been sent
to the Americans. The
comment of tho British
Register of 1776 on the
now standard Is interest
ing: "The rebels burned
the king's speech and
changed the flag from a
plain banner to one bear
ing 13 stripes, as a sym
bol of tho number and
union of colonies.”
Isabelle Worrell Ball is
the woman who made the
American flag her life’s
study. She is the daugh
ter of a veteran of the
Revolutionary war and
the founder of Flag day.
which is now observed all
over the country. Her fa
ther was Cnpt. James P.
Worrell, who served
through the Civil war. and she numbers among
her relatives many of the heroes of,both wars.
Many years ago Mrs. Ball became convinced that
the real history of our flag was unknown. She
determined to unravel the tangled skein, and
give to posterity the true history and evolution
of the American flag.
"It was suggested by early writers that George
Washington’s coat of arms was the model for our
flag of today,*’ said Mrs. Ball. "These statements
are supported only by tradition and legend, as
all my search has proved that Washington was
not egotistical enough to present his coat of arms
to the nation as a model for Its flag. I have
delved Into history as far as it is possible to go.
I have examined many manuscripts, and have
separated tradition and legend from facts, and It
is my belief that Washington neveg thought of
his coat of arms as a model for the flag. In fact,
there is grave doubt that Washington had any
thing to do with the designing of the flag at all.
"A sentence front one of Washington’s own
letters seems to me to clinch this statement.
Sir Isaac Heard, an eminent writer of the early
days, wrote to Washington concerning his coat
of arms, which appears upon tho doorway and
mantels of the old Washington manor house in
England. To this Inquiry Washington replied
on May 2. 1792:
” ’This is a subject to which I confess I have
paid very little attention. The arms inclosed in
your letter are the same that are used by the
family here.’ As will be seen, this was a letfbr
written a decade after the close of the Revolu
tionary war. and nearly two decades after the
adoption of the Stars and Stripes by the congress
of the T’nited Staten. If Washington, at that late
date, had paid little attention to his coat of arms,
ho certainly paid less in his younger days, and
especially at a time when he was surrounded by
enemies, malignantly persecuted by them, and
was naturally deeply engrossed in the army and
the preservation of the new-born nation. I do not
find In all of Washington’s writings a single allu
sion by him of any of his contemporaries that his
coat of arms was used as a model for the flag.
"The evolution of the flag was gradual and un
doubtedly grew out of the desire of the people
who had come to this country to get away from
the tyranny of Old World monarchs. Of course,
the first flag in this country was the red and yel
low flag of old Spain, brought over by Columbus.
The Cabots, with other discoverers of England,
planted the cross of St. George up around New
foundland. Pedro Reinal, for the Portuguese,
planted the five-spotted blue flag of that then
great maritime nation. Henry Hudson, coming
here for the Dutch, brought the yellow, white and
blue flag, under which be sailed up the Hudson
river. This flag was the flag of the Dutch East
Tndla company. These may be considered the
four discovery flags.
"England dominated the country, and the Eng
lish colors were really the last as well as among
the first to dominate the destinies of the evolving
nation. The cross of St. George, with the added
cross of St. Andrew, and later on with the cross
of St. Patrick, was the very last flag to be sup
planted by the Stars and Stripes.
"The people of America, with growing contempt
for OKI World flags, fabricated many of their
own. Some of these were very odd. and without
exception, all of them weie very ugly. This was
true until 1620. when the Mayflower carried the
St. George’s cross, but those stern old Puritans
protested against the use of the cross upon the
flag, believing It to be sacrilegious, and In every
way they could, used other devices and designs,
only to bring down upon themselves the wrath
of the king's officers in the colonies. The first
evidence of this was when n Mr Endlcott. mu
tinying against the cross, concluded to cut off
one end of it. Roger Williams, for some reason,
probably just to get a whack at one whom he
disliked, complained of this. The king’s officers
took it up. and after a long discussion, decided
that Mr. Endlcott had been guilty of lese majeste,
although that term was not known in those days.
He was deposed from office and a penalty Im
posed that he should not hold office again for
one year, thus putting an end to the flying of
any flag other than that bearing tho St. George
“For a long time a plain red flng was carried
by an organization called the Sons of Liberty.
Following this was a blue flng with three cres
cents. another with two. and still another .with
one. Washington himself in 1775 suggested a
white flag with a pine tree, and this is only an
other proof that the story of Washington's coat
of arms was false. About 1775 a striped green
and yellow flag was carried by one of the militia
companies. In January, 1775. the first red and
white-striped flag was adopted. This was known
as the Cambridge flng. and consisted of 13 alter
nate red and white stripes, with the king's colors
then consisting of St. Andrew's and St. George’s
crosses on a blue field.
a Colonel Gadsen proposed to congress
our first naval flag. This was a great big yellow
flag, with a snake coiled up in the center. It
hung over the head of the speaker for some years
and then went out of existence. • Following this
came flags of red and blue stripes, and red and
white stripes, each without a field, and each with
snakes in them. There were pine tree flags
galore. There were flags with badgers, flags with
anchors; In fact, any old thing except a St.
George's cross seemed acceptable to the colonists
struggling for light in the darkness. In 1776 the
Rhode Island colony adopted a flag of 12 white
r:ars on a blue field. This Is the very first time
stars appeared In the flag.
"From the date of the Declaration of Inde
pendence and for a year or more afterward the
colonies used almost everything that flies in the
heavens or swims in the water or grows on land
as a symbol for their flag. Finally, one bright
day In June, with no father and no mother. Old
Glory was born. Thero is not a word or record
of any kind to show who designed the flag, who
presented the resolution, or how It ever got Into
JJ GZQRY**} EAtYZfgR. Jftip22)aiX&
for France, an imperial
eagle in black for Germany, and a Belgian Mon
for Holland, the Idea being to commemorate the
countries from which the states had been peopled.
In addition. It was Intended to have three escutch
eons linked together by a chain. ac.d each of
these chains was to bear the initial of each of
the 13 independent states Then there was to be
a Goddess of Liberty in corselet and armor, with
spear and cap and a shield of the states, with a
goddess of justice hearing a sword in her right
hand and in her left a balance. In the corner
provision was made for the eagle of Providence
in a triangle, with the motto. 'E Pluribus Ilnum.’
On tile other side of this unique seal was Pharaoh
in an open chariot, with a cross and sword, pass
ing through the divided waters of the Red sea In
pursuit of the Israelites. Moses was there, and
the pillar of fire, with the motto. •Rebellion to
tyrants is obedience to God.' This design was
not adopted.
"In March. 1779. another committee was aj»-
polnted, and the report they made for a great
seal was worse than the first. On June 13. 1782.
however, a William Barty of Philadelphia pro
posed practically the present coat of arms, which
was finally adopted after being modified by an
other committee.”
The story of John Paul Jones is intimately
associated with the story of our first flag. The
same congress that created the first flag ap
pointed John Paul Jones to command the Conti
nental ship of war Ranger at the same time.
When the flag was prepared and the Ranger was
about to go forth on her lonely adventure the
naval committee made the commander the first
official present of the flag of the United States.
The achievements of the Ranger are a matter
of the most stirring events of our history. All
the world knows how. in 1777. Jones made such
gallant use of the Ranger and kept the shores of
England nnd Scotland in constant terror.
The first military incident connected with the
new flag occurred on August 2. 1777, when Lieu
tenants Bird nnd Grant invested Fort Stamwix.
The garrison was without a flag when the enemy
appeared, hut the patriots soon supplied one very
much on the pattern Just adopted by the Conti
nental congress. Shirts were cut up to form
white stripes, bits of scarlet cloth were joined
for the red. and the blue ground for the stars
was composed of a cjoth cloak belonging to Capt.
Abraham Swartout. who was then In the fort.
Before sunset this furious mosaic standard, as
precious to the beleaguered garrison as the most
beautiful wrought flag of silk and needlework.-
was floating over one of the bastions. The siege
was raised on August 23. but It Is not known
what became of the improvised flag.
In his statement to Governor Trumbull. August
21, 1777. of the occurrences at Fort Stamwix.
Colonel Willett mentions as one of the results
of his sally from the fort that he captured and
brought off five of the enemy's colors, the whole
of which, on his return to the fort, were displayed
on the flagstaff under the Impromptu Continental
the congress of the United
States. The fact Is sim
ply recorded as follows;
•* ’Resolved. That the flag
of the 13 United States he
13 stripes, alternate red
and white; that the Union
be 13 stars, white In a
blue field, representing a
new constellation.’
“So far ns the vote is
recorded in congress it
was unnnimous. nnd that
Is how the flag was born.
"About this time the
great seal of the United
States came Into exist
ence. On July 4, 1776.
Benjamin Franklin. John
Adams, and Thomas Jeffer
son were appointed a com
mittee to prepare devices
for,a great seal of the na
tion. This committee re
ported on August 10 of the
same year and recom
mended a design to con
sist of a rose of red and
white for England, a this
tle for Scotland, a heart
for Ireland, a fleur-de-lis
Secret But Persistent Opposition to
Clause Which Provides for the Ex
clusion of All Defectives
From Other Lands.
Washington.—There are bunkers,
pits and hazards in the senate in the
way of the safe passage of the immi
gration restriction bill introduced by
Representative Burnett of Alabama
and which passed the house some
time ago by a big majority. Call the
obstacles bunkers, pits and hazards as
you will, they all come under the one
name of politics. The senators ap
parently want to pass this measure,
but it is said they are timid about it
because of the coming elections.
If this restriction bill is not given
the senate’s sanction at this session,
a good many Washington politicians
say the votes gained in the country
because of Inaction on the bill will
be offset by the votes lost for the
same reason. It is rather a hard
thing to say perhaps that senators
are moved by political considerations,
but seemingly some of them ofe and
perhaps they are now weighing the
political “fors” and “againsts” of the
proposition before making up their
minds whether or not to send the bill
through before adjournment.
So much has been written about
tho literacy test, which is embodied in
the Burnett bill and which has been
productive of so much antagonism,
that sight has been lost of some other
features of the measure which are Im
portant and which, like the literacy
provision, have brought to it support
or opposition as men’s opinions vary.
Oppose Inflated Immigration.
The senate has Just received a re
port from the committee on immigra
tion of the American Genetic associa
tion containing recommendations for
legislation to cut down the number
of immigrants who yearly come Into
the United States. The signers of the
report are Alexander E. Cance of the
Massachusetts Agricultural college.
Irving Fisher of Yale university, Pres
cott F. Hull of Boston, and Robert De
C. Ward of Harvard university. The
signers analyzed the causes of in
flated immigration and gave scientific
authority to support their conclusions.
The senate is told In this report
that the numbers of insane and men
tally defective aliens in the United
States continue to increase. It Is af
firmed that the number of foreign
born insane in the hospitals of New
York City increased in two years 13
2-10 per cent. Dr. E. K. Sprague of
the United States public health serv
ice Is quoted as saving that probably
only 5 per cent, of the mentally de
fective aliens arriving in the United
States have been detected. It Is
charged that conditions are becoming
worse rapidly and that the results arc
more lamentable because the numbers
of mentally defective aliens In this
country are In no way segregated and
are frqe to reproduce their kind.
The Burnett bill contains drastic
provisions Intended to keep out men
tally defective aliens.
Much Hidden Antagonism.
Curiously enough there Is antago
nism which shows itself In subtle ways
to the provision of this bill which
would make It virtually impossible for
defective aliens to come into the
United States. No man nor body of
men apparently has cared to appear
openly In opposition to the effort to
strengthen the law shutting out de
fectives. but it is known that the op
position is making Itself felt In-many
darkened ways.
In the report to which reference has
been made and which has been given
to the senate this is said:
“No one who is not acquainted
with existing conditions can possibly
realize how strong, how steady and
how effective is the "puH" which Is
exerted by the families and the
friends of aliens who by the laws of
the United States ought clearly to
be debarred, to have those aliens
landed. Steamship companies: the
societies to which the aliens’ rela
tives belong; sentimental, but woe
fully misguided ‘philanthropists’, and
senators and representatives who are
trying to please their foreign born
constituents all these interests
unite to bring pressure to bear upon
the immigration officials to whom ap
peals are referred. . . . Those who
want our incoming aliens to be sane
and sound and fit, ouvht to stand be
hind every honest immigration official
who does his duty well; and ought
to see to it that there is no relaxation
In the enforcement of our laws to
the detriment of the race.”
About Anti-Trust Bills.
Is President Wilson to win his
fight in the senate for antitrust
legislation? There is every evi
dence at this writing that the meas
ure will go through the house of rep
resentatives. There Is a reappearance
here *of predictions that the adminis
tration may experience trouble In get
ting these measures through the sen
ate, but judging by the record of ac
complishment In the past, it seems
likely that the Democrats will stand
together and put the measures through
and send them to the White House
for signature.
Some men In Washington say It will
make precious little difference to the
trusts of the country whether Mr. Wil
son gets the legislation he wants or
not; that the measures are toothless,
and that the showing of antagonism on
the part of the representatives of big
business Is for deceptive purposes only.
The friends of the administration’s
bills say that when they go into effect
their value will be proved, and they
content themselves with this word on
the subject.
The representatives of labor and
their friends In congress still av<
keeping up their fight to sedure exemp
tion for labor unions and for farm
ers’ organizations from the action of
the Sherman anti-trust law. For the
last week or two at the White House
conferences have been frequent on
this subject. Why the Democrats who
would like to exempt labor and the
farmers, think they can move the
president to a change of mind on the
subject does not appear, for Mr. Wil
son has spoken strongly on this mat
ter on a number of occasions. The at
tempts, however, to induce him to
make concessions are still the order.
Webb Succeeds Clayton.
Representative Clayton, the author
of the anti-trust bills which bear his
name, has neen appointed to a federal
judgeship. Representative Webb of
North Carolina now is the guiding
hand in the committee on judiciary in
which the bills were framed. Mr.
Webb and Mr. Clayton are different
in action and in repose. Webb Is a
good deal of a militant. Once on a
time President Wilson wrote a letter
to Representative Clayton urging him
for the good of the house of representa
tives and the good of the country, to
stay at his post in congress and not
jeopardize his seat in the lower house
by entering the senatorial race against
Hobson and Underwood.
Mr. Wilson at that time saved the
situation foe Leader Underwood, be
cause if Mr. Clayton, conservative
Democrat, had entered the seuatorial
tight, he would have taken many votea
from Oscar W., and might have been
the cause of the election of "Merri
mac" Hobson.
"Taking one consideration with an
other,” the president's lot in the house
just at present does not seem to be an
altogether happy one, but in all hu
man probability it is only In the seem
ing. He has won out before and he
probably- will win out again. The
anti-trust bills will go through, and in
the face of all things to the contrary.
It seemingly Is safe to say that they
will go through at this session. Their
enactment Into law it Is claimed, will
give the Progressives and perhaps
even some of the more progressively
inclined Republicans, something to at
tack forcibly during the coming cam
Railway Mail Pay.
It seems probable that before
congress adjourns u new plan for
the payment of the railroads for
tho carrying of the mail will have re
ceived the lawmakers’ enaction. For
years this question has been rearing
its Interrogation point. The railroads
have said they were not getting pay
enough. Some government officials
said that while this was true of some
railroads, there were others that were
getting too much pay. The solution of
the problem may come within a few
weeks Complaints from the railroads
have been sharper and more frequent
since the law went Into operation es
tablishing the parcel post service.
Some time ago a commission on rail
way mall pay was appointed. It con
sists of former Senator Jonathan
Bourne. Jr., of Oregon, chairman; for
mer Senator Richardson of Delaware;
Senator Bankhead of Alabama, chair
man of the committee on post offices
and post roads; Senator John W.
Weeks of Massachusetts, and Repre
sentatives Tuttle of New Jersey and
Lloyd of Missouri.
Pay for Space, Not Weight.
While the commissioners have kept
to themselves the actual details of
the report. It is known that its main
feature is a proposal to substitute
payment to the railroads for space In
stead of for weight of the mails as
was the case In the past. There seems
to be a feeling that the railroads may
not like this substitution, but the
members of the commission believe
that at the end of two years all the
roads In the country will admit that
it Is the fairest device that could have
been adopted.
It is said by men familiar with the
work which the commission has un
dertaken that the parcel post problem,
hard of solution as It was, presented
no such difficulties as those which
have been met In the present work.
The commissioners took up their task
either with open minds or with minds
nearly closed, for each one of them
had his own thought as to what should
be done. The Interstate commerce
commission had its own views on the
subject and the post office department
had Its vipws As there are six com
missioners it will be seen that there
were eight different viewpoints on the
mall payment subjects when the In
quiry began.
Investigation, it Is said, showed the
railroads would be obliged to carry
at least 7 per cent of mall stuff free,
thus Imposing a loss of 14 per cent
upon them during the first two years
of trial.
One aim of the commission Is to
relieve the present system of the an
cient abuse due to varying orders is
sued by the post office department
whereby one postmaster general may
make the railroads a present of large
gums of money each year at the ex
pense of the government, while his
successor may take an equal sum out
of the railroad funds in favor of the
United States treasury. The commis
sioners seem to think that they have
hit upon a system that will give
actually fair results

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