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\m National News
I __ A ri FA^iNG HOUSE FOR IMPORTANT NEWS I **° * Co" Chicago, Illinois, April 12. 1916 I me Railroader is on I Duly, Day and I Night. 1 —* in (Ijr The Transportation Brother ■ hood s Publicity Bureau) f| TV railroad brotherhoods who are H Bkmr for an eight hour day. claim jfl tfcat it would In a great benefit to the M p&l* who ship ami receive freight. ■ Some of their reasons are that in B tfcnr «ia>> of keen competition ami a e-k change* of styles in manufa- - ■ tansl goods, merchants art- sadly I teadirapp>-i by the fai t that freight ■ riupmrnt* arc so slow that thr styles change ami discount* am lost through fl May in receiving goods. Uk All merchant* and most manufm M turn try to buy in us small quant ■ A as possible and makr quick turn vH mis in their stork, hut with slow fought shipments it is impossible to ■ te this. B Kailron.lv, in order to increase the r jll nrnings per train mile, arc loading tteir loconiotives with every car that B ttey can possibly pull H Trains are nut made up at division IH • terminal plants until a sufficient ^B ■■her of loaded car* are accumula ^B.tt la the terminal to make up the M tannage of the locomotive. Cars K Mataining merchandise are held up at ■ bninal points until enough other B (tn show up at that terminal point ■ * make up a long train. B l/ong Skipmenl*. B When it is renvrmberesl that ship 81 ■eats, say from New York to towns B ia the middle west pass through from I to 20 terminal or division points, anlng delays at each point, it can dily be seen how serious the ag gate of time loat would be to mer its and pd.bers. When these long ins an- finally made up at eaeh ision point they are loaded to full ■city and drag along the road at a til’s pace. The trains are so long t oftentimes the sidings will not i them and at meeting points be lea two trains on single track ra.I ds more time is lost by the trains ing to "saw" by. Another factor of railroading today •he fact that in these long train* y rar* that are in perfect romli I c»n b»- used, because of the strain B the couplers ami umierfraining *h result in pulled out drawhrads. fe« car frames, etc. This is one the reasons for car shortage, be se. a* soon as the car begins to de i©rate. it must be placed on the side rk and taken out of service f trains were moved more rapidiy I would reach their destination. b«' ■•ded and put back in service rkrr The train crews in asking a hiiMi- eight hour day. nu-uns that ght trains must make an avi'nijf I2'» miles per hour in order to id payment of overtime instead of 10 niles per hour as at present, re is no demand for any change in passenger service -only freight, nder the present ten hour day sy> then- is no penalty for working a i overtime, consequently, if tram »* are kept on the road longrr > ten hours there is no extra pay it maile for overtime other than regular payment per hour that the nmen got before the ten hour* ex d Coder the present way of pay for overtime It is of little rouse vee to the railway companies • her they work the crews ten m or fifteen hour* and fifty min •v* one more car of freight milled ne train will more than make up the wages paid the men by keep them on the road long houis The Eight Hear Itey. tha demand of the men for an t hour day, with payment of time one half for overtime, is granted, railroads will see to it that there rry little overtinvr and will move r train* faster, and if necessary make * holler trains to get them over the road quicker and cut «*it all un necessary delays. It i* claimed by some railroad offi c»als that it is impossible to make 100 miles at the rate of 12'* miles per hour, hut this claim is offset by the fact that twenty-four railroad* »n the l’nited States are now on 121* miles per hour basis and it is important to know that none of them are in the hands of receivers, which is good proof that it is not coKting these rail roads any considerable amount to speed up their trains and give their men an eight hour day. It is vital to the interests of mer chants aid manufacturers of this country that merchandise be trans ported as expeditiously as possible and the hours saved in transportation means that the merchandise gets in the hands of the consumers just so much sooner which means more rapid turnover in Atocks and a greater con sumption of manufactured product*. If this thing of heavy and more powerful locomotive!, cars of greater cafianty and longer trains reaches anything like the proportions pre dicted by prominent railway officials, such as Pres Willard of the B. A 0. Bad mad, the shipping merchandise will go back to what it was in the old da>* of the prairie schooner ami stage coach, so far as time required in transportation is concerned, as the tendency of railway operation is to ward increasing the rapacity of trains regardless of the tune required to move over the road. The hours now lost in the slow movement of freight, if saved, would mean millions to tin* commercial interests of the 1 nited States. This question of an eight hour da) for train crews should come right home to all shippers and receivers of freight. PKOSKUTOR DENIES CLAIM. Y oungstown, Ohio, April 12.—In op posing the motion in Judge Anil* son's court that indictment* against the steel companies be quashed. l’rose secutmg Attorney Henderson insisted that he had no intention of classify ing labor a* a commodity. He *aid such an argument was astounding as coming from attorney* represent ing corporation* that have done more than any one else to make labor a commodity. "A* tar as 1 am con cerned,” he continued, "in the interest of humanity 1 would rather have this court hold that labor is not a com modity. Corporation* have enjoined labor union*. I'tiion labor doe* not make secret agreement* to get higher w ages. "This indictment i* not directed against the payment of higher wage-. It is designed to prevent cor|Hiration* from combining to keep down wages. It puts the brand of bad faith upon the corporation* when they claim that these indictment* are aimed at union lalnir. I'nion labor is not !■' lesliaui commerce. I moil labor seek* to oh tain a just distribution ol wealth. I'hr combination of the corporation i* to create a monopoly.” TOLEDO t Alt MEN STRIKE Toledo. Ohio, April 8. lle.aii*o the members of the newly organised Mrwt tar Men'* union insisted on wearing the button of their organiia torn a strike has tier! up transpoita tion service in this city. 1 lie men have agreed to arbitrate every ques tion but their right to organise and wear their button 'I he company say* button* cause the puhln to "insult the non-union cur workers, and the unionists ask if the public goe* out to the ear barns und crawls under the ears to investigate the standing of ear repairer*, and other workers who are included in the company 's edict. City officials have applied to Judge hillets of the I'nited States federal court for a receiver on the ground that the company owes the city money and that it ha* suspended the opera tion of it* service because of differ ences with employes, "thereby para lysing the business and -isial activi ties of the city of Toledo ” It I HIIEK WORKERS K VISE W VUES. Trenton. N J-. April 8.—A* the re sult of a strike at the Ajax rubber plant, wage* are increase'll 21 cents an hour, and about 100 additional em ployes have joined the Soft Rubber Workers’ union. I Atty. Condon Represents Enginemen Before Commission BROTHERHOOD'S JOINT I.KfllS | LATIYK HOARD STATE OF ILLINOIS. Blue Island. Ills., F ebruary 24. 1916 To th»* legislative Representatives, B. of L E. and B. of L. I*. A E and All Division* and Lodge*: I>ear Sirs and Brothers: Attached please find copy of the State I^ublic Utilities Commission's Order regarding the complaint we filed through our attorney. Brother T J Condon, against several of the roads that have failed to comply with the Illinois Headlight Ij*w You will note that they have taken an entirely different view of the mat ter than the Missouri Commission, and have referred the results of the tests to the States Attorney of the counts in which the tests were made, with a view to having them start suits against the roads that are violating the law*. kindly have this read in your Div ision or Ix>dge so your membership may know the action we are taking to secure the law's enforcement. Fraternally yours, J. A. CULP, Chairman. D MCCARTHY, Sec.-Treas. Before the Stale Public I till tie* Com mi—i—i of Illinois. T J Condon vs. Yandalia Railroad Udnipany, No. 3741. T. J. Condffh vs. Chicago. Indiana t Southern Railway Co.. No. 3742. T. J. Condon vs. Cleveland. Cincin nati. Chicago A* St. Louis Railway Company, No. 3743. T. J Condon vs. New York Central Railroad Company, No. 3744. T J Condon vs. Pittsburg. Cincin nati. Chicago 4r St. I amis Railroad Company, No. 3745. ( onaolidated ( s*m»«. Complaints were filed in the above cases, charging each of the respondent companies with operating its locomo tive engines over the railroad owned, controlled and operated by it in Illi nois, with headlights that did not com ply with tie Illinois law. The cases were consolidated and heard together. The Illinois statute in relation to headlight* was approved June 2*’. 1913, (l.aw> of Illinois, 1913, p. 506). Section l provides: “That all common carriers by ra.I ruad. operating or doing business in this state, shall be require*! to equip and maintain and use on all locomo tive engines used by them in passen ger service |except suburban passen ger service), a headlight of sufficient candle power, measured with the aid of a reflector, to throw a light in clear weather that will enable the operator of same to plainly discern an object the sue of a man, upon the track, at a distance of 800 f»*et from the head light, and upon all locomotive engines used by them in freight service, exclu sive of engines in switching and transfer service, with a headlight of ».uffn lent candle power, measure*! with the aid of a reflet tor, to throw a light in clear weather that will enable the operator of same to plainly discern an object the s'le of a man upon the track at a distance of 4 *0 feet from the headlight, and upon all engines used by them in switching. trmn«fer. and suburban service (passenger), with a headlight of sufficient candle power, measured with the aid of a re flector, to throw a light, in clear weather, that will enable the opera tor to plainly discern an obje< t the sue of a man upon the track, at a dis tance of 260 feet from th** headlight; PROVIDED, this Act shall not apply to any locomotive engines running be tween sun up and sun down, or to any locomotive engine, th** equipment of which ha* failed during the trip, pro viding it is shown that the equipment was in efficient and effective working condition when the trip was begun " Section "2" prescribes a fine of not less than $100, nor more than $500 for each violation. At The Hearing. It appeared on the hearing that the Chicago, Indiana & Southern Railway Company had been consolidated with the New York Central Railroad Com puny. The other defendant’s answer denies the jurisdiction of the Commis sion, denied violation of the statute; asserted that the statute wus void as in contravention of Section 2, Art. 11 of the Illinois Constitution; that it de prived the defendants of their proper ty without due process of law in vio lation of the 14th Amendment of the Federal Constitution that it violated the commerce clause of the Constitu tion; that it deprived the respondents of the equul protection of the laws; and that the statute was void because indefinite and uncertain. The answer also claimed that Congress had taken jurisdiction of the matter by the amendment of 1915 to the act in rcla tion to locomotive boilers. The proof offered by the complain ant consisted of the testimony of I*. R. McCann, assistant engineer of the Commission, D. C». Wilson, irfvestiga tor, and Frank K. Renshaw. safety ap pliance inspector. These men testified to a number of tests made of head lights on various engines in regular operation in the movement of trains. The manner of the tests was similar m all cases. For example, a test was made on tlie evening of February 19. 1915, at Bemis, Illinois, on the Chica go, lndiuna A Southern Railroad, a part of the New York Central lines A test-field 800 feet in length was laid out and market at intervals of M0 feet; Investigator Wilson and a num ber of the Engineer's Brotherhood boarded the engine. The engineer was notified that a headlight test was to he made, and was directed to look out for a man standing in the track within a mile of the Bemis yards. The witness. McCann, in dark clothes, stood in the center of the track at the iero mark. When the engineer gave the signal that he saw the man in the track, Wil son immediately dropped a fuse as a marker from the engine, and the dis tance was measured and found to be but 127 feet. The Testimony. The testimony tended to show that various railroad officials were present at some of the tests made, checked the ; figures and observation, and allowed ! the tests to proceed without criticism. Altogether 17 such tests were made. | including headlights on passenger and i freight engines in regular service, and I a few on switch engines. The roads on which these tests were made were the Yandalia Railroad, the Chicago. Indiana A- Southern Railway, the I Cleveland, Cincinnati. Chicago A* St. Is»uis Railway, and the Pittsburg. I Cincinnati. Chicago A St. I.ouis Rail | road. i The distance at which the man on the track was observed, as measured in these tests, ranged from 108 to i2I6'i feet, though in one instance the ‘witness jumped from the track when the engine was about 50 feet awa> and no signal had been given. These tests were taken under ordi nary working conditions, except that 1 in each case the engineer had been no I tified in advance that the test was to he made. It can hardly be denied that the proof makes a prima facie case of | non-compliance with the statute. The testimony in behalf of the res I pondents showed experiments and ob servations on behalf of the railroads to ascertain the effet tiveness of a 2 - inch hressel headlight with a Mangm mirror, such as is in common use. On June 2 and 24, 191 4. near I>yer, Illinois, on a level piece of track in the open country, when* there were no tree* and no shadows thrown, a field of 25<iO feet was laid out and mark* •! at intervals of 25 feet It was a dark night, clear, no moon, and the sta* were shining Three men were sent out to walk the track from the 2504i foot mark towards the engine, which was stationary at the tern mark. One man was in light clothes, one in dark and one in medium gray. Then wen four observer* on the engine, ull • f them engineers taken from active ser vice, and when one of them saw the approaching man, the whistle waf blown, the man stopped and his dis tance from the engine was measured The procedure was continued unti all the watchers had reported that thi man w as in sight Three separate test* were mad*- on that occasion, with four observers in each estate and three men walking the track to be observed. The details are shown in Respondent's Kxhibit 1. The distances in feet at which th«* man in white was seen ranged from 2069 to 24H:t; the man in gray 1864 to 2291, and the inan in black 1100 to 1864. Similar experiments were made at the test field near Dyer, on May 12, 1915. On this occasion the watchers on the engine held the push-buttons connecting with signal lights in a shack 1000 feet from the engine, *o that each observer, without apprising th«- others, could indicate when the man on the track came within his vis ion. The results of these experiments, in which twelve observers participu ted, are shown in Respondent's Kx hibit No. M. The distances at which the man in light clothing was ob served ranged from 475 feet to .'1000 feet; the man in “medium" clothing. 518 feet to 2492 feet, and the man in dark clothing, 225 feet to 1944 feet. In the view of this Commission, the proof of specific violations of the law on engines in actual service, is not overcome by the results of these tests. The objections urged against the constitutionality of the statute are for the most part disposed of by the de cision in Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company vs. State of (ieorgia, 2.^4 t’ S. 280. The statute there in question required railroads to equip locomo tives running on the main line “with a good and sufficient headlight, which shaH consume not less than IHIO watts at the arc. and with a reflector not less than 2-1 inches in diameter." The railroad was convicted of violating this statute and the conviction was sustained by the Court of Appeal* of <ieorgia. In affirming the judgment, the United States Supreme Court held that the statute was within the police powers of the state, that its wisdom was for the legislature, and that it did not deprive the railroad of libert) or property* without due process of law, nor deny it the equal protection of the laws. The Statute The courts also held that the Oorgia statute was not invalid as constituting an unwarranted interfer ence with interstate commerce. The court applied the principle that "in the absence of legislation by Congress the states are not denied the exercise ! of their power to secure safety in the ! physical operation of railroad trains within their territory, even though | such trains are used in interstate com i men e.” The court, after referring to various Ac ts of Congress, concludes: “Hut it is manifest that none of j these acts provides regulations for lo •comotive headlights. * * * It does not appear, however, either that Congress has acted, or that the Com mission under the authority of Con gress. has established any regulations >o far us headlights an* concerned; as to these, the situation has not been altered b> any exertion of Federal ' power, and the case stands as it has 1 always stood, without regulation un I less 't lie supplied b> local authority. The most that can lie said is that in quiries have been made, but that t on gress has not yet decided to establish regulations, either directly or through j its subordinate bod>. as to the apph unce in question. The intent to super ' -ede the exercise of the State's police , powe r with respect to this subject can not be inferred from the restricted ection which thus far has been taken." It is urged, however, that Coi.gres has now taken jurisdiction of the* reg ulation of locomotive headlights. as to supersede state legislation on the subject; and reference ,* made to tin* amendment of March 4 191 . to the “Boiler Inspection Act. 1*1.• Mis«»*ur Public Service Commission took that view ill Brotherhood of locomotive Firemen and Knginecc* vs. St. lann* A san Francisco K R tompanv. P 1 R. 1915 F 489 lloiler Inspection. It) the “Boiler Inspection A< \ of 1911," it was made “unlawful fm an> common earner * * * to use an) ,(> < omotive c ngine prop* lied by steam power in moving interstate or foreign traffic unless the boiler of said Won <* t’ve and appurtenances thereof a** *r proper condition and safe to opera* in the service to which the same i» put. that the same may t* employee' in th«* active service of such carrier ir moving traffic without unmveasar) peril to life or limb, and all boden shall l«e inspected from time to tim< in accordance with the provisions of this act, und be able to withstand such test or tests as may be prr scrilied in the rules ami regulations hereinafter provided for." iiy the aforesaid amendment of 1916, it was enacted that the forego ing provisions, "shall apply to and include the entire locomotive and tender and all parti anil appurtenances thereof, and that the Inspectors appointed under the Act of February 17, 1911, shall in spect and shall have the same powers and duties with respect to all the parts and appurtenances of the loco motive and tender that they now have with respect to the boiler of a loco omtive and the appurtenances there of, and the said Art of February 17th, 1911, shall apply to and include the entire loromotive and tender and all their parts with the same force amt effect as it now applies to locomotives boilers and their appurtenances." It seems fair to argue that the pur pose of this amended statute is to pro vide for the inspection of locomotives and their parts and to ascertain their condition as to repair apd fitness for service, rather than to prrwrribe stan dards of efficiency in the headlight or other appurtenatues used. It does not appear that under the Federal statute any standard for headlights has been prescribed. It is to be noted also that a part of the violations shown in evidence oc curred prior to the passage of that Act. and all of them prior to its tak ing effect. This Cam mission will not hold in a doubtful i ase, that an Illinois statute has been abrogated; and the Commis sion is not convinced that the Illinois Headlight law has be. n superseded by federal regulation of the same sub ject. liy law it is the duty of the State's. Attorney to commence and prosecute all prosecutions, civil and criminal in any court of record in his county, in whi. h tlio people of the State or coun ty may be concerned (Hurd's Stat. Chap. 14, Sec. 5), IT IS THEREFORE ORDERED that the Secretary of this Commission send a ropy of this order to the State's Attorneys of the proper coun ties where the alleged violations took place, and that the officers and em ployees of this Commission who took part in the said headlight tests to co operate with surh State’s Attorneys, if requested by them, in the prosecu tion of -aid violations of the headlight law as are shown by the evidence in this case. by order of the Commission this 10th day of February , 1916; Dated at Springfield, Illinois (Signed) K. V. I'RATHER, Secretary. CHILD I.WUIR LAW Ml HARDSHIP. Philarkdphta. April 8.—Contrary to the assertion* of it* opponent*, the new « hild labor law has not caused the hardship- predated. The law pro \ ide* that every child between the age of 14 and lb employed in an industry shall have eight hours' schooling every week. According to Henry (Ihteon. chief of the bureau of coni puisory education, the claim* of the Manufa*turvr*' association and other : opponent* of this legislation have proven unfounded. The number of . hildren leaving school and seeking employment certificate* no far this year is 1.100, agam*t 4.000 issued in corresponding months last year Ac l cording to Mr. diilron, if the present rate of reduction is maintained, be twwn T.ihhi and 8.000 children who would ha*» left school under the old law wil remain in school because of ’the pr«c. -ions of the new law. I \IH.t MKOMOTIXL ORDER. l*hilad« pi a, April a.— The Baldwin i liHomot'v. works ha* secured order - totaling f 1>.%0.000 for loiomotiv**. Twenty ! .* f the lorovnotiv«*. which are of the heavy freight type, will ts built for the PenneyKama railroad and a*1 c<|ual number of the name sort for the i. * *t Northern railraa<l oRt MLSTR \ Pl tVER W \NTKD. W mted, to hear front a good man t » work at any kind of work, who is a farly good harpist, playing pian< score, to play in small orchestra* •tde line for dance*. No boozer* or kicker* Married n an preferred. Ad dres* W II Sherrnan. North Hudson W it. PAY SECRET Publicity Bureau ol R. R. Brotherhood Make Exposure ! iTcveLand. April ft.— in • statement issued by thr publicity bureau of the four railroad brotherhoods, these worker* challenge the claim of rail road olhrial* that train anm em ploye* receive stupendous wages. "The railroad* give a list of a dozen or so engineer* and conductor* who receive fancy pay. Theae men. by MU son of certain choice limited passen ger run*, are held up a* example* of what the train service men receive. A* a matter of fart they are excep tional c ase* ami are not fair example* of what the train service men receive. The present eight-hour day mom meat dor* not embrace thr paaaeager train crew*—only freight mra; therefore, it i* not proper to use any passenger service men as illustrations." While dimussing the claim* of al leged high wages paid by railroads, thr brotherhoods' bureau tarns the manager*' guns on Ihrmartmw making public the aad secret agers. Be peel No. States Interstate aian, shows methods emptayud by tha Bark Island railroad. Flat Vim President J. E. German "urn mostly paid per ammm. makmg ha total rompeneatiaa $43,718. skae as tha pay rail dsstd QMM.* C. A. Morse, chief eugtaacr, luceivod secret bonus of $3jMB eu the Brut af curb year. I'pon the retiimumt af B. A. Jack-" •on as general aotiritar he was given $100,000 in cash. L. F. Lome, chairman d the ex ecutive committee, had a Joint con tract with that company and the St Louis i San Francisco railroad which provided for an annual salary af $75, 000 for five year*, and a baa us of IMW.000 at the expiration af tbs con tract After 10 months's serene, the runi pames wanted to be released frees this contract and "he was given bond* of the railway company af a pm vatar of $450,000." Thu waa borne by the two companies aad thr Bock Island's proportion was > barged to profit aad loss. KoU-rt Mutter, vice president of the Ruck Island, was given IllijOM in tash. a bile George T. Boors. Mother official. «w friven f l.*X»0U nuh vMeo ho* retired. Thr report make* this conctuaoon. “The contribution* to oftruU of the railway company in rice** af tktir Ka'ant-* dixTtydleii about a milNm dollar* ** Thr brotht rhoMtU’ borvau maL^ thi** ftatr- rnt * I rom thr above report ( ;he l n.t os: Stat«» interstate ct .nn.crcxr cum n.iMBKin * is plain that railroad pa> r»*».w »U» not a!ma)» show what thr official* «da'T Usd!I\ mviw. There is no as to thr railroad^' ability to n*-**t Tho «k uuhU for oa right hour day if thr funds, whnh m th** past have hern diverted from their pwptr use*. are d!k»»nl to r*tiiaii« in the *. rearunew oi th* ra.inwwt* t»» n>ret thr nm.vdr) expenditures of rsnnisf railroaith buMiir** institutions.** r* W\UY. *EN ST It Ik K. Johnstown. Fa.. April s.—Thr Citk ien** KWt rk* and * •-*»■ ‘op; idnrr com pany. thr %‘ kdi ng • lert ncal oruvre in this city, attempted to increase hours ami mimr wages, »nd a# a result is minus it# union el«rtr.. J workers The lifthryv* urnon h *«• p« n*.r»il a •ww wag** - a*. to take effect the fkr’-t of next month.