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HOW WARSHIPS ARE TESTED.
Miniature Basin in Which the Models Are Practiced. Tor over fifteen years Admiral Hichborn, chief of the construction bureau of the navy, has been endeav oring to secure the building of an ex perimental naval basin. He was sent abroad by Secretary Chandler as far back as 1884. to see what improve ments had been devised in ship build ing by other countries, and came back with the idea for this in his brain. But it was not until towards the close of the fifty-fourth congress that he was able to secure an appropriation of tte necessary $150,000 to put his plans into operation. The need of such tanks has been recognized for a still longer time, but the governments have hesitated to go into it sufficiently to attain the best results. Mr. William Denny, the most progressive of the iScotcli builders, and the owner of the only private basin in the world, said recently in discussing the question: “Of all the problems about a steamship tl:e only ones incapable of being solv ed at the present moment by a priori method are those relating to speed and flower. No ability and no training will enable even the most skillful architect to overcome the want of an experi mental tank in coping with these two questions." It is to find out this ideal hull—the one that will attain the max imum result of speed, of carrying pow ci, or of whatever other quality that may be desired —that the United States has erected, after many years of solicitation on the part of the bu leau of construction and repair, this enormous basin. The basin was au thorized by congress two yea. % ago, aid already partial experiments have been begun to determine the best fhapes for the hulls of the new war fhips authorized last March. The tank lias a length of 500 feet and along of its long sides is laid a Tailway oil which runs a “towing carriage,” which extends like a bridge over the * tank from side to filde. When the great weight of the vehicle, twenty-five tons, is taken into consideration, as vreTi as the rapid ity with which it moves and the perfect control un der which It oper ates at all times, it will be easily un derstood that the whole process of operation le little short of marvelous. In fact the motor carriage of the model basis is a mechanical wonder and a thing almost entirely unique. On It is a complicated piece of machinery, worked by the Ward - Leonard system of electrical control, capable of driving the car riage along at twenty - five miles an hour, within 200 feet of the starting place. Hung to this bridge carriage by means of a dy namometer, will bo the various j models which it is designed to test, each loaded so as to float the exact proportionate depth designed for the ship. As the carriage sweeps along towing the model, the dyna mometer w'ill register the resistence of the water to that particular form of bow at each speed from one knot an ihour up to thirty. If It is found that the resistence is greater than it should be. the model will be taken back to the carpentering establishment and trimmed down or built out, as may be thought best, and then tried again and again until the very best shape for the purpose Intended is resolved upon. When one is finally adopted, the rc slstence of the water to its progress at various, speeds will be carefully noted, and from this it will he very simple to calculate the exact power of the en gines required to give the ship, when built, the greatest speed. Hereafter them w»ll be no danger that the en gines will be found too weak, thus losing speed, or too heavy and strong, thus losing weight, that might be bet ter devoted to some other part of the vessel. There Is one special advantage in the high speed which can be attained in the tank which a layman will neces sarily overlook. It results from tho tendency of a ship to bore downwards In the water. The faster she goes tho deeper she will bore, the more of her will be submerged and large will be the displacement. For Instance the const defense vessel Monterey, when running at full speed, plunges her en tire body under water, thus offering a much greater surface to the water and Increasing the resistence to her pas sage. It Is evident that portions of the how which are well out of the wa ter at ten knots—the maximum speed attainable In any of the European tanks will be submerged entirely at twenty knots, and that as much care should be taken to design so as to of fy tho least resistance of the upper portion to the water as Is taken w ith the lower portions, which arc all ays submerged. Yet never in the history of tho wovld has it been possible to ascertain the best shape for them In advance of actual test after the ship has been completed, when, of course, it is too late for alteration. Objections may bo made that the tank offers, after all, only smooth w r ater fa cilities, and will not give evidence as to work in a sea way. At one end of the tank is to be placed a powerful propeller, which will send waves to meet the model quite as strongly pro portionately to the size as are likely to be encountered by the ship in the open sea. Further, in one corner of the building which incloses the entire tank will be placed a powerful electric fan, which can get up a very good imi tation of a gale of wind. All these points were worked out very carefully by Naval Constructor David W. Taylor before the building of the plant was begun, and there was theoretically no doubt that all would work correctly. Still, careful tests were determined upon to show that these calculations were accurate. In other words, to make everything per fectly safe, the “sum” had to be “proved.” For this purpose, models have been or are being constructed of the lowa, the Brooklyn, the Raleigh, and other vessels at present in existence. Abund ant records, of course, exist as to the speed of these actual vessels in all sorts of weather and under all condi tions. If, when their models are tested in the tank, they should give results which, when worked out, should agree with the results in actual practice, it would he proof that other ships built on models obtained in the tank would also give the expected results. If, on the other hand, it were found that the results were somewhat different, they would give a basis for calculating the amount by which the final ship should be made to differ from the tank model. Naturally, Mr. Taylor felt more or less anxiety in regard to the first ex periment. This was made with a twenty-foot wooden model of the lowa, double the length of any model used abroad. So far, this has been tested at various speed up to twelve knots, and the results have been practically iden tical with those shown by the lowa’s log books. In a few days experiments will be made at greater speeds. At present the machinery is so new that it Is not thought prudent to use too great velocity. As the various parts get adjusted to each other, and the machinery, so to speak, “finds” Itself, the speeds will be increased till they reach the maximum. At present every thing is rough and discordant, and makes a great deal of noise. This, the men in charge say, will soon wear off. HALF A CENTURY AGO. Why People Dido t Need Vueutloim lu Tlione George S. Boutwell, ex-governor and ex-senator, writes to the Boston Globe: "There is very good reason why peo ple need more vacation now than in the past. Today the hours of labor for the average mechanic may be very' much less than formerly, but the kind of labor that he performs is greatly more exacting and wearing than the work of u mechanic was 50 years ago. A man laboring in a shop or a factory or on the farm today must do every thing with great care und skill. If he works only eight hours a day the work is steady and uninterrupted and it demands an expenditure of consid erable Intellectual effort. When I wa3 n hoy. a farm hand, for example, went about his tasks leisurely, stopped to talk and to rest frequently during the day, and Insisted on an occasional draft of rum. His hours of labor may have been from sun up to sun down, but his nctuul time of labor was much lens than that of a farm hand today. Fifty yenrs ago it was the same in every other kind of occupation. A mechanic went about his work with out any sense of hurry. Nobody seem ed to hurry In those days. Tho busi ness man had fewer cares and lighter responsibilities. There was seldom a rush about anything, because the fa cilities for rushing were not so numer ous as they are today. There was no railroads when I was a boy, no tele graph, no telephone, no six-day ocean steamers. Everything necessarily was on a slower scale. Men’s nerves were not constantly straining, and the anxieties of a week were not so great as the anxieties of a day are now. This was true also of the professions. The clergyman had to preach twice on Sun day, but the kind of sermon that was expected of him did not involve close study of contemporary affairs. Dur ing the week he did practically as he liked. The clergyman today has in numerable demands on his time and energy, with all kinds of charitable and philanthropic and quasi-clerical projects and organizations. He must be a man of active affairs. Sixty years ago the lawyers had an infinitely nar rower field. People went to law about a strip of land or a title to a piece of property. Today the lawyers handle cases involving the most intricate com mercial complications and engage in the settlement of disputes over mil lions of dollars. There were no patent cases half a century ago. and today there are thousands, and the lawyers who handle them must be good me chanics as well as learned in the law. So it is true of every profession and almost every occupation today. A man works harder and longer, and has greater anxiety and heavier responsi bility. I believe that vacations save many lives. They are very pessary, because the life that we leaa drains the system of its strength, and the mechanic must stop for rest and repair or break down.” NIPPONISM IN JAPAN, It Is a Draw ini; Hack Into tlie National Shell. A Japanese boy, a middle-school stu dent, came into my study the other day and said he did not believe in using any foreign language in speaking to foreigners, says the Kobe Herald. He believes all Japanese ought to use their own language, and make foreign- ers learn to speak in Japanese. This < was so unique and refreshing, coming from a student, that I was in a quan- i dary for a moment, not knowing how i to take it. But he informed me that he was a Nippon Shugi man, and that < was the way to preserve national in stitutions. There is a growing dread among a large class of Japanese that the national institutions are in danger of being swallowed up in the hurried j Europeanizing of things; hence the spread of Nipponism, the drawing back into a national shell. The national spirit will be lost If too mudh leaning toward foreign things is allowed, fcrnce* the absence of any English on the re cent issue of postage stamps. The May number of the Talyo has not one word of English In it—not even The Srm on the title page. No more English con tents, no English names under the pic tures. Nipponism has gone mad. Kllcnclnjc an Autllenco. A clever Hit of campaign repartee is accredited to Lee Fairchild, the Cal ifornia orator who leaped into nation al reputo in 1869. He was sent into a Southern state to advocate the gold standard. At a certain place ho was Informed by tho committee that the "rally” would begin and end about tho same time, and that not since 1883 < lmd uny republican speaker been per mitted to finish a speech there. Upon learning that the speakers ns a rule had been ablo to get out of the town and fill their next appointments, Fair child determined to make the attempt as billed. He advised the chairman to have no music and to introduce him by saying to tho audience: “You are the people nnd here is tho speaker.” Tho chairman followed instructions a little too literally. Ho simply pointed at. the audience and then at the speak er and disappeared behind the scenes. Fairchild begun his speech at once with one of his famous stories. The audience was separated, the colored folk nil being In tho gallery, nnd only white’ people below. In about five minutes the speaker made a pointed thrust at tho opponent party, when I an organized body of young men In I the center of the theater shouted in concert: “Rats!” Fairchild paused for a moment, and then waving his hand at the gallery said: “Watter, come down and take the Chinamen’s orders!” The effect was electrical. The speaker in relating the incident to the writer said: “You should have seen that black hillside of faces slop ing heavenward break into ledges of pearls.” DEWEY’S SHIRT SYSTEM. Scheme to (live Each Uurment the Same Amount of Wear. There resides in Washington at the present time a man who has known Admiral Dewey for the past thirty years, during which time their ac quaintance has been marked by the most friendly and social intercourse. In speaking of the true character of the famous naval hero this friend said: “There is little difference between the Dewey of today and the Dewey of 25 years ago. Dewey was as popular an officer as could he found in the navy, and during our cruises he was always a desired guest at banquets. He was a splendid messmate, full of manly sentiment, and ever ready to lend the melody of his sweet tenor voice in a chorus. One trait that always at tracted the attention of the acquaint ance of Admiral Dewey was his ex tremely neat appearance. He dresseck in the morning with a strict regard for the demands of a professional man, and when he left his apartments for the club in the evening his outfit could be used as a model for a society man. His figure is rather below medium height, hut trim and well knit. From the conservatively shaped hat to the round-toed shoes he wore, everything bore the earmarks of gentility and refinement. He was fastidious about every feature of his dress, and always had his shoes made on the same shaped last. The care he observed in his dress was followed in the arrange ment of his wardrobe. Everything had its place, and he knew exactly where to find a handkerchief, a shirt or col lar. In fact, he might be called a crank on the subject, having invented an odd custom for keeping his shirts so that one could not be worn oftener than an other. They are all numbered, rang ing from Ito 21. He had a chiffonier containing an equal number of draw- ers, Just wide enough to receive a shirt. He begins at the top and wears the shirt in drawer No. 1, then the gar ment in drawer No. 2. and so on down the line. He is just as particular about other parts of his wurdrohe, also.”— Brooklyn Eagle. Napoleon** Dentil Muik. On March 4, 1821, the day after the great Napoleon died, Automarchi, his physician, took a plaster cast of his face, and for this death mask he was soon afterward offered £G,OOO by a wealthy London collector of curiosi ties. He refused the offer and retained the mask in his possession until he had secured a perfect copy of it In bronze. The original cast was then offered for sale In London, the price asked being first £(5,000, and after wards £5,000. No purchaser, how ever, appeared, and the same was tho case In Brussels, where the price asked was 100,000 francs. The bronze mask had meanwhile become the property of the society entitled the Sons of Glory, all of whom were at one time officers of the grand army. Whenever a mem ber of the society died the mask was placed on Ills coffin during the funeral services. After the death of tho last member the mask passed into the pos session of Miss Forty, an English lady, i She has Just died, and at tho sale of her effects the once famous musk fetch ed a comparatively small sum—ridicu lously small, Indeed, when compared with the sum which was once offered to Automurchl. Allot It«t ltliH' tii-otto. The famous Blue grotto of Capri has now a rivul in the state of Minnesota. It occurs In a lake on the shores of which there Is a cavern of white lime stone flooded with water. A swimmer enters the cavo, and, turning to look upward, sees the most beautiful shades of green and blue In the water and a silvery sheen over his submerged limbs. Iron Holder. Tops of wora-out hoots or Uoss I make excellent iron holders. ROBERT DOWNING Tells the Secret of His Great En durance. Robert Downing was recently Inter viewed by tho press on the subject of his splendid health. Mr. Downing promptly and emphatically gave the whole credit of his splendid physical condition to Pe-ru-na, saying: Robert Downing, tho Tragedian. *'l find, it a preventive against all sudden summer ills that swoop upon one in changing climates and water. “It is the finest traveling companion and safeguard against malarial in fluences. “To sum it up, Pe-ru-na has done me more good than any tonic I have ever taken.” Healthy mucous membranes protect (he body against the heat of summer and the cold of winter. Pe-ru-na Is sure to bring health to the mucous membranes of the whole body. Write for a copy of Dr. Hartman’s latest book entitled “Summer Catarrh.” Address Dr. Hartman, Columbus, O. Remember that cholera morbus, cholera infantum, summer com plaint, bilious colic, diarrhoea and dysentery are each and all catarrh of the bowels. Catarrh Is the only correct name for these affections. Pe-ru-na is an absolute specific for these ailments, which are so com mon in summer. Dr. Hartman, In a practice of over forty years, never lost a single case of cholera infan tum, dysentary, diarrhoea, or chol era morbus, and his only remedy was Pe-ru-na. Those desiring fur ther particulars should send for a free copy of “Summer Catarrh/* Address Dr. Hartman, Columbus, O. Sweet Revenge. First Horse—Used tip all those tacks? Second Horse—Neigh, neigh; 1 have some left. First Horse—Scatter a few close to the curb; here comes an automobile.—Ohio State Journal. Ladies Can Wear Shoes One size smaller after using Allen’s Foot Ease, a powder for the feet. It makes tight or new shoes easy. Cures swol len, hot. sweating, aching feet, ingrow ing nails, corns and bunions. At all druggists and shoe stores. 25 cts. Trial package FREE hy mail. Addross Allen S. Olmsted, Le Roy, N. Y. "Miss Spellum wears all her best sum mer clothes down to the office.” "Is she in love with anybody there?” "No. but she says It scares her employer so ho doesn't give her much work to do." Hint to Housekeepers. A little dry "Faultless Starch” will make a large quantity of bturch mixture uud gives better results than any other starch; try it. All grocers sell "Faultless Starch,” 10c. "Docs your husband look after things while you are away. Mrs. Dwlggs?” "lie takes care of ihe chickens amt children, but I always send my house plants over to mother's." "A woman. I notice, always lowers her voice to ask a favor." "Yes. and raises her voice If sin- .Im-su't get It." ft iw m SLICKER WILL KEEP YOU DRY. Don’t be fooled with a mackintosh or rubber coat. ltyouM.mt.iro.it that will k©> p you dry in the hard est storm buy the ITsh Brand Slicker. If not for sale In your town, write for catalogue to A- J. TOWER. Boston, Mass. W. L. DOUGLAS 53&53.50 SHOES “I™ Worth $4 to $8 compared with other makes. r • Indorsed by over / f'\ i,i)Oii,ooo wearers. Igk vfi, ALL LEATHERS. ALL STYLES Lla r}) Tint HKXiISK lu«» w. L. Douglas’ 1/ imnir and prl*. .Uniprd o# hultoui. Hk f Take no nubatltute claimed i to beat* good. Earnest makers of *3 ami 13.n0 shoes In the world. Your dealer should keep them If not, we will nciid you a pair on receipt of price. State kind of leuther, slzo and width, plain or cap toe. Catalogue A Tree. W. L. DOUGLAS SHOE CO.. Brockton. Mon. gig®®®®®®®®* sxsx.'St^axeaxt'®®^ 1 i Frbb? 1 * S S Send your name and address on ® postal, and we will send you our t 5- S .•! page illustrated catalogue free. * I WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS CO. I ® 174 Winchester Avenue, Now Hiven, Conn. [S' ®#XSXS)@<SXiX@®®®®®®®®®®® l S®@4xS)<S CANDY CATHARTIC^ CARTER'S INK 1m wliut the InrgcHt uud beat ► school systems uae. Denver Directory, y HARNESS. free. All goods stamped. FRiFD MUEL LER. 1413 Larimer St.. Denver. Colorado. GOODS SENT FOR EXAMINATION. denvkr Tcntl and awning Co. I PROCTER'S PATENT ORE SACKS I 010 Arapahoe .Street.( BROWN PALACE HOTEL SS L.uropeun and American plan*. 11.50 und W ana up. FIDELITY SAVINCS . 16,000,000. Pays 4toG pcrct. on deposits. Send for rule llaroniotcrs, Thorm- ometors. Field \ < M>- /3KST*'' r,t f blisses, lllnoeu lan, Transits, rum passes, Microscopes. OXFORD HOTEL *545 821.""opu" r l-rlee* KAITLK.It A MOUSE. Machinery & Supplies S'.VI.tI/'ofT'mk* V & SUPPLY CO., 1001 17th St- cor Wasco, Denver, TDI~I II I/O TRUNKS, TRUNKS, Tho A K. I nUIIIVO. Meek Trunk and Bug Co„ Denver, Colo. The ’largest and best lino of trunks in tho state at lowest prices. VTrite for catalogue und prices HA ATM C DO 1 AND CHILDREN’S lIOJLE, WlUlntnu 1009 33d Nt.. Denver, Colo. First-class care given mat -ruity eases. Wards In charge or Members of Faculty of Denver University and Homeopathic College. Also private rooms. Wr l,‘ for torn,.. CREAMERIE RESTAURANT 1018 CURTIS STREET, DENVER. Finest and largest Ladles' and Gont's Ke-tauranfc In the West. Meals from 15c up. Take cable cars from Union Depot. [heJ,H.MpniBiy Machinery Company. 1 125 H. P. steam plant, consisting of 2 boilers and an automatic engine, now set up \\ hero It cun be seen. 1 direct-acting double engine holster, cylinders 16.\3u Inches. 1 large coal hoist, double drums, all complete. yl 1 lu H. P. center crank engine, new. * 1 100 H. P. slide valve engine. 1 SxlO modern horizontal engine, new. 1 10 11. I*. portable engine. 4 2 H. P. horizontal steam engines. 1 22 actual H. P. Weber gasoline engine. 1 70 H. P. horizontal tubular boiler, com plete, full front. 2 50 H. P. horizontal tubular boilers, nearly new. 1 40 H. P. horizontal tubular boiler, haJf-arch front, complete. 1 20 H. P. horizontal tubular boiler, half arch front, complete. 1 t'»o H. I*. locomotive type boiler, nearly new. 4 feed water heaters. Vertical boilers all sizes. 1 6x3U.x6 Worthington outside packed Duplex mine station pump. 1 16x7x15 Smith Valle mine station pump. 1 is'sxloxl2 Worthington pump. 1 12-inch steam and 8-inch water enu by 10-Inch stroke Duplex mine pump. 1 deep well pump engine. 1 7xll Plaice crusher. 1 4xlo Blake crusher. 3 lurge capacity ore buckets, good as new. 1 20-lnch Leffell water wheel. In case, new. 3 latest improved patent smoko con sumers, cheap. 1 5-foot Howland pulverizer, new. 8 air drills, different mukes. 1 Frue Vanner. 1 hydraulic classifier. 1 automatic sample splitter. 1 triple-geared winch for derrick. 4 winches, suitable for raising sinking pumps. 1 Gypsum mill (Kelsner & Co., Chicago.) 1 3-drum holster, suitable for derrick. 1 10-ton Fairbanks wagon scales. 1 32-foot railroad Fairbanks truck scale, new’. 1 40-foot railroad track scale. 1.000 feet 4-Inch well casing. 15 furnace doors. 1 lot of brick machinery and tools; will sell or trade for brick; good chance to start in the business. 1 complete laundry plant, cheap as dirt. 1 ussuy outfit, complete, with balances ami small crusher. Shutting, pulleys, boxes, collar coup lings: also globe valves and black pipe, all sizes. 2 large drive belts and numerous small ones. DON'T FAIL TO CALL AND SEE OUR LINE. WE PAY CASH FOR ALL KINDS OF GOOD SECOND-HAND MA CHINERY AND SUPPLIES. YOUNG MEN! If you have menu/ to wontc try all the •‘Cur**" you may know or hear of: if you wlah to run the chunc# of getting a stricture buy the injectlona which are «*ld to •Mire in a to a (h»yn(b nut If you want * remedy which I* HiwMilutel.v safe mid which never fall* to cure unnatural dl-bargc*. no matter how Merlon* or of how lung stand ing the rare may !•©, get “PABST’S OKAY SPECIFIC” No case known It lias ever failed to Cure. Nothing like 11. ItcMilt* MMtonlah the doctor*, druggist* and all who have occanion to um> it. Can betaken without Inconventence or dr b-ntion from buafnrea Price. *3. 00. For sale hr nil reliable druggiNt*. or rent pre|>ald by JCx pn-re, plainly wrapped, on receipt of price by PABST CHEMICAL CO. Circular mailed ou reuucxt. Chicago. lU- E. BURLINGAME & CO., kSSAY OFFICE A " D LABORATORY BstebliahedinColorado.lB66. Samples /mail or cxpreatwillrecrivepromt'tand carefu attention Gold & Sitter Bullion •*gg-%gSXSHsr t Concentration Tests - 100 '^i, 0 / 1736-1738 Lawrence St.. Denver. Colo* nCllCinßift lie? yourPoniST, rOlwlUlf W DOUBLE OUIC' Write CAPT. O'PARRELL, Pcn.l.m Agent. 1425 New 1 ork Avenue Wa.sHIMITON. I>. C. IjENSgON^ 1 . h Ingio ai^D.% wP Succosfifully PropecutcH Claims. ■ I .at# Principal Hnlmlnor If B. IVimioti Bureau. B.lvi a In clvi lti n IT. mlliullciUiin; clutm. mi y W. N. U.-DENVER.- NO. 34.-IBUU Vv'bcD Answering Advertisements Kindly Mat! lon This I'npcr.