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SINKING OR TIMBERING. Practical Advice to Miners From the En gineering and Mining Journal. lii mining, as in other occupations, things are often done because they are considered proper, and without any thought on the part of the miuer. Men, in a certain district, get into the hubit of performing certain operations in a certain way and make no attempt to see if other methods would not serve them better. Because a certain meth od gives a good result in one case it it too frequently assumed that it will give good results in other cases where conditions are entirely different. The practical miner is apt to know his own particular mine very well, and this knowledge gives him a certain con tempt for geologists, or other trained observers, who bring a wider knowl edge and more unbiased judgment to the work in hand. Perhaps the con servatism of the average miner and prospector in the Hooky Mountains, w or on the Pacific slope, is most evident in his clinging to the idea that the best way to find out what there is in the vein he has located is to “prove it with depth” by a crosscut tunnel. As a matter of fact, when a miner has staked out his claim the first and most essential thing is for him to de termine, as nearly as he can with the means at his disposul, the direction of the vein. Thus he will know wheth er his location really covers the vein, thereby very likely saving himself a heart-breaking lawsuit should the vein prove valuable. In case the sur face debris is not deep, say 10 feet or less, it will not take him very long to dig some surface crosscuts the whole width of the vein. He will find out. also whether the ore that he located is really in place, or whether it is slide or float rock from higher up the hill side. Having determined the general direction of the ledge, and opened it, if the surface is not too deep, in at least four places on a claim 1.500 feet long, the next thing to do is to siuk on the ledge far enough to determine accurately Its dip or the inclination at which it slopes into the ground. Then if. as stated, the vein has been open ed up at at least four points, several hundred feet apart, a careful analysis of the rock from the bottom of the different pits or crosscuts will show whether the vein grows richer in one direction than in another, or carries fairly uniform values. Having ascer tained this much, the prospector is in a position to go to work systematical ly. He can decide whether he shall siuk his shaft deeper or run a tunnel. He can also tell where is the best point to locate h s shaft or tunnel so that it will show up the vein to the best advantage. Generally speaking, the best advice that can be given in.,opening any min /eral deposit is “follow the ore.” There is no other way by which the ground can be shown up so thoroughly, and the ore taken out will go often a long way toward paying expenses. Even if the ore is not rich enough to pay for shipment, it is always evidence of the value of the rock iu the vein, and is a tangible, self-evident thing to show a prospective investor. Again, shafts or inclined, that follow the vein, will show up any changes in the ore and give a large amount in sight. Thus four sliufts fifty feet down on a ledge four feet wide would expose 1,- 080 square feet of the vein. A tun nel driven 200 feet through rock to cut the vein would expose but the sec tion, the height and width of the tun nel. say 100 square feet. To expose a larger area, di.fting must be done, uud such drifts can be run with better discrimination at tne foot of a shaft that has followed the ore. In the great majority of caws the miner, working by rule-of-thumb methods aud disdaining to go at a thing iu a scientific way. proceeds in an altogether different way from that outlined above. Having staked off his claim, often located on the strength of an apparent outcrop of ore, or on the showing of a single shallow shnft. he proceeds to run a tunnel. The miner or prospector with limited resources wastes only Ids own time and money by such work. It is when the practi cal miner undertakes to oi>en up a claim for some company floated with $1,000,000 capital or some other at tractive figure, that great mischief is done. A tunnel is started to open up the ledge, say at 200 foot. Now, as suming that the ledge dips into the ground vertically. Hint the slope of the /h\\l is forty-five degrees, and that the tunnel is driven at right angles to the course of the vein, a tunnel 200 feet long will cut tin* vein at a depth of 200 feet. It is easier to tunnel than to sink this distance. The dirt aud rock removed can Im* trammed much easier than hoisted, the tunnel will drain Itself and if the ground is at all wet then* Is no need of the expeuse of s a pumping outfit. So much for the advantages; as a matter of fact, the different factors are seldom as cited above. The evi dence that can Im* gained from an apparent outcrop or one shaft Is very misleading. A common error Is to mistake the slope of the hill. Any or dinary hillside Is .very much more like ly to be a slope of twenty-five degrees or thirty degrees than fourty-live do gr«H*s. and the tunnel to open ground at 200 feet may have to be driven 400 feet. In a tunnel of this length the chances are that the ventilation will 1m» necessary after each blast, work will proceed slowly, and finally some sort of ventilating plant will In* neces sary. Again the dip of the vein may he unknown, ns the apparent outcrop may In* slide-rock. If ore has Im*cii found in place, and the dip of the vein determined by one shnft, still the pay value may Im* confined to a shoot or chimney, the limits and inclination of which. In the plane of the vein, are altogether uukuown. Iu such case the tunnel exacted to strike a vein 111 200 feet, approaching from the foot-wull side, may fall to reach it In 500 feet. When finally cut. tin* vein may In* ab solutely barren. The sect lop exposed is Just the size of the tunnel, whether there is rich ore to right, left or below It, Is absolutely impossible to say, ex- Vccpt by doing what might have been f done In the first place, that Is, by following the vein. In the case of a mining company that has gone into such a venture ou a non-assessment plan, th# end comes quickly nnd cer tainly. 'Hie fuuds raised from selling stock are used up in driving the tunuel 200 feet or more. Failure to find the vein where expected lessens the value of the stock. To keep on with the tunnel the treasury stock reserve is sold at a sacrifice aud tlually the com pany finds its treasury bare and noth ing bur a barren vein to show. The stockholders are out of pocket and the locality gets a black eye. Of course, tunneling nnd drifting are used frequently to advantage in open ing up mining proiicrties. as one can see in any famous camp in the West; but tunnels should follow preliminary examination nnd he laid out as the re sult of definite knowledge. If the for mation of the vein dips with the hill side so that a tunnel will strike the hanging wall, it may be quite possi ble to open up the vein at a depth of 500 feet by a tunnel of only 200 feet. Here the advantage of the tunnel is evident. Again, if the ground is very wet, as it may be in regions where the rainfall is heavy, the cost of getting in pumping machinery may be so great as to make tunneling a necessity. Some of tlie newly opened districts at Wash ington and British Columbia show tills. Then there is the ease where the course of the vein cuts across the slope of the valley so that one end of a 1.500- foot claim is considerably higher than the other. A tunnel, or more properly drift, is then the only way to open the ore. Such a tunnel, being always in the vein, will show nnd variation in widtli and value, there will be no trouble from water, and the property will be opened at tin* smallest expense possible. Though miners generally make the mistake of drifting or tunneling in stead of following ilie vein by a verti cal or inclined shaft, yet one some times sees opposite mistakes made. During tlie excitement over the dis covery of tlie Mesabi rauge in north ern Minnesota, in 181)2, a company was formed to work one of the very few places" along the range where the iron ore formation or jasper was ex posed. The company was capitalized at $3,000,000, built an expensive camp, aud hauled iu a lot of machinery, at great expense, through the virgin for est. The outcrop formed on one side a bluff fifty l’«*et or so high. Standing at tlie foot of this bluff anyone could see. as tlie banding of the rock was hori zontal, the changes iu its composition: yet those who had charge of tlie ex ploration had so little judgment that they actually started sinking on top of the bluff, so near the edge that the rock brought up was dumped over it. Such work, of course, could have hut oue result. The company started off with a flourish, selling stock right aud left. A year later the sheriff, looking for some unattached property against which a claim could he laid, found only a desk in the office at Duluth, and even this, as it proved, had uot been paid for. WOODS INVESTMENT COMPANY Rushing Work on Another Good Cripple Creek Property. More than ordinary importance is attached to the development on the Trail group of properties, ou Bull hill, owned by the Battle Mountain Con solidated company, which lias been go ing ever since, the acquisition of this property by the Wo<mls Investment company. In the lower tunnel a large force of men has lK»en employed, and the ore bodies have been opened for over 2,- 000 feet, this at a depth of 800 feet. Large bodies of ore have been blocki*d out and held in reserve, owing to tlie dissatisfaction with local mills and a desire to treat this ore at tlie Eco nomic mill, owned by the Woods In vestment company, as soon as the mill was ready to receive ore. The Economic mill is now ready for business, and is running ore to its full capacity. The preliminary tests made last week were a pronounced success, and the mill will handle 350 tons of ore per day, the initial capacity of the mill. In a winze from the tunnel level at a depth of fifty feet there is a remark able showing. At tills point the vein is six feet wide, and will average from one ounce to one aud one-lialf ounces per ton, while a streak of sylvanite ore on tin* foot wall two feet wide assays as high as eighty to eighty-five ounces per ton. It is admitted by well-informed min ing men that the Woods Investment company is numbered among the heaviest mining syndicates in the (’lilted States, but few of this class even fully appreciate the extent and magnitude of tin* mining operations of tills successful corporation. Dur ing tin* month of XovetnlM»r 1,040 men were employed, ami tlie total amount of the imy roll as shown by the com pany's records amounted to $44,888. All this money was paid In cash, tlie company some time ago having abol ished the check system, it lioing their Idea that the check system was too often ail incentive for the men to visit tlie saloons, for tlie purisisc of having their checks cashed, and thereby temp ted to spent their money in gambling. THE GRANTZ BONANZA. ■Hack Hill" Wonder May lla Hold For • 1,000,000. It is likely that tin* great Grantz mine at Lead. South Dakota, will be sold for $1 ,(MMUtoo this winter. Mr. Grants now lias four propositions which have been made by different parties In the East and West, and oue of which will amount to sl.ooo,oo<t If carded through. A North Dakota com pany lias offered to sell stock to the amount of $1,000,000 and three differ ent companies of ('olontdo are bargain ing for tin* pro|M*rty. Mr. Grants Is uot especially anxious to sell Ills mine, for he is confident that It is worth inure tiiuu $1,000,000 to him In the ore. lu tlie short time that he worked his tick strike tills fall he look out three carloads of ore which nctti*d him aliout $150,000. He has lM*sldcs the ore ship ped a number of sacks of rich ort* that will run $50,000 ami $<(0,000 a ton gold, which he does not intend to ship. There Is also a large amount of lower grade rock ou (lie dump at the mine, which will Im* kept until a reduction plant is in o|M*ratlon at the mine. Mr. Grantz claims that he has realized about $200,000 from his strike. GATACRE DEFEATED LED INTO A TRAP BY BOERS. He Attacks a Big Force and Only Escapes After a Uot Fight Having Lost 600 Men. Moltcno, Dec. 30.—1 p. ni.—General Gatacre, commanding the army in Cen tral Cape Colony, in his first battle met with a serious defeat early this morn ing, after an all-night march, that for a time looked line complete annihila tion. A large part of his army, how ever, by heroic efforts, managed to ex tricate itself from tlie ambush into which the column had fallen, and re treated rapidly and in some confusion to the main camp at Molteno, after los ing over GOO officers and men captured. It Is feared a great number were left dead and wounded on the field. The wily Boers led the British into a neat trail by furnishing General Gata cre aud spies with information that enemy’s camp at Stormberg could be easily taken by surprise and captured. He was told that tlie Boers there num bered 0n1y*2,500 and tlmt they were in a weak position. General Gatacre de termined to make nil early morning march with a strong column and strike a rapid aud decisive blow. The troops chosen for tills undertak ing were the Second Royal Irish Rifles, tlie Second Northumberland Fusilliers, the King’s Sliropshires, the Second Royal Berksliires, acting as mounted infantry, and field batteries 74 nnd 77. We marched out smartly, but cau tiously, from Futterskranl, nnd got within two miles of Stormberg without the slightest indication of Boers. But iu tills hot-bed of Boer sympathy there are hundreds of colonists ready to give information of every British move to the enemy. Our forces were proceeding cautious ly, when suddenly we met a hail of bullets from behind low ridges to the front nnd on the right flanks. The re ception was too warm to withstand, and the Irishmen leading General Gat ncre quickly sought shelter behind a kopje, fortunately near. The other troops did the same. But even this •shelter was untenable, being covered by numerous Boer cannon, which were more powerful than supposed, nnd the Boers shelled us out of the i>osition. The mounted infantry were some dis tance off, but by hard riding and a ! long detour they succeeded in joining . the main body behind, ami the British 1 again retreated, this time to a second ! kopje, but still we were poorly covered 1 from a rain of rifle lire, and the big j Boer guns threw shells unpleasantly around us. | Our field batteries swung into line and did splendid work keeping the Boers off while we sought a better po sition half a mile away. Here we found good shelter, nnd tlie infantry quickly got into position and opened tire at long range, while the mounted infantry were sent out to try to get the Boer’s right flank up. This time we suffered little loss, but a new danger suddenly appeared. I Tlie Boers who ambushed were in ! front, and on our right flank. But now ■ there came down from the north a * strong command, all mounted, who menaced the British left flank. General Gatacre sent the Irish nnd Northum berland regiments to meet tliem,“ and the result was a disastrous defeat. They dashed Rtralglit into the dead ly fire of a number of machine guns, which the Boers had pla<*ed in a con cealed position. It was evident that we were caught in a nasty position, nnd the Irishmen and Northumberlands got back as best they could, each with 800 men gone, many of whom were cap tured. How many were killed aud wounded, we do not know. The disclosure of such a strong force at titormberg was quite unexiiecteA. KILLED BY EXPLOSION. Thirty-Two Coal Miner* Lone Th«6r LItO In Washington. Carbonado, Wash., Dec. O.—Sliortly before 11:45 o’clock yesterday forenoon this coal mining village was stunned with the first report of a terrific subter ranean explosion in the mine of the Carbon Hill Coal Company, the tunnels of which run miles under the town. There was an ominous rumbling, smothered sound for a few moments and then it ceased abruptly. The peo. pie knew ut once what this meant and stood around with blanched faces. Apprehensions of some fearful dis aster were confirmed in a little while with information that the morning shift In tunnel No. 7 had been caught iu an explosion of fire damp. Between seventy nnd eighty men were at work iu the mine at tin* time and the belief was that nil must have been killed, ns tiiere was no chance of escape. Those who were not killed outright would lie hemmed iu by the falling walls and timbers and suffocated by the gnsses mid smoke before any opiKirtunity of relief could copie. Details of tlie disaster are meagre, ns Superintendent Davis and Foreman Jonah Davis of the day Shift are now down In the mine engaged in the res cue. The number of men employed In the first day shift was seventy-two. Their hours are from 7 o’clock a. in. to 3 p. in. Tlie explosion occurred be- I tween 10 and 11 o'clock, as near as can be ascertained. Jonah Davis, the I foreman, escaped unhurt, and besides iilm about twenty Fins. Most of the men are Welsh and several of tlu*Bo also escaped, hut the turned and went back Into tin* mine in tlie hope of Im*- Ing able to rescue those still supposed to bo alive. The total number of men In the un fortunate shaft was seventy-six, of whom forty-four are alive, all of them having escaped or been rescued. 145,000 Mill Hands Get More Pay. Fall River, Muss., Dec. 10.—The new wage schedule, giving 75,000 cotton mill employes in tills and other New England cities a 10 per cent. Increase In wnges, will go Into off«*et to-mor row. On I)eccmlM>r 18th an additional 00,000 mill employes will begin to In crease a like advance in wages, nml be* fore tlie first of the year 10,500 others will have received tin* Increase. Thus by January Ist fully 145,500 New England mill employes will be re eeivlng an average rate of pay equal to the previous high rate of IND 2, when they were paid the highest rate of wages since the Inceptlou of the cotton Industry. GATACRE'S REVERSE. LcMona Drawn From It—Over Six Han dred Captured. London, Dec. 12.—The reverses suf fered by General Gatacre at Storm borg yesterday are regarded as another case of under estimation of the enemy’s forces and ability which has already cost the British so much. The many long forced marches by which Gatacre reached Stormborg are characteristic of this commander, whom his men call “Backaclier.” This sort of marching against Indian aud Egyptian troops was usually crowned with sharp and brilliant suc cesses, but in the case of Boer lighting It is different. Gatacre’s troops were not only surprised, but were evidently too fatigued to withstand the terrific lire which was poured over them. The military expert of the Morning Post, who has followed the Boer war critically and dispassionately, warns Engialid of the danger of losing part of the empire through the parsimony which Is displayed in the inefficient forces with which she attacks the Boers. This warning is the first hint in any British paper of even the proba bility of final defeat for England in South Africa. There is much comment to-day over Gatacre’s casualties, his losses in miss ing, which are not quite equal to those at Nicholson Nek, being remarkably disproportionate to those in killed and wounded. General Walker wires that tlie cas ualty list is not complete, and in view of the Boers, heavy fire tlie completed list will doubtless place the fatalities at a much higher figure. The known casualties are ns follows: Royal Irish Rifles: Six officers wounded. Suffolk regiment: Wounded, one of ficer and twelve men; missing, three of ficers, 290 men. Seventj’-fourth field battery: Wound ed, one officer nnd live men. Seventy-fifth field battery: One offi cer killed, one man wounded. NortliumlM*rland Fusileers: Six of ficers nml 30G men missing. Royal Berksliires: One man killed. I’aris. Dec. 11.—The pniM*rs are wild with glee over the Britisli disaster at Storinlmrg yesterday. Tlie offices of the yellow journals are decorated witli Boer flags. REPORT OF THE MINT. Largest Coinage of Gold In the History of the Country. Washington, Dec. 11.—Mr. Roliori.s, the director of the mint, iu his annual report, snvs: The mints and assay offices operated upon more bullion in the aggregate and a greater coinage was executed during the last fiscal year tlinft \n any previous year. Original deposits of gold were slightly less than during the pievious year, amounting in val\e to $143,497,190, against $147,093,194 in the fiscal year ended June 20, 1898. Domestic deposits were the larg<*st in our history, amounting to $70,252,487, against $04,881,120 in the preceding year, but there was a falling off in for eign coin and liars. The coinage of gold was the greatest in our history, amounting to $108,177.- 180. against $04,034,805 iu the preced ing year, and might have Imm*ii con siderably larger if the capacity of the mints lia i been greater. The stock of gold bullion iu hand increased from *90,088.582 July 1, 1898, to sll9*B.’, 772 July I, 1899. The coinage of sliver dollars from bullion purlicased under the act of July 14. 1890, was $18,254,709, against $10,002,780 in the preceding year, and tlie coinage of subsidiary silver $9,400,- 877.05, aginst $0,482,804. Tlie mints have been hard pressed throughout the 3’ear to meet the de mands upon them. APPEAL FOR AID. Many Dependents Left By the Mine Dia meter In Washington. Carbonada, Wash., Dec. 12,—A re lief committee was organized here to day and the following appeal issued: •'To the Public—We, the relief com mit tee of Carlsmado, issue the follow ing appeal to the generous hearts and willing hands of the state of Washing ton: “This little mining village has been suddenly smitten by tlie heavy hand of pitiless calamity. Death lias over taken many bread-winners in their toil, and has left its wake of tears and deprivation in many homes. Thirty one miners killed is the extent of the fatality of the disaster of Saturday, December 9th. 111. addition to the thir ty-one dead, there ore seven injured, four of whom are badly burned. Oue is with several libs fractured, another is severely bruised and one Is suffer ing ns a consequence of having been in the explosion and subsequently en tombed 111 the mine ail night, poisoned with the smoke and damp. "These thirty-one miners have left e score or more of bereaved families and snddened homes. The coming Christ mas will Im* a sorrowful one for Our iMiiindo. Tlie result of the swift catas trophe of Saturday is, that sixteen will ows, forty-five children, six aged pa rents nml do|M*ndents, making sixty seven dependent altogether deprived of a source of supply." Money Scarce in New York. New* York, Dec. 11. There was great demand for money to-day, 15 jn*r cent, ruling for some early transactions. A large bank, which lias made heavy loans, marked up those outstanding to 10 per cent, and scrutinized closely the collateral offered for new transactions nt higher rates. One Wall Street bant' required from 20 to 25 |H»r cent, mar gin, beside 10 to 15 iMiiuts to spare ou the stock, for SIOO,OOO loans. Fifteen or 20 per cent, of good Indus trials were accepted on this basis where the liorrower’s name was satis factory. In all from $35,000,000 to $40,- 000,000 was called and paid off, then two or three millions loaned at 0 to 7 per cent., large supplies loaned down to 3 per cent. Sterling exchange ad vanced one-fourth of 1 iM*r cent, for de mand bills. While txinkcrs were puzzled over the money situation here and abroad the predletlon was made that demand hills would rule higher throughout the week, with no prospects, however, of touching tin* exporting isiint. One of the lurgest foreign exchange houses rc ported to-day's rate 11s fully two cents Im*low the figure at which gold under present conditions would be profitably sent abroad. DENVER GOSSIP. ITEMS OF INTEREST FROM THE STATE CAPITOL. Governor Thomas lias accepted the invitation of the Washington Board of Trade to attend the banquet of the board December 21st. The November statement of the Union Stock Yard Company shows that 1,497 carloads of live stock, including cattle, hogs, sheep and horses, have been re ceived by the railroads in Denver dur ing the last month. Of this number, 1,109 carloads went into the country. During the last thirty days 23,518 head of all kinds of live stock have been con sumed in Denver. While the total re ceipts of cattle show' a gain of 10,677 head for November over the same mouth one year ago, there were 1,427 more consumed in the city during the latter mouth, as much difficulty has re cently been experienced in obtaining fat cattle of the kinds desired by the slaughterers. Dealers expect that even a larger per cent, than usual of the re ceipts during December, as most of the cattle arriving are good for beef. Time is being taken by the forelock this year by stockmen, says the Repub lican, to prevent the ravages of wolves during the winter on sheep and cattle ranges. From Wyoming and New Mex ico word has been sent stock owners living in this city that both wolves and coyotes are lwginning to appear out of the hills In unusually large numbers. Tlie absence of severe weather has kept the stock in the mountains later than usual. The most successful meth od used by stockmen to drive off wolves Is to put trained dogs on the range and keep the packs moving from place to place as the wolves appear. L. S. Lacey recently made arrangements to take several hounds to Wyoming. Lions will receive attention and Lacey expects to rid the Wyoming ranges of these pests. Dogs will be selected that have the quality not only to fol low' and capture but to kill the quarry. Governor Thomas thinks the federal government should grant each state and territory the arid government lands within its borders. He will advocate this proposal l>efore the coming guber natorial conference in Salt Lak# City next week. Governor Thomas says: “If the federal government acts as 1 have suggested, the principal condition should be that the states should carry on the homestead feature on their own account. In this state are fully 25,- 000,000 acres of arid land. If owned by the state these lands could be rented for grazing and other purposes and at least the regular rental of 5 cents per annum j>er acre could be secured for them. That rental would bring into the state treasury 91,250.000 a year. On some of the land a higher rental might be secured which would equal ize the non-rental of other lands. If the government arid lands ore grunted to the states and territories the ques tion of irrigation will very rapidly work Itself out.” It is said to be a strong probability that the next Legislature .will be called upon to enact a law looking to the In troduction of civil service rules In the state laud office. A condition of affairs has been discovered by Dr. Chipley. the preseut register, that did little less than startle the members of the board at their regular meeting with refer ence to the tiles and the slipshod man ner in which leases have l>eeu allowed for years to go without proper super vlsion. The doctor mude a re|M»rt in resiKJUse to a request by Governor Thomas in which he called attention to the jumbled condition of the rec ords and the difficulty in entering into the history of coal, mineral and graz ing lenses. After the meeting Register Chipley said the change of administra tion and clerical force every two years was undoubtedly the cause of the trou ble, the system of the office being so complicated that It required a great part of an official's term to get In touch with it. The business of one ad ministration was, therefore, seldom passed on to another witli precision uml clearness that the importance of the matters demanded. Incidental to this particular case Register Chipley reported in a general way upon the condition of the leases. He show'ed that there were only twelve coal leases in the state that were alive ac cording to the records, all others hav ing been forfeited, and that there were seven such leases on oil, lire clay and stone lands. The doctor informed the board that as rapidly ns possible he would present similar flgures on graz ing and agricultural and metalliferous lands, so as to show the members Just where they stood. Captain Cecil A. Deane, custodian of the war relic department at the state capital, who recently returned from further government surveys In south western Colorado and northern Now Mexico, received yesterday a large quantity of prehistoric relics which lie collected on Ills trip. Sonic are of a character never before discovered In that part of tin* country. The lower half of a human Jaw having two rows of double troth and found in an old grave Is one of the most curious speci mens. liut there is one piece in the collection which leads Captain Deane to believe that it Is possible tiiat the cliff dwellers hud household goods which they burled with the dead who formerly owned them. Tills is a leg and foot which may have boon part of an Idol. Among the more valuable relics are a double-bitted stone nx. a nictate or hand corn mill which has an oblong depression work by grinding, a circular stone nictate weighing sev enty-flve pounds, sixteen inches in di ameter and having a central depres sion of four by nine Inches. This kind of primitive hand drill Is very rare. A stone Jar on which are paints I two rattlesnakes was found south of the San Juan river in an old tomb. By a small bowl In an old grave on the Lr Plata and burled live feet below the present surface, Captain Deane found a dressed stone. Blxlo indies, which plnlnly shows the marks of (lie stone tools, and Is in the shape of the key stone of an arch. Then there are ears of corn which by some eheiuii ac tion have I icon 'luingcd to stone. But the obJ«*ctH of tlie greatest interest are several large pieces of clay which have Imh'H burned to tlie hardness of brick, and which once foruusl tlie roof cover ing of an old ruin »ienr l.a Boca sta tion. On the triangular surface are plainly seen tin* impressions of ferns and tropical plants and the bark of palm wood. These were found about two feet below the surface. THE HIGHLAND CLANS. A Fancied Insult Sufficient to Sot ttie Heather on Fire. The wealth of the clans consisted not in silver and gold, but in flocks and herds, says the Gentleman’s Magazine. Some of the latter were bred in dis tricts from which they have been for cibly “lifted,” but their possessors would point to the consideration that their late owners probably held four footed property of which they also had, by similar means, forcibly de- . prlved their original owners. And thus the practice of “cattle purloining” among the clans was based upon a give-and-take principle, which, how ever, was characterized by a maximum of “taking” and a minimum of “giv ing.” The cattle forays, or creaches r as they are called, were ordered by the chiefs, and were, naturally enough, re garded as a declaration of enmity against the clan thus despoiled. They were conducted with great secrecy, and bloodshed was. if possible, avoided. When, however, as was frequently the case, these predatory Incursions were accompanied by loss of life, the feud became interminable until ample ven geance had been taken. Revenge was inculcated as a duty, the neglect of which was accounted a disgrace to the living and a dishonor to the dead. But cattle raiding was not the only, or in deed the primary, cause of the feuds which for centuries made the High lands the seat of internecine warfare between the clans. The most trifling incidents generally operated in the same direction. An insult, sometimes a fancied insult, was sufficient to set the heather on fire. Nothing more clearly exemplifies the relationship which existed between the chief and his clansman than the fact that the most unpardonable insult which could bo offered to a clan was to speak in dis respectful terms of his chief. That Insult could only be wiped out in blood, and as a rule no time was lost in ex punging it. It sometimes happened that a clan smarting under an affront was numerically too weak to take its revenge in the only way which was open to it. It bided its time, however, and sooner or later tasted the sweets of revenge. The clans had long mem ories for injuries sustained, and the germ of implacable hatred was often, transmitted from father to son, grow ing in intensity, until finally extin guished in propitiatory blood. COLLEGE GIRLS MAKE BUTTER. They Can Support Themtelve* l»y Far ming Their Studied. Not until some seven years ago au the first state college for women opened In the South, says the Boston Transcript. This is known as the State Normal and Industrial college, located at Greensboro, N. C., and has its gene sis and remarkable success in the mind of one young man. Dr. Charles D. Mc- Iver. Dr. Mclver is not only a man or great enthusiasm and executive ability, but he possesses an immense capital of resource and invention. He is con stantly adding new features of self support for the students at this insti tution. At the beginning of the new year It will be practicable for nearly a hundred indigent girls to support themselves while pursuing their studies. This feature of self-support has been In existence for several years, and Instead of creating caste among the students, has resulted In a mag nificent leveling process. A line or work which is being organized and which will give support to a score more of girl students, is the dairy farm. This college is most fortunate In having attached to it some ICO dcrea of fine farming land. This has bec.i stocked with a piggery and some fifty head of choice Jersey cows, which are to be milked by the college girls. The dairy will not only be self-sustaining., but It will bring money to the institu tion from the butter these young ladies will make. This butter has the college stamp on it. and already the demand for it outside the college is greater than the supply can be. A Medical Prospector. "It isn't getting your diploma that’s the worst of It,” said a new-fledged M. D. "It’s where to hang out your shingle. A doctor’s got to hear two things in mind in deciding that —he mustn’t choose a place that already lias physicians enough, und, above all, he must not settle in u healthy place— one of these towns, don’t you know, where nobody dies exc pt of old age. Of course, a doctor doesn’t want peo ple to die—that’s almost as bad as to have them never sick —but ho docs want them to be sick enough to k??p him going. New, the way a friend of mine did was this: He took the train out through central Now York, and ho stopped off at pretty much every place he came to till he found what ho wanted. It was a pretty place to look at, but It lay low along a river. He noticed us they approached It lots of marsh lands, and he said to himself: ‘ThareMl bo malaria here anyhow, and probably typhoid.’ And. sure enough, though he’s only been there throe years, he already lias a puylng prac tice.”—Now York Commercial Adver tiser. How to Keep Frost Off Windows. The deposit of vapor anil hoar fro3t ou window panes Is prevented by coat ing the windows with a composition recently patented by a Belgian, con sisting of water, glycerine, sugar and comarln, the resulting compound being transparent and rendering the window clear at all times. Could Swear to That. From Judge: Jones—Got your teeth filled, eh? Did the Job? Smith—Well, he spared no pains.