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Execute the Judgment of Truth and Peace in your Gates.
A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO SOCIAL INTERESTS AND PROGRESSIVE JUDAISM. CHICAGO, SEPTEMBER 6, 1878. VOL. I No. 13 RHYMED SAYINGS. BY GOETHE. Bo convinced that you, in spite Of others’ blame, do what is right, And soon will, ever and anon, The grumblers do what you have done. Aim tit the best, my son! You need But that; in t ime you will succeed. If you die young, the time will be When others will your merits see. Not in the same boat all can travel. Only be sure at what you aim! Love will and zeal all things unravel, Though skill more easily wins the game. Put up with death, my friend! you cannot change it; But as to life, conveniently arrange it. How, when and where? The Gods do not reply. Think of* Because,’ my friend, and ask not Why? . Paul Drysen For the Jewish Advance. ALBERT COHN (Continued.) Albert Cohn was designed, as it seems, for the furtherance of education; he has fully deserved to be put at the head of educational institutions by the great in terest he has taken for the promotion of learning and of culture. Next to the “Committee of Benevolence,” the Jew ish schools are the oldest institution of the Parisian community. In the year 1819 the first school for boys was opened on the premissed of the temple in rue Notre-Dame de Nazareth, and subse quently transferred to rue des Singes A school for girls was established on May Gth, 1822. At first these establish ments were of a very modest character; the boys’ school had an average attend ance of 80 pupils, and the girls’ school of 50, later of 65 pupils. For the first seven months the expenditures of the boys’ school amounted to 5,000 francs, and that for girls to less than 2,000 francs, in the year 1S29. In 1832 the boys’ school was closed for a time. Since that time the educational Jew ish primary schools have developed in Paris. They consist by the present time of two communal schools, each of them having a boys’ and a girls’ department, and a lecture hall, and three mixed schools sustained by the consistory and the communal funds (Caisse de la Com. munaute). Instruction is given gratis in all these schools, and every applicant is accepted. The number of pupils amounted to 1,746 in the year 1876. Since the appointment of the Commit tee on Schools, with Albert Cohn as the president of that committee, the organi zation of the consistorial schools has been considerably improved, and there remains nothing more to be desired. Albert Cohn was perfectly able to ful fill all tbe duties which he assumed, and as he craved always for more work to do in behalf of the community, he has bur dened himself with other labors, which he has pursued with the same zeal and accomplished with equal success. It lias been said in the foregoing that during several years he gave religions instruc tion to Jewish children. In about the year 1856 he organized public meetings, at which he lectured every Sabbath on Jewish history and theology for a term of thirteen years in succession. These public meetings were replaced in 1869 by the meetings which he has established in the Portugese temple. He was ever ready to address an audience, and there was not a religious solemnity ora Jew ish assembly in which he did not take the greatest interest, and at which he delivered no address. He was always expected on such occasions, and even had he desired it, he could not tree himself from this work, which had become a pub lic necessity. Tims we see him fpr long array of years addressing the audi ence at the synagogue at every religious solemnity; we hear of his yearly lec tures before the Talmud-Torah society; at the distribution of prizes for “ ap prentices,” at Bar-Miz wahs, at the as semblies of the Alliance Israelite, at the inauguration of the hospital, at the funerals of Samuel, Salomon de Roths child, Salomon Munk, James de Roths child, and many others of important per sonages, at the yearly meetings of the mutual Jewish societies of Paris, on every feast in the lecture-room of the temple, etc., etc. When the Shah of Persia gave an audience to a deputation of the Alliance Israelite at Paris on July 12th, 1873, Albert Colin presented to his Majesty at that interview the most important points. He took a lively interest in the reunion in behalf of the Jews of the Past, which took place in Paris in December, 1876, and the dis courses which he held at that reunion and at the banquet which was given to the delegates, elicited the heartiest ap plause. Ar. Albert Cohn did not belong to the Israelites of Paris alone; he belonged to the Jews all over the world. One half of his active life was spent in the ser vices of the Israelites of the East, whom he visited several times, and for whom he has shown great sympathy and love. It was in the year 1851, during the Crimean war, when he was for the first time called upon to employ his wonder ful energy in behalf of the Oriental Jews. The French Revolution had opened for the Jews of all civilized countries an era of freedom and deliverance. No sooner were the Israelites of France de livered from their burdens of political oppression than they employed their efforts, with an impulse of charity sel dom to be met in history, to help their still oppressed co-religionists of other countries. These generous sentiments have shown themselves clearly in the year 1840, in the affair of Damascus, It was for the first time, then, that the Jews of the Occident had proven their close relationship, by reason of their religious professions and by dint of racial connection, with the Jews of the Orient. A similar movement had be come apparent in relation to the oriental affairs which had caused the Crimean war. The Occidental powers had been in accord with Russia to demand of Turkey a guarantee for the rights of its subjects who did not belong to the Mussulman religion. But the Jews soon noticed that those powers had united only to work for the Christian subjects of Tur key, but not for all the raias (not con fessors of the Mussulman creed) with oufdistinction' of creed. WTien tne war was declared the question suggested itself: What consequences would it bring for the Jews of the Ottoman Em pire whether a favorable change of the constitution would bring any benefits for them as well as for the Christians? There was no apparent reason why the Turkish Jews should not enjey the same privileges which were to be granted to the Christians of that country. France and England had decided at the begin ning of 1854 to declare war. The Jews of those countries immediately applied to their respective governments in be half of their Eastern brethren. The Central Consistory of the Israel ites of France has sent a petition to that purport to the Emperor Napoleon III. on May 24th, 1834. At the same time they have set themselves in commu nication with the “ Board of Deputies ” of London to act in concert in this mat ter. At the meeting of the “ Board of Deputies,when the communication of the Central Consistory was read (April 24th, 1854), Sir Anthony de llothschild announced that he and his brother, Lio nel de Rothschild, had already conferred about this matter with the Earl of Clar endon; that the Earl had written about it to the English Ambassador at Con stantinople, Lord Stratford of Redeliffe, and that the Rothschilds of Paris had also taken action in that affair. Sir Moses Montefiore, the President. of the Board, said that the. Sultan himself had given him the assurance that the privi leges which would be accorded to the Christians would also be granted to the Jews. Another member of the Board, Mr. II. Gruedalla, gave the information that Albert Cohn had written about this matter to Dr. Philippson, the Rabbin Magdeburg (editor of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Jeudenthums), and that, ac cording to the answer of the latter, the Porte had accorded equality before the law, and admission into all public offices to all its subjects alike, loithont distinc tion of creed—this clause had been in serted in the 5th article of the provi sionary treaty prepared by the Porte. A committee was then appointed by the Board. On May TO a letter was written to the Earl of Clarendon, whose answer, dated May 15th, was to the effect that the situation f)f the Eastern Jews would obtain the most favorable attention at the hands of the English Government. When the politics of the Ottoman Empire became better known in Europe, all the anxieties regarding the situation of the Eastern Jews were dispelled. There was no doubt any more that they would have all the rights of citizenship alike with the Christians. Now the question suggested itself: Whether the Western Jews had done all their duties toward their brethren of the East; whether their mission had been accom jibJrW' JV1'-* ’ nW •• :>V .that; .tl»o Jews of Turkey had received all civil and political rights; it was necessary now to teach them how to use those rights and how to enjoy the advantages of their newly-acquired liberties. Long years of oppression and suffering had reduced them to a miserable state of mental and material condition; they were poor and ignorant; they needed the assistance of their European brethren to be freed from their state of decay, to be made susceptible for the benefits which the new state of affairs was to offer them. Assured of the good dispo sition of the Ottoman Empire, they were certain to nil an important place m the government if they could only be made worthy of such a position. Dr. Pliilippson lias earned the credit of being the first who liad developed these considerations in a series of articles in his journal, and in a special memoran dum which he had addressed to the pub lic on that affair, with great force and with warm sympathy. Among others, he made the reasonable remarks that it was necessary first of all to give instruc tion to the Turkish Israelites; that it was impossible for the time being to establish schools in that country, be cause there were not the means to de fray the expenses of such schools, and also because such establishments would have to struggle against the prejudices of a class of people which had been de prived of all secular instruction for cen turies, and was consequently not capa ble of appreciating the benefits and the necessity of such instruction. He pro posed that Jewish young men of Turkey be brought over to Europe and educated either at the expense of the communi ties or at that of some charitable indi viduals, Such young men, after having finished a course of studies, should be sent back to Turkey to work among their countrymen, lie solicited that, for the