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No. 2, Vol. 1. Tartoro', Edgecombe County, (K C.) Saturday, January 10, 1852. Whole No. 2. r- I if Geo. Howard, Jr., Editor & Proprietor. I TERMS PER ANNUM. I V 2)a Wl'thiu two months, f Otherwise , RATES OF ADVERTISING: f One square first! insertion, 2 00 2 50 1 00 I ,, each insertion afterwards, 0 25 j Cards, a year, - - 5 00 Court Orders and Judicial adecrtisc- 5 mewts 25 per cent, higher. i Yearly advertisements by contract m From the Journal of Agriculture. I THE GIIAMMAB OF TUBE. YGRICUL- I BY ritOF. J. J. MAPES, NEWARK, N. J. NO. II. I In our opening number of this series we gave some account of the organic ! portion of plants and soils. The organ ic portious were stated to be those which m iy be dissipated by burning, and that the parts left as ashes constituted the ; inorganic portions, and of these we pro pose to treat in the present number. The I organic portions, as before stated, are principally received from the atmos 1 phere, being placed there by the decay of former crops, animals, &e. The inorganic constituents of the soil, and therefore of plants, are all to be I found as components of rocks, and by their gradual crumbling or decay, soils f are formed, and hence these inorganic ! constituents are found in soils. J S mc of these are soluble in water; I others require the influence of the air to f render them soluble; others, by combi X ning, arc rendered soluble, although vi -n uncombined, they are compara-! Hnospherc to circulate freely among its particles, and by mixing them intimate- ly with each other. ? Much the larger portion of plants is "organic, while .the greater mass of the soil is inorganic; still, if any one of the inorganic constituents found in the ashes of a plant, when burned be absent from tiveiy inert ior the use ot plants: and!cnce of Potash Soda Linv or Ma,fiies- nave a me so more ei 'all these conditions are brought about ; ia and the influence of th utmojnhre Actually than the ruinous system whi( ihv 'h'r'm(r the soil, admitting the at-! n,M1 i i. . he has pursued to ruin himself and . J o 7 O ?l iltU UaiB UUU UlUd CLlilW W.t'l':. 1 'the soil in which we may wish ti grow I the same plant, it cannot succeed, and it fV -lis therefore important to know wh at these inorganic constituents are I how they may be replaced when absent! ' The following are found in plants .'and soils: t'utash, owla, Jjivi", Jlig "inesia, Oxide of Iron, Oxide nf Mt.nga nnsc, Silica, Chlorine, Sid phurie Acid, (Oil of itrolj lho,phom ,1c,,, auJ ft"'"- 0033 T kcJimca term,, tavoonly to a-M Uo above lt to the four organic substances m our first art- c,o, aua uioy nave all tne nam nam o-;.orc m.m wuicu are recmisiM to oe ot highgarming. t so alarming as mg farmers, and Certainly this list is not . ... fow. """ '"o uuu Waieu so trouo es the citizen to under - h . . ... , mi stand when visiting the country. The ..u?Uiai.,auuu. Wnuv8tance,combmca witu Lame am omer now mu common use, are as difficult to thousand other words, which to the mer- X oiiaut or lawyer brought up m a city, . , womd bo ermally unmtelUg.ble with rAoh , Oxygen, Nitrogi,&c.,&c. . l'iTri 1 !1 !loinicov,r f.An-fil.innf - j "vvwi,j.u j jii iLiiuiit ui f many )lants, and exists in most soils. IJy leaching the ashes of plants with wa I ter, we get a solution of potash, and somuon oi potasn,and ion is eyapora ted to dry- residue is heated to red- tViieu this soliit: fiess, and tho iiess, to destroy impurities, it will take lu Carbonic Acid, and become Pearl A-ih. Soils from which all the Potash Jias been removed by former croppings, .will iut raise wheat and many .other '. plants, and in such cases its addition is indispensable. The modes of replacing I this and other constituents will be given I in separate papers. Soda. This substance has many pro perties similar to those of Potash, and a few plants will accept of Soda in place I of Potash, while many require both to Bjcure their success. When Soda is I combined with Chlorine, it forms com- ?n n Salt. j 1-.IME is so well known as to render a nimute description unnecessary. When comomeu with Carbonic Act, lit forms Chalk or Marble.; with Sulphuric And, Sidphate of Limy, (Piaster of Pa ri;) with Phosphoric .Acid, piioyhate ,cfia as lU(3 uamf3S 01 ine oueruicai con- tlio inorganic constituents of plants and laud wag ploWed and jetituents of plants and soils. Among - soils, and exists in large quantities as eighteen inches deep. . the;e we might name the words Furrow, Phosphate of Lime in the bones of aui- WU plowed with two fi'.W, S-ythe-snath, Mould-board, and a mais. The use of bone-dust as a ma- o-lti, ;a ua;nf, of Lime, and in this state is the princi pal component of bones. When Lime is freed from impurity, by burning, it is called Caustic Lime, and if slaked will absorb one-fourth of its weight of water, without becoming moist to the touch. Magnesia exists in many rocks, and in most soils. When combined with Sulphuric Acid it forms Sulphate of Migncssia, (Epsom Salts.) This sub stance is necessary for the growth of plants, but if in excess it renders soils nearly sterile. That class of Limestone called Dolomites contain Magnesia in ex cess, s, and the continued application of the lime made from this stone to soil is injurious to crops. Iron is not found in the metalie state, but combined with Oxygen, as Oxide of Iron, (rust,) and in this state it exists in the soil. Sometimes Iron exists in the soil in combination with Sulphur, and it is then called Sidphuret of Iron, (Iron Pyrites,) or Oxide of Iron com bined with Sulphuric Acid, as Sulphate of Iron, (Copperas,) and if in excess in this latter form, will render the soil ster ile ; such sterility, however may be over come by the use of Lime, converting the Sulphuric Acid of the Copperas into Sulphate of Lime, (Plaster of Paris,) and thus separating it from the Oxide of Iron, which is not injurious to plants. Oxide or Manganese is not pres ent in all soils, and the ashes of many plants do not contain it; indeed, many suppose its presence less important than that of any other inorganic constituent, and hence it is seldom or never added to the compost heap. Silica is the base of flint and of com mon sand, and forms a large portion of most soils ; it is also found in plants in large quantities. Thus the glazed coat ing on the outside of the rattan, bamboo, corn-stalk- suar-cane. and indeed of all ! the stems of plants to a greater or less ! 7 O ' degree, is Silex, and to it may be attri buted the strength of woody fibre. Al though Silex is not soluble in water a ione it is rendered soluble by the pres-1 it U duo to thoab.n of soluble SilicM - - to give strent; 'results never th to the straw, and such occur m soils property .,Mn:,T m:mured. By peeling off the outside 0f c0m-stalks, and burning them in a moihle. we mav obtain a InULrn of -.das. wiaicu s a combination of Silex and Pot - ag Silicate n f Potash,) without the! nrp.se.Tuw of which in the soil a corn crop ; canaot fujy succeed, however well it mv j,0 supplied with all the necessary constituents. CHLORINE is a gass which is readily ! absorbed by water, aud has the power. of bleaching vegetable substances m itsj uncombined state. With Soda, Chio-I rine forms common Salt, and both it! aa., arc plentifully foun-l in phnto. I SuLPiiuaio Acid u a combination of , SulpW witli Osygon, andw fou.U com- bined with many stmcei in the soil. With Lime, it forms Plaster of Paris ;; w;th .Magnesia, Epsom Salts; with O - ije 0f Iron, Copperas; and its more re - CGnt USG as a solvent for bonoSj rcnders ;t a vauabl0 adjuuet in the hands of the sciontifi3 farmer. scientine iarmcr. . d,t iuumuuuio xi-iu, i v Phosphorus and Oxygen. This sub- ; bases, is among the most important of nure i:S wcil known, and the recent dis- C0Terj of native bone-earth at Dover, N. j., and at Crown Point, N. Y., can- not but add materially to our grain ; cro"o When Phosphate of Lime, is absent trom a soil or exists in too small a pro- portion, full crops of wheat cannot be grown Tlm, tho whcat crop3 0f Ohio have fallen from 35 to 15 bushels per a- ere, and of New York from 30 to 12 bushels, simply because the Phosphate of Lime and Potash of the soil has been used up by injudicious croppings, with out proper amendments. The applica tion of a proper dressing of Phosphate of Lime dissolved in .Sulphuric Acid, with Potash, will enable most of these lauds to produce their f jriner crops, and the expense would be less than one-half the cost of barn-yard manure alone, which now produces the minimum ratio spoken of above. Alumina is nearly as plentiful in soils a3 Silex, aqd in clayey soils even in greater quantity. This substance is al so found iu many plants, but recent chemical researches have led to the be lief that its presence in plants is merely mechanical, being carried into the plant by the ascending moisture, and not as a necessary constituent;, Alumina has the strange property of receiving and retaining the gaseous pro ducts of decomposition until required for the use of growing plants, and hence those soils which are fairly charged with ! Alumina are found to retain manures better than more sandy soils. Many have attributed this action to the me chanical tightness of the soil consequent upon the presence of Alumina, but such is not the fact; for if a barrel of sand be intimately mixed with Alumina, the brown liquor of the barn yard may be filtered through it, and be rendered both colorless and inodorous; but when the sand alone is used without Alumina, no such effect is produced ; indeed, if the earth's surface did not contain Alumina and Carbon, all the soluble filth arising from decomposition would long since have been resident in our wells and springs, instead of being retained at the earth's surface for the use of plants. From (lie Plow. VIRGINIA FARMING. General B. Peyton, of Richmond, purchased a farm seven or eight miles above the city, on James river, some two or three years ago, which was in th same condition as thousands of others in that state, whose owners have abandon ed them a3 worthless, or rather so worn out and unproductive as not to be worth cultivating. For this reason, thousands have emigrated from Virginia to newer and more fertile lands in some of the Western States, for the solo reason they could no longer support their families and servants upon a soil which produc ed old pines and broom straw, and but little else. And why? Because it had been scratched, not plowed year after year until tUa rface was exhausted of j i I i 11 , 1 iemmJ i anu however great tne amount ui ricuuess ooueaui, it was a ueep-root- m tn0 ;s :11 vtc Chamber and the oruui. ed prejudice against dop-rootiug his. wjlrt now '.dances over that familiar i plows into the earth "it would ruin tae lami tnougu if practised, it cor-; h land 00 lierc n' Wlth;n a stonc 9 throw ot ili ricu tueaL una ciuvei ueius ui jvu c-' bc thc same ki"d of lan 1 hl3' covered with that worthless , uinaL wunmui!S ruuoy ; Pl.nc3 an(1 l,ro?m straw contrasting WHil lus ncias a aescri waste uy : ti i.: . c.i i.. ri i a i - tne suie or a garaen oi traits ana nowcrs. i wuat maSic U!is u0 wrought this 1 chaiigei' Not alone by the expenditure ; of capital f r lime, plaster, bone dust, gaau7 or other fertilizers, but because ho has. .'P!owed Jeep vhib- sltiTiTard9 s!eep, IVnIucing cora ;o se&i and ke.fp." u i,a lwf !,. coulll bo and uscd lllcm with four hor30s to a turui .)low foUowoa h y tUreoraore Sub3oilinS every furrow, ;nhe g(iff b'ottom bn(f a anJ a half Joo . xhi, alonJ has the offcet to . rost;lro fertaity to a deSreo that will : t the eron He has every pcct now twelity tjusil0i3 of whe.jt to til2 acrC),anci countg confidently on ten : ha u ,59 bu5hely) 0f corn. His meth- Karr.-iq Q od oi preparing iand tor corn is so mucn ia wfth thei wll0 lant first ani sow the land afterwards, that we wiU state it Iq the first ph place, the subsoilcd last fall, This spring was horses, and now rdint-- foaowm , preparation. A coulter- whicU is somewhat of the nature of a small subs0ll ioWis rua twelv3 inclies d ecp twlcG in a row and all the ground 7 n loosened ud bv an iron tooth harrow ; and thJ corn covercd by a double fur- ow of tlie coulter, and then all the clods ,ftro carefuily raked tooth rake3, which a rect to hoC! off by small iron are far superior in Tue case with which such land is tended ! taroUgh the season would surprise some Lf riml novnr t1ow till after the rrv resnect 10 noes ior mat imruus i i .1 . of those who never plow till after the corn is up, when they break out the middle if it can bo called breaking by a little scratching of a shovel plow drawn by a poor mule Such examples as General Peyton and others are setting in V lrginia, are causing a great revolution in that State. Old field lands are bought otten at great iy advanced prices ; and people are be tr-innine to find it is more profitable to improve their own farms, than it is to run off in pursuit of new ones. Truly the spirit of improvement is abroad; who shall limit its vast advantages to the whole country? ktgrA project is on foot in the south em aud central ortion of Illinois, for the establishmet of an industrial univer- Court Journal printed the previous year sity, in which the science of agriculture at Oxford, whither the Court had retired and the principles of mechanism shall be on account of the plague. In 16S0, practically taught. The fund for this King Charles prohibited the printing of purpose now at the command of the Newspapers and Pamphlets. The first State has accrued from the action & fore- daily paper after the Revolution in 1088, sight of the constitutional convention as- was the Orange Intelligencer, and in the sembled atKaskaskia in August, 1818, year 1724, there were three dailies in in accepting certain propositions of Con- London, besides various weeklies and gress in relation to certain lands for tri-weeklies. The oldest English Pro school purposes. Nat. Int. vincial paper still in existence is the m.Lmmmm wiwmammmmmmmtmmmmmmmmmmmmm Nottingham Journal, commenced ill The Great 3Ien of the Senate, The Washington Corespondent of the Charleston' Mercury gives the following i. , e ..i , graphic account of some of the great men , of the United States Senate : "Henry Ulay is tailing tast, and be- coming a very old man. He probably ; came here in the hope of recruiting his ; shattered and failing powers ; but a heavy j hand rests upon him which he cannot! shake off. Since the last session he has broken down wofully. The collapse of the high excitement of the strife that then sustained him. and the utter auni- hiiation of the high nopes he nourished, h ive suddenly aged him, and what but a short time since, looked like an old, but still strong temple graceful yet in its proportions, firm still upon its base, is crumbling fast into a rum. He has been confined to his room for the greater part of the session, aod has recently been compelled to got Pall;' Idphia to recruit. It is more thia doubtful whether he will ever fill his sent in the Senate again. To few is it granted to die as Chatham and Calhoun, but Clay is ambitious of meeting the same end. A great change is l-im dually taking place in our Public Councils, by the removal of th w il0 iom, st0od as conspicuous landmarks scene, meets n ) more the lion port, aud the eagle eye of Calhoun toe face u g- irard and worn, vet-oridit With mtelli- nee. The grand brow and cavernous eye oi eb -teu, iliu uiiuriu ugnr, scowi no more on the spectators ! and now, last lingerer of the three, the spare form and quick eye of IIenhy Clay pass like a shadow on the wall, on the way to the land of shadows. The big and burly form of Benton, a strong man in his sphere, has also vanished from that scene, and Cass sits alone, unremoved and un moved, amidst tho "noise and confusion" ' wn.ch now characterize that once digni j Lej body; A stranne Coincidence. Mr. Web- ster, Mr. Calhun, Mr. Cass, Mr. Benton, and 31 r. Van Buren were all bora in the year 1782. Mr. Clay's desire to re-appear in thc ftni'itp. The Washington corresnon- ' ' - - - - - n. a :mt of the Philadelphia North American states that Mr. Clay has a great desire o be able to appear in the Senate once more, to utter nis last admonitions a sainst the danger of the new doctrines . j 1 a 1 : 1 . which now, says the correspondet, threat en the permanency of our institution. The correspondent adds: "He would rather speak than write out his thoughts; and while maintaining, as ne nounce against the scheme of interven- tion. - The time at which he means to make this exposition of his views can not now be definitely fixed, and must depend upon his physical condition jout he is stern and resolved m his purpose to make it, and he will make it, even if ,, .. , i iit ii a jy mo u,iur xxv. -u -xu w. TiiE Newspapeh. The newspaper is about three hundred years om, tne nrst of which we have any record having been printed at An vers, in Flanders, in 1550, i 4 -i -rr i 1 ..x x 1 uy ADram v ernooven; minor uuiy 4 lias always aone neretoiore, tne i states, annually, at 4 1Z,5U,UUU, Dein2 r ,unt .u- i X- l-l. !. M 1 1. . ... l l .U. Illdl idlCI,HICU UUU INC IICJI13 cause oi nueny lurouuout iua wmiu, f cquai to sixteen ana nan copies per r. c i i t . i i ii? -t a -vi . i imi oltwo lair damsels. Afier several and proclaming hnnselt its inflexible year for every man, woman and child. ... , ... fthamn on. he will at every hazard pro-! While m the British Emn re onlv one o" "' century after that, newspapers were "tew aW nino or ten yearsof age, named and far between." It was not untl the j fc McGort was ghot in thc abJo. year 1620 that the Newspaper appeared men b a ffoma pistol wbile quiet. in Venice, when it was called Una Gazett, j looking oq at & going on because the price of reading it was a little twceQ gome n and white . jQ 3Iar. com of that name. It is therefore a mis- kcfc gtreet yGsterJ morniag. The take to date the Newspaper from Ven- ifc feard wm fataL ice ; for more than thirty years prior to , its appearance there, the English Mer- j Oiry was published under the authority! Another. A negro man named John of Queen Elizabeth. This was at the about 40 years of age, belonging to period of the Spanish Armada. It was Mrs. A P Allender, residing in Bull irregular and of brief duration. The first street, was shot yesterday about 1 o'clok, French Newspaper was published in the in Market, near Meeting street. It; ap year 1G31. The first regular English pears tha it was committed by ono of a newspaper appeared in 16G3. It wa3 number of boys with a pistol, loader called the Public Intelligencer, and con- with slugs or balls, two of which enters) tinued three years, when it was merged, the abdomen, injured the intestines an i in into te London Gazette, a . causing, it is apprehended a fataj wound. - - . - j 1714, and is, therefore, at this time, one hundred and thirty-eight years old. The oldest London Journal still in existence is the Morning Herald, in its eighty-sixth year. The Times, the most powerful Newspaper in the world, was established m 1787, and first printed by steam in -. Q , . J . . 1 , . f 1S14. Just one hundred and one year3 j bafore th5s kgt date gtamp tax Qn NgW3 papers was instituted. The origin of this stamp tax may not generally be known. The Newspapers and cheap pamphlets were the vehicles of the most of the atacks upon the 3Iinistry, and to suppress or limit their circulation, Lords B olmgbroko and Oxford laid a tax of a halfpenny upm every issue. It does not onv.ir th.it. hm w.w pfPt-vl ine stamp tax is still in existence in , England," and in the year 1840, there J were nearly eighty millions of stamps f issued. The idea entertained by some; people that this stamp is, "a tax on knowledge," is scarcely just, inasmuch ; T1- . .... . .1 lisher, it of course enhances the oriee of as it entitles the JNewspaper or sheet bear- attention of the Captain to it, who ing it to free transmission in the British first took it for a piece of pumice stone, mails, thereby grately facilitating such , but so completely covered with barna. transmission. As it is paid by tin pub- cles, and other marine auiinalcuho ts ta ' - " 1 - -"-J kjLi.HHVU, v.i lutta- i "O-X the paper. Much speculation has been ami nation he f ound it to be a cedar keg. indulged in touching the origin of tho ; On opening it he found a cocoanut en word Newspaper. The most plausible ; volved in a kind of gum or resinous sub suggestion which we have seen is that : substance; this he aiso opened, aui which derives it from the conjunction of found a parchment covered with Gothic the four letters indicating the cardinal n.l ... points of thc compass, to wit : N W E S clearly suoro;cstinx the bringing to-' n iv i ' i i- i tt xi i e ii . j? 5 i3 i Capt. I) A. declined. "He then, says gcther ot all parts oi the world. . . 1 , . . , . . r rr, vr i i -a. 2 1 tue letter, "read word for word, ana lhe iNewspapor had, it is true a very , , . , . . t, . ,7 1 , ii r - i iA i i .L i : translatea into r rench as he read each humble beginning, but truly has it been; , t , . , e o o j 'sentence a short but concise accoant oi the discovery of Cathay, or Farther Ins "Greatnds from small beginnings rise," Jia, addressed to Ferdinand and Isabel and now the New spaper is the most po- An, of Castile and Arragon, saying thtv tential instrument of human progress, ships could not possible survive the t"m Even in monarchal countries it has been Pest another day ; that they then wero termed the "fourth estate" in the realm, ' between the Western Isles and Spain; while in this Republican land it is the that two like narratives were written first and greatest power. In no other ! and thrown into the sea, in case the car country is it half so extensively diffused, aval should go to the bottom that somo Here every man has his Newspaper mariner would pick up one or the other and happy is he who has not more than . of them. he can read. j The strange document was signed hy- "The folio of four pages happy work, Which not eVn critics criticize" : . -3 wpor so amiably descn bed it, is the Ciliet source oi intormation to more man. i naiI mc cmiizea population oi me giooc. vno, mcu, snau msasurc us nmueuce. treasure safe until his return to ih U Sjufhcm Standard. uited States, which would be in April or Newspapers in the United Ssates. I ! Holdridge's Statistical Almanac for the year 1852, estimates the number of j newspapers pupliched in the United is published for every 25,000; in Persia one to every 20, 18G; in llnssia, only three copies to every 1,000,000. A i Contrc-tom. Gen. Cava - i.nri, nnWf nf Mar, with m:w nn1 1pnilf:fnl ho: rftSS. was to liave 1 J o ' b Kitrnftd th Tiiirht he was arrested I by Louis Napoleon's troops. The for o o ! tres3 of 1Iam will ccll0 many desperate gjrrhs. Shoo' ing The Charleston Evening N f the ofith. savs A little bov. Defalcation. last Friday it was made known by his own voluntary confes sion, that Mr. Samuel Morgan, Teller in the Exchange Bank, at Petersburg, had embezzled the funds of the institution to the amount of $10,000. The sureties id hi3 official bond immediately made an arrangement by which the Bank is se- . cured against los3. On Sunday, Mr. Morgan was arrested. Yestrday he was examined before the Mayo, and reman ded for further trial before the Hustings court. Mr. Morgan had heretofore borne a respectable character, and was goner . ally a. Inured for the kindness of his dis posit! on. Doubtless he was driven to the deed by the pressure of circumstances, which he wanted moral firmness to resist. South-Sids Democrat. A Singular Relic. Capt. D'Auber ville, of barque Chieftain, of Boston, writes to the editor of the Loui3vilie Varieties, that he put into (iibralter on the 27th of August last to repair some damage his vessel had. sustained, and while waiting, himself and two of hia passengers crossed the straits to Jit. Abylus, on the African coast, to shoot, and pick up reoloe:ical snecimens. Bv. 1. J O i fore returning the breeze had freshened so much a3 to render it necessary topuft more ballast in the boat; and one of the crew lifted what he supposed to be a rock, but from its extreme lightness and singular shape was induced to call the afr J.?nv th if Characters, nearly illegible, and which I...7 07 neither he nor any one on board was a ble to decipher. He however found on shore an Armenian book merchant, ;vho was said to be the most learned man in Spain, to whom he took it, who, after learning the circumstances of its dis'cov- ; Christopher Columbus in a bold ami i dashing h md. It also bore the date j 1493, and consequently has been float- i mi ing over the Atlantic for 358 3"ears. The letter closes with an assurance . fl.om tbe writer that ho would guard his May next. Printer's Freaks. The printers in the Plymouth Rock office, tired Qf taking impressions on the forms- in such proofs of lhe mniter that tins week the minister ol the place was called in ar-d worked off the whole four forms in two folio ' editions, leaving them locked it?) for allif,, Nnwthon lflnh,m,;rLpMi j f. ,nnnt! e,.. na mo vjuv'iuitiii.i., Mi ituib Mortality in the States The census of 1850 sho ws the following proportion of deaths to the whole population in the following States: Vermont I in 100, Iowa I in 94, Georgia 1 in 91, Michigin 1 in 87, Tennessee 1 in 86, North Carolina and Alabama 1 in 85, South Caroli na I in 83. Maine 1 in 77, New Jersey I in 71, Virginia 1 in 74. IK linois and Dehware 1 in 63, Ar. kansas 1 in 7Q,Trxas I in 69. Rhodo Island 1 in 66, Kentucky 1 in 64 Maryland I in GO, Massachusetts I in 51. gyrhere is a man in Troy, N. V. so mean that he. has never any ;hi-g to fit himin; purchasi.g boot or breeches, he a) way t ikes the biggest pair he can get for lhj5 money.