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No. 1 Vol. 1 Tarboro', Edgecombe County, (N. C.) Saturday, January 3, 1852. Whole No. 1
il .
il I
L. l" e
-Geo. Howard, Jr., Editor & Proprietor.
I Jf paid within two months,
$2 00
9 n
; otherwise.
J 'One square first insertion, 1 00
,, cere insertion afterwards, 0 25
. Cards, a year, - - 5 00
' Court Orders and Judicial advertise-
meich 2b per cent, higher.
i Yearly advertisements by contract.
Tt Agricultural Readers.
In this department of our paper, wc
oxpect to be governed in our selections
principally by the maturcr judgment
and practical experience of others. Yet v
we feel (believing in the maxim that;
knowledge is power) that even we, on
general principles, can urge the necessi
ty of reducing farming to a science, and
studying and applying it as such. We
;are all aware, that to produce a model
work, it is necessary that we should ful
ly understand the capacity of our mate
rials, the proper instruments to use, and
the most effective manner of operating.
And what is this but science, a know
ledge of what is to be done and the best
mode of accomplishing it
Many have been led to sneer at, and
yepudiate scientific farming, because
they confounded theoretical farming
"with practical or genuine scientific farm
in. whereas the one is but an element
of the other; and indeed, the only dan
serous element.
Such a one has the
same claim to the title of a scientific far -
- ia 4i,o
. . 1 . , , , ,
gcientinc watcn-maKer, wuo Knew ine
Tiames of the various parts, and fully j
"fcomnrehended its construction, and vnt. -
1' j
had never made a watch.
He is really
Scientific in his understanding of what is
to be done, but totally deficient m the
1 ' i ... i -1 j - nl
jngucr, uecause prouuuuve, ciemuui oi
science, the most effectual manner of
doing it. He is wanting in that de
partment of science, which though es
sential is so often denied as a portion of
it, practice. For although he may be
nneonscious of the fact, it i3 neverthe
less true, that the successful practical
farmer is always iu a degree a scienti
fic farmer, lie has gained that knowl
edge which he so successfully applies, by
submitting his own experience to the
test of reason and intellect, and thereby
deducing those useful rules, which he i
might have more readily gained through
-.e iwmiy giu" """"c"
V.r the experience of others. The farmer
should think of these things, and if he
1 finds them true, at once brin to hia
i ' unu0 w ius
own use and aid, the judgment and ex
perience of others. Try all things and
cleave unto that which is good.
From the Journal of Agriculture.
TTTP r1!? ATAr T? nr AnDinm
by rnoF. j. j. mapes, Newark, N. J.
In commencing a scvio.s nf f!rt,ir.lp; on
n sericulture, with the
our readers in all matters of improvement
oonnccted with this subject, it seems ne- they will furnish these materials for, the
i-cssary to build a foundation for the production of the crops of 1852; and the
structure; and this we propose to do by 1 carbonic acid gas will enter plants, de
giving a plain didactic description of first posit its carbon to increase their bulk,
Every art has its grammar, without a
knowledge of which the student can
make but indifferent progress. Thus,
drawing is said by painters to be the
grammar of their art; and, however
groat may be the natural talent or taste
of the aspirant, without an academic
knowledge of drawing, he can never rise
to great eminence.
The grammar of the farmer's art is to
be found embraced in a few of Nature's
Jaws, embodied in the sciences of chem
istry and natural philosophy; simple in
their character, and when offered in pro
per form, readily understood.
before entering on the subicct nrorjer.
- o r x t
5" popular word, science, which the slothful
minded condemn, rather hau iny-esti-
Science simply means knowledge, re
duced to a system, so as to be readily
taught and easily understood. Thus it
will be seen, that to render any study
simple, and to rid it of perplexities, is to
reduce it to a science.
With this fact in view, it may be hop
ed that our readers will not be afraid of
attacking even a scientific description or
rationale, should such be offered.
When we commenced our operations
as a practical and scientific farmer, some
of our neighbors very properly demanded
our credentials before we should com
mence to teach others. These are now
before the public. We have made anal
yses of the soils of more than one hun
dred farms, and advised modes of cul
ture founded on such analysis; and in
no one instance, without increasing the
amount of profits to the farmer more
than one-third.
With these credentials, then, we ap
pear before our present readers. These
results have not arisen from any new j organic constituents, must, then consti
discoveries of our own ; but simply, by j tute the farmer's study, and to this end
collecting facts well known, and apply
in 2 them
in accordance with chemical
laws; and we now promise our prasent
readers, that if they will follow our ar
ticles carefully, they will be able, by the
help of an analysis of their soils, to pro
duce similar results on their own farms.
To those who would object to being
taught by reading, let us say that we
do not appear before them as a theorist,
but strictly as a practical farmer; and
the reports so often published by agri
cultural societies of our crops, entitles us
to the appellation If, then, admitted to
enter the lists as a praclical farmer, it
cannot injure one's ability, as a teacher,
to have studied these sciences on which
the success of agriculture must depend.
Soils and plants are composed of two
classes of materials or constituents, and
these may be known by the terms organ
ic and inorganic ; and the strict incan-
ingof these terms and the properties of j
each class of material must be clearly !
I 1 1.11 .Irtl
!ani distinctly understood belore tne iar-,
!" - 1 k BU1VU "u;to say, has never keen equaled m tlie;1"1" F1UUWW Ui CliV11'
:can vilu mosfc economy, procure his South, and probablv never surpassed inse a tendency to great improvement.
! manures.
jf a plant be burned in an open vessel,
the organic constituents of the plant
Trill paS3 off into the atmosphere, and the
Issues uioue wm ue leu; ana iue.se con-
t m 1 Is. 1.1
luuuiuu tuurguutv wusuiuuuw ui iuu
i plant. If the ashca be analyzed, they
j wilUc founj to be composed of silicii,
lime, magnesia, oxiay oi irm, oxiue or
t M. . e i f
j manganese, potasn, soda, cnlorme, sul-
I . 1 1 1 1
phurieacid and pnospuosne acid. Ihese
ten inorganic constituents o piants wil
one of them from Montgomery, Ala
be fully treated of in the next number; b.im, m;le bv Gindrat & Co.. which
our present purpose being to speak of the
organic constituents alone, aud of these
only for the purpose of illustrating ccr-; p,at ft W;ls tne Ladies department ; tiJc of imigration from our State; for
tain laws of nature, which should be ear- tiat attracted the most attention and : daily many of our most talented and en
ly understood in the study of agricul- calje(j fortn t highest encomiums. It j ergetic young men seek a new home in
ture. Asking the reader not to be rPr?;nnlv wis fir snivrior to anv thinTi tue West; they say that they cannot get
frightened at a few new words, (for as
tew as practicable win De useu,; we wouiu amj couii not be excelled any where,
state that the organic part of plants is i yc were pleased to see so many in
composed of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen . yentions in Agricultural Implements.
and hydrogen and these constitute
IromUO to V6 per cent, ot meir weigtit.
Carbon, wiicn separaiea irom oiner sud-
stances, is black, and is then more gen
' orally known by the name of charcoal;
! if burned, it combines with oxygen, and
. . . n 4. Mrin
! passes off into the atmosphere as carbon-
ic acid, a colorless gas ; and thus, if a
vegetable be burned, rotted, fermented,
or digested in the stomach of an animal,
its carbon is always converted into car -
bonicacid gas, and in this form pervades
nature s great store-house
s, the atmos-
Iphere, ready to be taken up again by
i OT,,i f vrt fnA ;f
new growths. Thus it may be under-
! stood. that when the crops of 1851 shall
O AV'l UiLU 111 l,KJ
'iWiv ami fVioif nririinifi nn.rt.-4 sh nil nnsico non -- f
i vV-- T fcV VMV. fl '-"
: bon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen,
while the oxygen, in which the carbon
was dissolved, will again pass off, ready
to form more carbonic acid gas for future
growths. The peculiar properties of
carbonic acid gas, and the manner in
which it enters plants, will be more ful
ly discussed in a future paper.
Oxygen is one of the components Of
water and of our atmosphere, and exists
in plants under various combinations
with the inorganic constituents.
Hitrogen is also a component of the at
mosphere, and when combined with hy
drogen, forms ammonia, the presence of
which is necessary to the perfect health
of plants. All tho cereals contain large
amounts of nitrogen, and the muscles of
animals can only bo formed by their
food being fairly charged with this con
stituent. Nitrogen is sometimes called
psofej and hen,ce animal and other ma.
nures are called azotised manures, be
cause they contain nitrogen.
The organic ' components of plants,
then, in this view of the subject, are but
four in number; and, in the state in
which they may be used by plants, are
always in the form of colorless gas, mix
ed with the atmosphere, and brought to
the earth by rains and dews, for the use
of plants.
It is also easily understood, that as
nine-tenths of the weight of plants are
of organic origin, their constituents are
principally received from the atmos
phere, and that the most important part
of the farmer's art should be to arrest
these life-creating elements on his own
farm, instead of permitting them to pass
on to the ocean, or remain unappropriat
ed for the use of man. The addition of
proper inorganic constituents, if absent
from the soil, and its proper prepara
tion and mechanical condition for the
reception and retention of the necessary
a series of articles will be written.
All the various properties of carbon,
and other parts of soils and plants, are
foreign to our present purpose; and,
therefore, those principles only which
are necessary to a clear understanding
will be treated of at this time.
(Jo be continued.
From the Augusta Sentinel.
We had the pleasure of behr.: present !
at jhis great Exhibition at Macn, on ,
Wednesday and Thursday last, -md it I
was trulv a crcat one: whether we view I
it in reference to the variety, or number
of articles exhibited, or the concourse of
persons present.
In the Stock department, the number
and quality was indeed fine. Our enter-
prisinir citizens. Messrs. R. Peters. J.V . 1
joncs of I)eKalb. and J. B. Jones of i
I3uri(e. raa(ie a finc displav in cattle.
' -r
rpu Poultry department we venture
the North. AVe conversed with s.-veral
ntlenin who had frouentlv attended
i tuern Firs, and they assured us
lliau iljl. 1 liaa iiv v uwwxa mv v ' j uwi-
led ja tll:g department, our friends
Kedmond, ot Atlanta, Collins, of 31a-
rvv r mxr 4-Ytr
: rjncin-i contributors
The exhibition of Machinery was in-
dec(j fine particularly Engines. There
werc tlirce fine Eno-mes on the cround
for iiih and beautiful finish surpassed
aIlv of the kind we ever saw.
of the kin(j CVer exhibited in the South,
; J i J o
This shows that our people are studying
;0ut process of how to "make two
blades of grass grow where only wettailul,uoauu iUUluuSu "aiuig. xxc
g,.ew. before" A full nnd detailed de- ; has yisi ted some good farms in our State
scription of xvhich, together with the i as wel1 as in others, purely for agricul-
prem:ums awarded, will be given by our ! Jol instruction ; and for some time past
1 j.xTi l., ihe has been entered m useful acncul-
correspondent in a few days
; A word as to the vast concourse in at-1
: tendance, which was made up of citizens I
0f South Carolina, Georgia, Florida,:
1 Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi and i
variously estimated on Thursday, the
day we left, at twelve to fifteen thousand.
j The receipts at the gate up to Thurs -
... v i bi n .
I ft 1 TT fTY1 nQH rOH I f 1 - 1 T llin(i I III II I
j dollars at twenty-five cents admit -
; faBW. nnd the eommittee exnected over
C2klMM f 1 1 f Ii t . ill fill mClUL'iO VI bUV AJLOOV-
The annual address of Judge An-
drews, was in consequence of the rain on
Wednesday, delivered on Thursday,
which we regret we did not hear as it
was spoken of as a most practical and
masterly production. Indeed, just such
an one as every man familiar with his
practical manner of treating all subjects
and strong intellectual powers, antici
pated. The grounds were well chosen and ad
mirably arranged, an engraving of which
will accompany our detailed report.
Every thing seemed to be conducted
in the best possible manner, and every
one seemed to be highly delighted.
Licking County Fair. Among the
events which occurred at this Fair, the
Ohio Cultivator gives the following :
The most exciting feature of the first
day, was the competition for three pre
miums offered for ladies' riding horses.
Three horses were entered. Misses Sey
mour and Marple, in elegant riding cos
, tume, at first led the ring with decided
advantage. Miss Hollenbach followed, Terms op the Farmer's Journal :
in a walking dress; Imt being a girl of 1 copyl; 6 copies $5; 12 copies
true knightly grit, soon reined in her 810; 30 copies $20- invariably in ad
horse, and with a whip raised his mettle vance.
to a guagewith her own, and then dash- . .
ed forward taking the inside, and such
a wild Arab flight sober Buckeyes never
saw before. On, on flew the beautiful
. , , A, ' , , , .
steeds and the thousands cneered hear-
tily-the wind played the mis&icf with
plete. Then a series of evolutions, cur-
vetmgs and contra pas, showed what
country girls can do when they get the ,
rems into their own hands. The premi-
I. i J
Tiie subscriber proposes to publish in portion of them being independent cul
the town of Bath, Beaufort county, N. . tivators, while cities, towns and villages
C, a monthly paper" under the above have sprung into existence with most
name. This paper will be devoted ex- unexampled rapidity,
clusively to the setting forth of thevari-j The minimum price is $1 25 per a
ous popular improvements in Agnail- j cre, and the quantity excludes competi
ture, Horticulture and the household ; tion.
arts. That there is a demand for such a
paper in our State, and more especially
in the eastern part, no one will deny.
As evidence of the good effects of such
!p:ipers wc have only to look at the rapid
strides which have been made in farming
in those States of our Union where they
exist. But this great advancement
made in the science of Agriculture in
other States, is but little known to the
farmers of North Carolina. There are
several seicntmc as well as practical
farmers among us; but for the want of a
medium through which to communicate
their agricultural knowledge, it is still
confined to a small compass. Our good
oia otate is iar uenina me age in agri
cultural as well as every other improve
ment ; as a people wc are greatly want
ing iu State pride, which is highly iin-
portant to place us in that position wiucii
we ought to occupy. In Now York,
Maryland, Georgia and several other
I, - . - . 11A 1 1 .
' states annual .bairs are lield torexlnoit-
nature has thrown no impediment in
tac waJ to prevent our agricultural ad
j vancemcnt ; but she has lavishly heaped
! upon us her inestimable sifts. We have
: a. v j
among us a sufficiency of both organic
and inorganic matter to enrich every a
cre of our worn-out land, and our soil
and climate cannot be surpassed in a
daptation to the production of the Vii
rious plants.
All that is now needed to elevate our
State to the position which she should
occupy among her sisters, is energy and
! enterprise on the part of her citizens.
I There must be a stop put to this great
, . i
their consent to remain among a people
possessed of so little enterprise as we are.
The subscriber has not been engaged
in farming many years ; but he feels jus
tified in sa3Ting that he began upon the
( "g"1 P1 mai OI aeeP Pawing, neavy
tural reading, to prepare himselt tor the
P0 whicb he noW proposes to occupy,
The subscriber feels confident that this
undertaking shall not fail from a want of
O O C5
energy on ms pari; ne is resoivea 10 use
I cvery effort t0 obtain a larSc subscrip-
! tln list, and tor tins purpose he will
invai sowral counties within the next
: - " v ' '
1 two months.
He hoPcs that by showing such a de
termination to do somethino; for the
present degraded condition of the farmer,
to be sustained and receive a liberal pat
ronage from a generous public
As soon as two thousand subscribers
are obtained to the Journal, it will be is
sued forthwith ; it will be of the usual
size of such publications, and consist of
thirty pages of closely printed matter.
Each number will contain one or more
articles from the pen of the Editor, and
several communications from our best
farmers; and the remainder will be filled
with articles selected from other Agricul
tural Journals, such as may be deemed
by the Editor applicable to our climate
and soil.
In conclusion the subscriber asks the
aid of every man in the prosecution of
this great work; for he is sure that there
will be a good bargain made by the far -
mers. The advancement of farming
should excite an interest in the breast of
everv man: forunonthe success of the
farmer ffreatlv depends that of every
trade and profession.
Bath, N. C. Nov. 20, 1851.
f i n -
Keport oj the Commissioner t the
0;,y,.We learn from thiay Rc
port; that since the year 1832, 13 new
606 000,000" of acres, have been added
to the Uniofl) Terrk
containin I10,0tf0,000 of acres. The!
coutain mQre 2 400 000 000 $
iJirAS- PtYl rvrilfrl nor an aroo rr mmn
capacity or abundance of mineral.
The great valley of the Mississippi,
now the center of the Republic, contains
8,000,000 of inhabitants, a trreat uro-
The sales of the public lands, since
30th June, 1850, and to the 30th June
1851, amount, to 1,840,847-40-100 ..-
cres; and the qurchasc to 2,307,917-15-
The amount of land sold, during the
first quarter of the fiscal year, commen
cing July 1st, 1851, was 493,150,65.-
1 00 acres, for which there has been re
ceived the sum of 001,091 01 100 dol
lars. The amount of land sold for the
corresponding quarter of the last fiscal
year, was 206,879 00-100 acres, for
which the sum of 349,876 0G-100 dol
lars was received. The sales thus ap
pear to be largely on the increase.
There are in operation several influ
ences likely to augment the sales of the
public lands.
Report of the IUtm aster General i
The annual Report of the Postmaster iawa ""g uwenimeiw ana om
Genml, Nathan K. Hall, is elaborate Jcers the. Post-Ofllce Department.
ana aJjie, giving a lueia idea ol the oper
ations of the Department for the present
year. It appears from the Keport that Srafm m me national lntcilcnctr, tna
the inland service of the Department for : Commissioner of the General Land Of
the past year f excluding California and ! fic0 reports that twelve millions of acres
Oregon, which are imperfectly reported,)
shows an increase of 13,354 miles in the
length of mail routes; of 0,162,855 in
the number of miles of annual transpor
tation, and of $517,110 in the annual
cost of transportation. The transporta
tion in California for past year was 537,
470 miles, costing 6130270. In Ore
gon, 30,498 miles, costing $19,938.
The receipts from America and For
eign postage during the past year exceed
those of the prccecdmg year by $907,-'
010,79; or deducting the balances ac
cruing to the 'Uritish Post-office, 909,
223 85-qual to 18 05 per cent, in A
mcrican postage and 10 per cent, on
American and Foreign.
At the close of the fiscal year there
were six Foreign Mail Routes of the ag-
jgregate length of 18,349 miles, annual
ly transporting G51 ,200 mails. The an
nual transportation on three cf these
routes (which are under contract with
the P. O. Department) is 190,592 miles,
and at an expense of $400,000. The
service on the other Foreign routes is
under contract with the Navy Depart
ment, and that annual transportation
thereon is 421,734 miles, costing $1,
023,250. There was quite a reduction in do
mestic postage receipts for the last quar
ter of the fiscal year, attributable to the
near approach of the present cheap rates.
In the formidable array of figures rela
ting to the business of the Department
for the past year, the following fact ap
pears :
Number of mail routes, 6,170
Length of mail routes, miles, 190,290
Number of contractors employed, 5,544
Annual transportation of mails,
miles, 53,272,252
Annual cost of transportation,$3,421,754
Milesof railroad transportation 8,568,707
Miles of steamboat transport'n,6,454,082
Number of postmasters appointed, 5,339
! Number of post ofiices, June 1 '51, 19,796
j Gross receipts of the Depart' t,$6,786,493
Total letter postage, 5,396,243
Newspapers,pamphlets,&c.do. 1,035,131
Ordinary revenue of the year, 6,551,978
Increase over that of last year, 999,006
Expenditures of the year, . 6,278,402
Ordinary expenditures, 6,024,567
The Report presents a brief and in
teresting history of the Post-office De
; partment for the past half century. The
cost of mail transportation has largely
j increasea uuu5 iu ur.
! New contractors for the North-western
j sections involve an increase ; of 25 per
cent, in aggregate cost, and 104 per cent,
in service while other contracts in the
southern section, the extension, o the
Erie Railroad, increasing mail facilities
on routes leading from the Atlantic ci
ties to important points iQ the West, and
upon western rivers; added to the plac
ing of two steamers, the Franklin and
Ilumbolt, on the New-York and Havre
line, have all contributed to entail bur
dens on the revenues of the Department.
The report in this connection urges m jre
adequate and liberal provision for the
compensation of Postmasters.
The subject of cheap postage is dis
cussed at some length, and the Post
master General thinks it unwise to at
tempt a further reduction of letter rates
until such a measure shall be justified
hj the. revenues of the Department ; but
i of opinion that the rates of postage on
ill printed matter may be rendV-re! more
uniform and just, and the less complex,
by the adoption of different rates. with
out diminishing the revenues of the De
partment very materially.
Ihe report refers to the opening of the
iew route via Lake Nicaragua. The
contracts with the Canard and Collins
iiics of steamships are referred to at
some length. The subject of a postal
communication between the United
Sf.ates and Mexico by a line of seom r3'
from New-Orleans to Vera Cu-, via
Tampico, is commended to the con ju jr
;ition of Congress. The conveyance q
letters hither from Foreign ports, and
:ionee to California, without delivery at
the Post-Office is the subject of remark
by the Postmaster General, in wiiielj
the practice is deprecated, and it is re
commended that the carrying of letters
by express companies or private hands
on mail routes or mail steamers be made
a penal offense. The report urg?s tho
necessity of guarding the mails more ef
fectually from robbery, refers to certain
abuses of the Franking privilege, sug
gests improvements in the organization
of the Department, and concludes by e-
il 1 j .1
S xnorougu revision oi tne
Public Lands. According to a rari-
. 1 -m."" -w- t . m
,Ui luc wm uc avanauio ir
saie aunng tne present year, ine m.n-
iinum price is $1,25 per acre; and wl;:Ie
the quantity offered is so immense that
it is placed beyond the reace and power
of monopoly, the price is at the wimo
time so small that every man cf ord:E.iry
industry has the ability to provide l .m
self with a homestead; and solonag
Government offers hundreds of millions
of acres for sale, at the price of about one,
day's labor for each acre, every man able
to till the ground will have it in his pow
er to become a freeholder.
The sales of the public lands since th0
30th of June, 1851, amount to 1,846,
847 acres, and the purchase money to
Bangor, Maine, Dec. 5.
Seizure of Liquor and terrible and
Fatal Affray. The officers attempted
to seize a quantity of liquor on board th$
steamer Boston to-day, when Captain
Sanford and the crew of the steamer
made resistance, and during the affray a
niau named Crane was mortally wound
ed. Sanford was subsequently arrested
and held to bail in the sum of $500(5.
Crane died shortly afterwards, and San
ford was again arrested. The affrav
commenced at Frankfort and ended at;
Belfast. It is believed that another of
the combatants will die, and that many
others are seriously injured.
Three Children Burned, to Death.
We arc informed by the Coroner of this
county, L. M. McLedon, Esq., that ou
Wednesday last he held an inquest on
the dead bodies of three negro children,
the property of Anna Bailey, daughter
of Thomas B. Bailey, and grand daugh
ter of Samuel Pratt. The Inquest was
held at Hiram J. Pratt's 13 miles from
Wadesborough. It appears that the
mother of the children had left then
but a short time when the house in.
which they were, was discovered to bo
on fire, but too far consumed to save the
children as the roof was falling in, and
the children clinging to each other in
the baek part of the house They were
burnt to a crisp.
The Jury, after being impannclled,
inquired into the caao and returned a
verdict of accidental death by the house
taking fire. Ar, C. Argus,
JBTThe tot il receipts at the Crystal
Palace, in London, were 4 70,000, and.
the total expenses 20,000; leaving a
quarter of a million sterling, or oyer, a
million of doling, as tl netfc jsocjs
of the concern,
v -

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