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Execute the Judgment of Truth and Peace in your Oates.
A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO SOCIAL INTERESTS AND PROGRESSIVE JUDAISM, VOL. I. CHICAGO, OCTOBER 2 5, 1878. No. 20. Summer Dreaming-. Winding- through the shady grove, In jov its ripples dancing; Where 'twist the maple’s darkling leaves The sun’s bright rays are dancing. Tuned with the hum of summer bees. Low music makes thy gushing. As o’er their pebbly rock-strewn way Thy waters swift are rushing. “Where goest thou, brooklet? tell me where: Tell me where is thy ending; ” “ I never stop, but onward e’er To the sea my way am wending " Still lingering, murmuring in mine ear, Its silvery voice was seeming: While in the bright warm summer’s sun 1 on the bank lay dreaming. A. Danabeld, in Waverlu May. oFor tho Jewish Advance. ALBERT COHN. (Continued.) XII. The first Jewish colony which has set tled in Northern Africa, was brought from Judea by Ptolemeus 1st. from his expedition against'Jerusalem in the year 320 B. C* The Jews lived mostly in the ’■pTOvitiees^of Leontopolis. C^wcmua’ancT Lybia. Since that time there has been a constant increase of Jewish emigration from Asia into Africa. They sought safety in that continent from the perse cution of the Syrians, Romans, and of the Arabians, after the triumph of Ma homed. At a subsequent period the Jews of Spain also sought a refuge in the African provinces from the persecu tions of the Visigoths, and latterly of the Inquisition, It was especially the great persecution of the Jews in Spain, in the year 1301, and their being ban ished from that country in the year 1492, which have brought large numbers of Spanish exiles into Africa, who settled in the districts which are known at the present time as Morocco. Algeria, Tunis, and the principalities of Tripoli. In the earlier times the Jews were very prosperous in Africa. Their influ ence must have been very great in the first centuries of the present era, since Tertulien, St. Cyprien, St. Augustin, and other fathers of the Church found it ne cessary to write special epistles against that influence. There were flourishing Jewish schools in Caiman, Fez, and ■other cities. Great Jewish Rabbins, like Huziel, Hanaunel, Nissim and others; Jewish physicians, as Isaac-ben-Solei man and Dunash-ben-Tamim were na tives of Africa. The names of Maimon ies and Alphasi are associated with that ■country. Rabbi Isaac-ben-Sheshet and Rabbi Simeon-ben-Zemah Duran, whose decisions in rabbinical law •are considered of the highest authority, even at the present time, were natives of Algeria. ^ince the rise of the Mahomedan re ligion. however, the African Jews were * According- to some historians, there were Jews in Africa at the time of Alexander the Great, and even at an earlier period. severely oppressed by the Arabs and the Turks. They had to pay territorial and head taxes ; certain articles of apparel they were not .permitted to wear ; they were prohibited to ride on horseback, to pass by a mosque with their shoes on. The princes have constantly pressed them for money. From the year 1509 to 1543. they have suffered continually by the Spanish expeditions against Oran, Bougiah, Tunis and Tripoli. In the year 1009 they were expunged from Oran by the Spaniards, and could not return thither until the latter had yielded that place, in the year 1792. The Jews of Morocco suffered similar trials. Not withstanding all this, they have rendered great services to the State. The African kings were often compelled to send Jews as ambassadors, or to entrust them with negotiations in foreign countries. The Jews of Algeria have at last been reduced to a fearful state at the begin ning of the present century. Notwith standing the financial resources which they had at their command, and which wt»i 1. Law: advantage, regardless of their great ser vices to the State as merchants and as artisans*; they had to suffer almost daily the most cruel outrages, Thus writes a witness of their sufferings : “ The disdain of the masses weighs heavily upon them. They are forbidden to wear red on their garments. Instead of a turban they must wear a black shawl. Coming by a mosque they must carry their shoes in their hands, and bow down or simply creep on the ground un til they pass the place. At the foun tains, when coming to draw water, the rear place is assigned them. They are prohibited to ride horses, or even to en ter the city mounted on an ass. A san guinary jurisdiction threatens them at any moment with the worst outrages. Should the Dey desire to take possession of the property of a Jew, he has only to pick up the least quarrel with him ; this consigns the Jew to execution, and his property is confiscated for the Dey. A delinquency for which a slave is pun ished with the bastinado, the Jew is burned for it at the stake, or hanged.” From such a horrible situation did the French conquest of Algeria extricate the Jews. The Jews of Algeria have been mixed up in various manners with the expedi tions of France in that country. The origin of the conflict which broke out in the open warfare of France against the Dey of Algiers (in 1830), was an old debt which had been due to France for provisions by two Algerian Jews—Bus * They have exercised all sorts of trades. There were among them masons, carpenters, tinsmiths, embroiderers, gilders, jewelers, ar morers. Baron Baude writes (Vol. I. Extraitx le VAl()i‘rir) of them: “ Their ehildreu frequent our schools, speak our language and adapt our manners. They are devoted business clerks, public notaries, and clerks of the administra tion. They are already initiated in our legis lation, and poor people choose them as their attorneys.” nacli and Bacri: During the war the Jews had rendered great services to both the Algerian and the French ar mies. The Jew, Durand, lias played an important part in the negotiation be tween Abd-el-Kader and the French, which culminated in the convention of Tafta, in the year 1837. He has often come to the French headquarters, during the war. to deliver to the troops provis ions which Abd-el-Kader had sold them; and even at the conclusion of peace, he has delivered to them 2,000 oxen. An other Jew, Busnach by name, was em ployed in the negotiation with Bey Ah met, of Coustantine, and he has been awarded the title of Knight of the Lee/ ion D'honeur for his valuable services. A Jew of Tunis, Bajo by name, has also taken part in that negotiation. Other Jewrs have also rendered valuable servi ces, sometimes as guides for French gen erals. and oftener still by blunting the atrocities of the war, and aleviating the sufferings of the soldiers. In 1843, Oran, which had been left almost without any Mn-isomwastattacked by the Arabs,, The Jews then courageously took part in the defence, and two of them, J. M. Cohen Scali and Guernon, have distin guished themselves in their sallies against the assailants. In 1845, M. Xa hon, of Oran, served on the staff of Gen eral de La Hue, as interpreter. Another interpreter, Isaac Levy, died on the bat tle field, in the engagement of Djemea Razouat. xVll the officers of Colonel de Montagnac fell in that engagement. Isaac Levy placed himself at the head of thirty men that were left. “ Surren der Jew ! ” called Abd-el-Kader’s Arabs to him. “Iam a Frenchman,’’ replied Levy. “ We die rather than surrender.” Another Jew, Leon Ayas, was honorably mentioned for his bravery in the report of the engagement of October 18th of the same year (1855), by the comman der-in-chief de Mostaganem. So also are the names of the Narbonis, the Na hons, the Mascluf-Calfrons, and a host of other Jews, known for the great ser vices they have rendered to the French troops. The opposition journals of France have not rendered the credit due to the Jews. On the contrary, they have re proached the Government for having employed them in its service. Marshal Clausel, who has conducted the unfor tunate expedition against Constantine in 1836, Has espoused these sentiments, and has treated the Jews very rudely, so that Duran and three others were compelled to bring complaints against him at the Chamber of Deputies. The impartial judgment, however, has taken into consideration the delicate position in which the Jews found themselves du ring the war, and how useful they have been to the French expedition. The sympathy of the Jews was naturally on the side of those who brought them lib erty. The Arab knew this perfectly well, and made the Jews expiate every defeat they have suffered. Hundreds of Jewish families became the victims of resentment at the hands of the con quered Arab. At the approach of the French troops to any place, the Jews had to flee in order not to be massacred by the population. When, in 1837, the Freftch troops attacked Constantine, the Arabs left the city, and the Jews were compelled to remain, under the penalty of death. About 2,000 of them were en listed in the Arabian army. Ben Aissa, the lieutenant of Bey Ahmet, made them work at repairing the breaches of the fortress under the tire of the French cannons. In the same year, Abd-el-Ka der having recaptured Moseara, all the Jewish inhabitants of that place were compelled to escape to Oran and to Tie man, and they became so impoverished that Baron James de Rothschild, of Pa ris, was obliged to send 10,000fr. for their assistance. In 1841, the French, having taken Tlemen and Moseara, Abd-el-Ka residents of those cities to follow him into the interior of the country. Many others were simply massacred by the Arabs, and their property was pillaged ? Pursued by the French troops, the Emir was compelled to setliis Jewish captives free. Those, unfortunate, were met by a company composed of French and sub jected Arabian soldiers, who took them for enemies, and butchered large num bers of them. In April, 1842, about 4,000 of these poor captives arrived at Oran, dying with hunger and fatigue. The Jews had to pay, with their blood, for their sympathies with the French, and yet they have shown at every occa sion their gratidude to the nation which has delivered them from oppression. In the first periods of that cruel war they filed a petition to serve as Algerian mi litia.' In 1837, they petitioned that the l)uc of Nemours be appointed vice-roi of Algeria. They learned the French language rapidly, and were anxious to send their children to the schools estab lished by the French Government, An Algerian Rabbi, Abraham Belays, hon ored the royal family of France by the dedication of his poems and other works. At the time of the French conquest, the number of Israelites in Algeria was not large. According to the estimation of Baron Baude, after the census of 1838 and ’39, there were, in Algeria, 6,065 souls ; in Oran, 5,637; id Bone, 421 . in Bouziah, 10 ; in Mostaganem, 698, and in Constantine, 3,038—total, 15,867. Mr. Joseph Cohen estimated their number, in the year 1845, to 10,962 souls. But this estimat was undoubtedly very incomplete. It certainly did not comprise the singular Jewish tribes which lived on terms of equality with the Arabs in the provinces of Constan tine ; the Tvabiles on the Mazania, the