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Execute the Judgment of Truth and Peace in your Gates.
A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO SOCIAL INTERESTS AND PROGRESSIVE JUDAISM. VOL. I CHICAGO, SEPTEMBER 20, 1878 No. 15 APOTHEGMS. (FROM THE TURKISH.) An Ancient Tree. Mock not the fruit-tree’s wrinkled face, Its knotty boughs, its want of grace; For underneath no barren tree 'Could you so many missiles see. Bitter Words. The knife’s sharp cut can be endured— Its ugly gash by time is cured; 'But^bitter words, when they o’erfiow, Inflict a deep, unhealing blow. The Rif/ht Road. How easy ’tis for some to say, ■“Your route is wrong, that’s not the way!” For, when the carriage breaks, all know Which road the driver ought to go. Death. Death is the dark, grim guest, Who slights not rich nor poor— The coal-black camel’s form whicli Kneels at every door. (In Appletons for October.) ;For the Jewish Advance. ALBERT COHN. Long before the year 1854 the subject has been broached that some institutions be established in Palestine to alleviate the suffering of the inhabitants. Since the year 1827, Sir Moses Montefiore has visited that country several times. He has sent in 1842 a number of looms to Jerusalem to introduce linen manufac ture among the Israelites of that city, and a mechanic’ to teach them that trade. At the same time he has estab lished a school for young girls as an an nex to the linen manufactory.. The pu pils of that school were to receive a primary education and to learn a trade in that school. The proposition was they should make marketing articles from the linen which will be produced in the manufactory. The generous Ba ronet has at the same time helped the Israelites of Jaffa, Hebron and Tiberia, to undertake agricultural work. But the general situation of the country did not permit all this work to prosper. Neither the linen fabrication with its school, nor the agricultural enterprises : succeeded. In the.year 1854, Jerusalem had no school, no hospital, no home for the poor, no charitable or educational institution of any kind, The honor was preserved for Albert Cohn to establish such institutions at Jerusalem in the name of the Rothschild family—and he had the pleasure to see them prosper. VII. Albert Colm left Paris on June 11th, to go on his mission to Jerusalem. The Consistorial Committee on relief, of which he was the President, presented him with a gold medal on the occasion of his departure. Accompanying the present was a letter of commendation in which the beautiful sentiment was expressed that "lie, like Abraham of old, “has triumphed over the feelings of love “and affection for his family, in order to “go to Holy Mountain to obey the will “of the Most High.’" He went to Vienna first to obtain some necessary letters of recommenda tion. Austria was at that time (and is perhaps still), the only European power which took great interest in the Israel ites of the Orient. She has a great many Jewish subjects and proteges in the Eastern countries, and her ambassadors have always shown great sympathy for them. The reader will perhaps remem ber, that in the Damascus affair, in which the French ambassador has sided against the Jews, the Austrian ambassa dor has taken their part and was their only support. Albert Cohn was well received at Vienna, He has obtained an interview with the young Emperor, and the Earl of Buol-Schauenstein and the Baron von Bach, the two prime ministers of that epoch, gave him letters of recom mendation to the Austrian ambassador ,_,the consul of Jerusalem and to the consular cofps’o’T various seaport towns of the Levant. He has embarqued at Triest on June 22, visited the Jewish community of Corfu on his way, and arrived at Alex andria on July 29. Here he made the acquaintance of Mr. Michael Erlanger, who accompanied him to Jerusalem. Albert Cohn remained five days in Alexandria. There was a great split among the Jews of that city, the natives and those who had arrived from other countries being unfriendly disposed to ward one another. Albert Cohn called a mass meeting of all the Jews of xYlexandria, and in a very eloquent speech he reproached both parties for their wrongs toward each other and ex horted. them to unite in peace and har mony. He announced to them that he will consecrate their union with the estab lishment of two schools in their city, one for boys and the other for girls, which will be the first step made toward securing a better future for their chil dren. Addressing himself to a mixed audience he had to speak in Arabian, Hebrew and Italian, alternately. The next day a committee was formed which made out a constitution for the schools to be established, and Albert Cohn wrote forthwith to Triest for a manager to be sent directly. On July 7th, Albert Cohn, with his companion, Mr. Erlanger, arrived at Jaffa. The whole Jewish community of that city, together with committees sent out for the purpose from Jerusalem waited for them on the shore. Our two travelers thanked God for the privilege of treading for the first time the ground of the Holy Land, and, to use his own expression, "it was with such tears in their eyes as Joseph might have had when he recognized his brothers,” that they went to the synagogue to perform their Minim devotion. In the evening of July 8th (Saturday night), they left for Jerusalem. The moon was bright. Behind them was the calm sea reflecting the inconceivable mystery of Divine Providence in silvery ruffles, before them were the dark out lines of the mountains of Judea. They stopped at Rami eh, at Aba-Gruch (the ancient Kiryatli Yearim), and at Culu nyeli or Clunia, a village situated about nine miles from Jerusalem, where they were met by a Jewish deputation. ‘ They continued their road—says Mr. “Erlanger—followed by a large con course of people which always increas ed as they came nearer to Jerusalem, “At the outskirts of the city itself they “were met, as it appeared, by the whole “population.’’ , When they came in sight of the city Albert Cohn dismounted. lie did not want to enter on horseback the holy city which had been once so flourishing and was now wrapt in mourning. Before tak ing any rest he repaired to the eastern wall iff theVfieienf temple to prostfate himself at the place where so many generations have offered their fervent prayers. The whole week was spent in visiting and interviewing, and especially in in quiries about the state of the leading personages and affairs of the city. Albert Cohn bought the house in which he was lodged for the purpose of con verting it into a hospital. It was his desire to inaugurate the hospital him self. The work was therefore carried on day and night to fit up the house for its new destination, and Mr. Erlanger has managed it with the same remarkable intelligence and precision which he has evinced since then in the constructions of the Jewish community at Paris. In the meantime Albert Cohn made an excursion southward of Jerusalem. On July 20th he went to Hebron. On his road he stopped at the tomb of Rachel, where he found the names of Moses Montefiore and Baron Gustav de Rothschild inscribed, who had been there before him. At Hebron he visit ed the cave of Macpelali, and in the neighborhood of that city he went to see several other places which are memor able in connection with the history of David. On his return to Jerusalem he visited the village of Bethlehem. These excursions were made not without danger. The Turkish troops were at that time T>n the battle-field, and the roads were not safe. Albert Colin had to engage the services of a roving troup, which had constituted itself as a sort of* police, to accompany him from Hebron to Jerusalem. That troup of savages has extorted from him twice consider able sums of money, Subsequently he fitted out a guard of his own to accom pany him on his expeditions. With this new escort he visited Ila mah, Sichem, Naplouse, the mounts of Gerisim and Ebal, the Samaritan com munity, which comprised at that time 134 souls, and its two great priests, Se lama and Amram. He ascended the mount of Gerisim on Friday, July 21, to see the ruins of the Samaritan temple. On July 25th money was distributed to the poor without distinction of creed, and on the 26th the hospital was inau gurated. At the ceremony of inaugu ration the councils of Austria, England, Prussia and France were present in full state. Albert Cohn invoked the bless ings of God on the new institution and committed it to the protection of the councils. Prayers were offered at the inauguration in behalf of the Sultan Abdul-Medjid and in behalf of the vari ous governments represented by the re spective councils. The medical service of the new hospital was confided tp Hr. Bernhard Neuman, and eighteen pa tients were received on the day of the inauguration. The expenses of the first establishment of that institution were defrayed by Baron James de Bothschild and the name his •sittttror “Mayer Rothschild” was- called upon ifr One department received the name of James Rothschild, another one that of Sir Moses Montefiore. etc. Every depart ment received a different name. Over one of the beds the motto of the Con sistorial Committee of Relief was in scribed : Comite Cons into rialThe hospital is situated on the south side of the city, and from the terrace thereof the ruins of the western wall of the temple can be seen. Beside the attendance to the sick inside, medical advice is given to outdoor patients and medicines are given to all applicants without distinction of creed. Two years later Albert Cohn established a library at the hospital for the use for the patients. Since the year 1854 the following in stitutions have been introduced by Al bert Cohn at Jerusaiem : 1. Oeuvre Betty de Rothschild, which was called into existence b}' Mine. James de Rothchild for lying-in women, in which every patient receives the me dical attention of a midwife, linens for herself and child and a certain sum of money at leaving the place. 2. A fund of loans with a capital of 100,000 piaster. Every working man can obtain a loan of 100—800 piaster from this fund to pay two per cent weekly without any interest whatever. On account of inexperienced manage ment -this institution lasted only for about two years. 3. A - school for young girls under the protection of Mine. Nathaniel de Roth schild. The scholars receive in that school religious and secular instruction and in ladies’ handiwork.