Newspaper Page Text
The Frostburg News.
VOL. I. NO. 2. Europe lias increased its population by sixty-two per cent, within the last sixty-two years, but in the same time 30,000,000 of its inhabitants have emi grated to other countries. The last of the old toll gates in Connecticut has been removed, and now there is not a road in the State that is not free to all who drive, walk or ride. The day when the toll road served a useful purpose has passed, comments the American Cultivator. Popular knowledge ou the question of road making has increased, making many of the free roads better than some that have long required a toll to be paid for using them. It is a particular injustice to the farmers who, by underdraining, have improved their land for cultivation, and have thus done most of the improvement that has been made in country roads, yet are obliged to pay toll for the use of improvements which their labor and money have accomplished. Somebody has been investigating the relation of the number thirteen with the career of Hansen, the Swed ish explorer. Among the fasts he pre sents are the following : The expedi tion numbered at first twelve meD, till a thirteenth was picked up in a.port on the way North ; no one of the thir teen, however, lost his life. On March 13, 1895, Nansen decided to leave the ship himself and press north with one companion. The Fram struck a souther ly current on January 13, 1896, and on August 13 she gained free water and Nansen reached land again. On Feb ruary 13, 1896, the false report was telegraphed that he had been seen in Siberia. Three time-; were litters of thirteen pups born in Nansen’s pack of Esquimau dogs, though it israre that more than six appear in a litter. And finally itis said that thirteen publisher's attempted to secure the publication of Nansen’s book-, giving his of his adventure 3. One of the cariosities of commerce is a French report on the caravan trade of the Libyan Desert and the opening of a new trade route. To this is appended a list'of prices in Bornu last year. Nothing could show more strikingly the difference between the value of'articles at the place of pro duction and at the place of consump tion, or (ho universal readiness to sell cheap what we have in order to pay high i rices for what we have not. Green glass beads were worth two Maria Theresa dollars per oke (2.CJ pounds). Ivory was worth thirty Maria Theresa dollars for forty okes. An equal weight of green glass beads was worth §3O, so that the beads were worth nearly three times as much as ivory in the Boruu market. White and black ostrich feathers were worth $2.50 per oke, which was exactly the price of soap. Slaves were worth from $3 to $7 a head, while Martini Henry rides were worth SIOO each, and even the cartridges were worth half a Maria Theresa dollar apiece. The important paper on “A Pre- Columbian Discovery of America,” published some two years ago by Mr. Youle Oldham, late lecturer on geog raphy at Owens College, England, is again brought into prominence in the current number of ths Geographical Journal, says the Manchester (Eng. land) Guardian. The facts are, short ly, that in a manuscript map of the west coast of Africa, drawn in 1118, by Andrea Blanco, there is au extensive coast line indicated towards the south west of Cape Verde. Along thi3 is a half indecipherable legend, which Mr. Oldham reads ' : bo!a otiutieha xelonga a ponente 1500 mia that is, “island authenticated, distant towards the west 1500 miles.” Tn the hands of un believers ths words can be interpreted differently, according to the bias of their unbelief, after the fashion ridi culed 1 y Dickens. But Mr. J. Batalha Be is defends the reading here quoted, and criticises in detail the objections urged against it by Signor Errari and others; for example, the alleged igno rance of the Portuguese government on the matter, and the silence of his torians. While strongly supporting Mr. Oldham’s conclusions, he warns us against assuming as proved that wlreh is only at present shown to be probable. It will be observed that the coast of Brazil, which is here in question, was thus apparently discov ered nearly half a century before Co iumbtis tuade his famous voyage, WEST POINT LIFE. FOUR YEARS OF RIGID DISCI PLUMS FOR CADETS. The I’leh’s Year of Servitude and Submission to Hazing—Pro gramme of Daily Life and Study. NO place exists in the United States the name of which is so closelv interwoven with the G history of the country as that of West Point. It was a conspicuous pilace in the days of the Bevolutionary j struggle, when its topiogrnphical situa tion made it desirable, and near and i about it were enacted some of the deeds i of heroism which will live to the credit of the patriotic Continentals while the annals of the Bepublic shall laot. Its situation on the Hudson, says the New York Tribune, is one of the beauty spiota of the country, end, while great changes have been made near it since the days of the Devolution and the re lentless hand of nineteenth century progress has transformed many dis tricts near it into modern, prosaic towns, West Point remains undefiled and majestic as it left the hand of the great Architect, and even the modern buildings which have been erected on the heights which overlook the river and the proud monument which recalls the names of departed heroes pale into insignificance before the piictnre of natural beauty which nothing can ob literate while the Hudson winds be neath the rocky cliffs and verdure and sunlight add their colors to the scene. But to the American West Point is attractive beyond its association with the days cf old and its natural beauty, because from the academy'which the Government maintains upon the reser vation came the men who wrote their names in imperishable letters upon the country's history and repaid in many instances with their life’s blood the benefits which they received there. The cadets come from all pi arts of the country; they represent all grades and classes of the community, and there is pirobably no educational institution on the continent in which a man’s social, political or financial standing would conut for less than in West Point, and where his rtftvr.mrg ment and final graduation would de piend so thoroughly and exclusively upion his own personal work. Cadets are appointed by members of Congress and by the President; and in recent years it has been the custom to give the pilaces of principal and alternate to the aspirants by competitive exam ination. A candidate must be over seventeen years old and under twen ty-two. If he is under five feet in height he is ineligible. He must be pierfectly formed and must be of a “good moral” character. He must be able to read and write the English language correctly and to pierform, with facility and accuracy, the various operations of the ground rules of arithmetic, of reduction, of simple and compiound proportion and vulgar and decimal fractions, and have a knowledge of English grammar, of descriptive geography, particularly of (he United Stales and of the coun try’s history. The regulations piro vide: “No married pierson shall be admitted as a candidate; and if any candidate shall bo married before graduation such marriage shall be considered as equivalent to a resigna tion, and he shall leave the institution accordingly'.” After a boy' has passed the pirescribed examination and has been found qualified mentally, pikysi cally and morally to become a cadet, he must report on or before June 15 following the examination to the Superintendent of the academy and sign au agreement for service in the following form: 1 , oE the Stato of , aged years,—— month?, do lieroby engage, will! the consent of my parents or guardian, that from the date of my admission as a cadet of the United States Military Academy I will serve in the Army of the United Halts.or eight years, unless sooner discharged by com petent authority. Tho cadet also subscribes to an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, aud that he will bear true allegiance to the National Gov ernment. The number of men in West Point is compiaratively small, about 3JO in all, aud the new student becomes con spicuous at once by the manner of his carriage an 1 liis lack of military bear ing'. This is just as true of those who THE MESS HAM. had some experience in so-called mili tary schools before they came to West Point as of the boys who come fresh from their mo her’s apron strings. The ‘Vetting-up’’ is done by upper class men, whose a: parent severity has can-eu many a young heart to beat rapidly and whoso shout ot “What do you mean by standing that way?’ or ‘Tor, I mean, you there,” or “Don’t ANINDEPENDENT PAPES, DEVOTED TO LOCAL NEWS AISD HOME INTERESTS. FROSTBURG, MD., FRIDAY, MARCH 26, 1807. you know what your right foot is!” has caused a lump) to rise in the throat it' i ri -b i | ";.V g TV . ! SS- i t - N * 1 -v --<T. S -W-. £=367 | .<■' f/yg'i jl'l ca@y-t THE BATTLE MONUMENT. of many a new cadet who until that moment fancied that he was letter pier feet and with pioints to spare. The now man comes to the academy at that time of the year when the hard work for those who remain is over, and camp life begins. Hard aud exact ing work lias been the order of tho day ; unceasing, tiroless application to the studies which extend over a wide field has taken the time of the whole year, and the student hails the advent of June with joy, because it brings the camp season and comparative rest. It is piarticularly welcome to the man who are just completing their first year, who will emerge from their pleb- ACADEHIC BUILDING AT WF.3T TO IST. dotn into full-fledged cadetship, who will throw off tbe galling yoke of un derling, and will have a new lot of pi’ebs with whom to get even for what they themselves have endured. And so, with every yearling standing in wait for him, the cadet enters camp) for a season of about eleven weeks. If his heart is not broken by the upiper class men while in camp, and if lie piasses the examination which fol lows a few months later, he becomes a full-fledged cadet, with a piro3[iect of being graduated from the school in four years. The camp trial is the most severe test, and the man who goes through the ordeal of the peculiar hazing to which the pileb is subjected, who can control himself sufficiently to take it all in the proper spirit, who can keep up with his studies in the mean time and acquire sufficient rudimentary knowledge of military matters to satisfy his instructors, shows himself welt qualified for the work which will follow and for the piositions of trust and responsibility to which he may be called later. It does not matter who the man is, whether he is the son of a Senator, a General, a diplomat, or a black smith, whether rich or pioor, ho is a pleb with the pilebs, and no piower can save him from making love to a broom stick in the presence of a lot of upper class men it they decide that he shall do so, no influence can gain for him the privilege of sitting in the pireseuce of an upper class man unless that man asks him to do so, and his ancestry, station or future prospiects would avail him little if he failed to “sir” the upper class man piroperly and respiect full-y. The pleb is rigidly excluded from all the social functions, ihe little en tertainments and jollifications. He has no part in tbe joys and sorrows of the older men, he cun make no visits, although he frequently receives such and at hours when they are the least expected. He is treated by men who were possibly his friends a short time before he came to the Acalemy in a manner which is worse than indiffer ence, and man,y a pioor fellow, think ing it all over, and realizing that foi I two years he must remain on the reservation, with, no hope for one day’s vacation, has clenched his fisti in auger and consented to remain only bfoansß the hardship of it all was better than the brand of cowardice wi h which he would be mnrken if he lelt. When the man least expeots it, a number of upiper class men may come into his tent and sit down where they can find a place. He must stand, and then may come an order to tell a > tory about his travels in India or Ice land or New -Jersey, to go through the manual of arms with a lead pencil, to stand on one foot while he names the principal rivers in South America or the capita s of the Territories in the I United States. Then there aim eer | tain calii-thenio exercises for which : the upipier class men have a great liking 1 when they are performed by a pleb, and men have been kept busy per forming these exercises by their tyrannizers until they were exhausted. The new man worries along aud works aud p>lods to keep up) with the required standard in mathematic 3, ISiglish studies, French an 1 military d|sscip)line. He becomes a housekeeper, afe). He must learn to take care of his room and his outfit. Tho rules prescribe that he shall have two pairs of uniform shoes, six piairs of white gloves, two sets of white belts, eight white shirts, two night shirts, twelve eojlars, eight pairs socks, eight piairs summer drawers, eight piairs for win ter, six handkerchiefs, six towels, one clothes bag, made of ticking, one clothes brush, one hair brush, one tooth brush, one comb, one mattress, one piillow, two piillowonses, four sheets two blankets, one quilted bed cover, one chair, one tumbler, one trunk, one account book aud one basic. He is commanded by regula tion immediately after reveille to hang up his extra clothing, to putt such articles in the clothes Dag as it is in tended to contain, and to arrange his bedding and all his other effects in the pirescribed order. He may not, ac cording to tire regulation, keep) in his room any of the implements used in chess, backgammon or any other game, and lie must obtain a piernait before any mapi, picture or piiece of writing can be posted or attached in any way to the walls of his room. When camp) season comes again many of the pileb3 of the last camp season hava disappeared ; some de parted before the camp closed, others could not stand the strain of work during tho winter months, some failed to piass the January examinations, and, with the others who fell by the way- side, they went back to their homes, smaller, piossibly, than they wore when they' received their appointment, and, although in many instances it may have taken argument to convince peo pile of the fact, ill-health is usually given as the cause for a change in the plans which had a generalship for their object only a few months before. For those who have remained iu the institution a new era is about to be gin. At the June exercises the pilebs are allowed to make their debut. Their bearing has become manly and soldierly by that time, they have ac quired so much of the soldier in the year past that they do not resemble the boys of that time, and parents and friends who come to tb t Academy hardly know them. They Viei a piridw in the fact that they have lived through their year of plebdom, and no one greets them more heartily' as they enter t-ho domain of the upper CHAPEL AT WEST FOIST. class men than the yearlings who are about to shake the dust of their con dition from their boots and enter the more dignified sphere of second-class men. With the graduation hop) the pleb’s time of pirobation ceases. The upper class man goes so far as to se cure piartners lor him, and between the smiles of pirettv girls, the release from thraldom, the consciousness of haying won the respect of the older men, and his anticipation of fits good time in camp with the new men, the yearling’s cup) of hapipiness is nearly litl 1 . But tho hop lasts oniy a few hours, the camp season soon ends, and then begins the work again—harder than the year before aud more Of it. Not only drill regulation 3, discipline and ail matters pertaining to the seritsce of war must be stu lied and mastered,but high'-r mathematics, French and Spanish and literature must be grappled with and they keep) every moment of the cadet’s time employed. It is ab : sointely impossible for a man to keep) jup with his class unless ha works ! hard, aud the class as a whole would i iaU behind if the work were not con tinuous. To be convinced of the prime condi tion of the oa lets one must see them ■ at a meal in the large mess hail,known as Grant Had. The senior cadet cap tain is superintendent of the hill, and ■sits at a table facing tho door sur ; j rounded by his staff. The cadets maich , | to the hall aud are divided when tlitcy reached there into squads correspond ing to the tables iu the mess hall. Each squad-is accompanied by an offi cer,who is responsible for the behavior of the men at the table. It is a matter of course that the man who carves, who does all the work and who is served last is a pileb. The hall is decorated with the portraits of graduates who have won fame since they left the in stitution, and the pleb, looking upon these pictures, may console himself with the thought that the piictures represent men who iu their day had to do what he was doing. A corps ot men is kept busy waiting upion the cadets, whose appetites give piroof of their fine physical condition. To be a cadet and a late riser is au impiossibility. The hours for daily duty are laid down as follows : BeveilSe at 5.39 a. rn., and 6 a, m. ou Sunday; piolice call, five minutes after reveille ; surgeon’s call, fifteen minutes after reveille; breakfast call, thirty min utes after reveille. After breakfast the cadets have a few minutes hi which to “brush ud,” and at 8 o’clock they are called to epuarters for study and recitation. They have dinner at 1 o’clock. From 2 till 4 o’clock more study end recita tion, and then comes evening parade, after which tbe battalion marches to supper. After supper they have thirty minutes, aud are then called to quarters for study u?,til 10 o’clock, when “taps” is sounded, and the sig nal for “lights out” finds the cadets tired and ready for Sleep. On Wednesday and Saturday after noons the cadets have no duties to perform, and unless they have been guilty of some slight infraction of the rules they may take a rest. But a peep into the courtyard of the bar racks on these afternoons will con vince the visitor that all cadets are not augets. While their companions are at ease, those who have trans gressed must pact upi and down a cer tain part of tho yard accoutred and armed tfie stime as a regular infantry man on sentry duty, and ifthegrty walls were transparent they would dis close to view also some who must suf fer for their misconduct by being con fined to their rooms. The strictest discipline, the' severe course and the high standard required are the causes for depileting the ranks of the cadet corps, and it is estimated that about sixty pier cent, of those who are fully accepted as cadets drop oat before the torn years’ term is completed. Those who rem ;i i and are gradu ated receive a cash capiital ol $192 to start with. Out of the $5lO a year which is placed to the eredit of every cadet $1 is taken 6very month and kept for him, and at the end of his term at West Point he receives it iu a limipi sum. The piurpose of the ar rangement is to pilace the young officer out of need and to enable him to buy his officer’s outfit. The $540 a year which a cadet receives from the Gov ernment never reaches him in the shape of money. His account is sim ply credited with the amount, and against this charges arts made for his clothing’, books, board, laundry aud all incidental expenses, and the great piroblem is how to keep) out of debt. To buy anything with money of his own is au impossibility, because a cadet is kept penniless, and one of the regulations prescribes that no cadet shall apply for or receive money or any other supplies from his parents or from any pierson wliomsover without permission of the Superintendent. The thud and fourth years in the academy are equally severe; but tho men who have outlived tho hardships of the pirecediug terms are likely to survive and aro finally graduated and their names sent to the War Depart ment, with the recommendation of tho Academic Board for commission in the army. Mowor-Mitkiiig from Bread. A factory in the West End of Lon don is now manufacturing from baker’s bread, artificial flowers, so natural in appearance as to deceive the eye of an expert. The pirocess still remaius secret, although. 100 hands are em ployed. The flowers not only look exactly like the real article when freshly made, but as the bread be comes stale they assume a slightly withered appearance, almost identical with a flower beginning to fade. The coloring is perfectly natural,rendering them entirely different in this respiect from artificial flowers hereto fore manufactured. That Fellow Feeling. _jff~ Looking at the “Stuffed Animals," Twinkles. PKICE 5 CENTS. THE NEWS. At Omaha, Nab., Probate Judge Baxter gave Jiis decision ia the Briggs will contest. He seta aside the will of Emily J. Briggs and awards the entire estate of #500,000 to Clin ton Briggs, the only child. At Huron. S. 1)., property worth #70,000 was destroyed by fire, meludingtbe Alliance Building, valued at $25,000; insured for $lO,- 000. It was occupied by the government land office, which saved most of its records. The United States Weather Bureau lost all instruments and most of the records for the past 17 years. The Louisville (Ky.) Chair Company as signed to Lytle Buchannan. The liabilities are .$(10,000; assests slightly la excess of this sum. The failure we ’> caused by dull times and threatened suits. A special from Lima. 0.. says timt Win. B. Mott, freight clerk, and William It. Jones, telegraph operator, were struck by light ning on the street and both fatally injured. The Caledonian Textile Company, recently incorporated under New Jersey laws, has decided to locate in Westerly, 1!. I. The cor poration will erect a plant of 05,000 spindles, 1.050 looms for the manufacture of hue cot ton piece goods, and will employ about 800 hands. Eire, supposed to be of incendiary origin, destroyed the American House, in South Manchester, Conn., and adjacent property, the loss aggregating $30,000. Hodley Sutherland, 20 years old. a color ed waiter, murdered his mistress, Sarah Keen. 22 years old, also colored, at their home in Brooklyn, N. I'.. by shooting her. After the shooting Sutherland tried to es cape and 11 red at a pursuing policeman, but without effect. The shoe factory of Whitman fr, Keith, Brockton, Mass., was opened as a “free” shop, and at noon the firm said that every department had been filled except the tree tog and finishing departments. It is claim ed that many of the old employes returned to work. The unions have pickets on duty, The Shoddy Eubber Mill, six miles south of Titusville, N. J., was totally destroyed by fire together with a large flour mill adjoin ing. The loss will amount to about $20,000. Origin unknown. There is no improvement in the epidemic of typhoid fever which has struck Lambertville, X. J. Two more victims died Wednesday, -making a total of six. The disease is still spreading. The Harm s? and Saddlery Protective As j social lon of New York and vieinityatameet | ing raised a protest against the 45 per cent, i taxation on imported goods as being too low, and made a demand on the Ways ami Means Committee for the imposition of a (i per cent, taxation. William Bussell Maps, 87 years of age, President of the Long Branch Banking Com pany, and one of. the best-known residents along this section of the Jersey Coast, died at his home in Long Branch, X. J. He was, very wealthy. Three hundred employes of the Enterprise* Silk Works, Paterson, N. .T., went on strik j for an increase of 30 per cent; in tbeir wages. An offer of 15 per cent, increase has been rejected by them. Another well-armed revolutionary expedi tion, having captured several small steam ers, has landed on the Northwestern Uru guayan frontier. On aeeount of a reduction of from 10 t 25 per cent, in the wages of the employes <f the American Sheet Iron Mills, Phillipsburg, N. J., 100 men refused !o go to work Friday. John Thomas, late general manager of the Thomas Iron Works, died at Allentown, P.u, aged 03 years. During his active bushe s* I life he was connected \vi h the Crane Inn Works, Catasijua Manufa, luring Compai y, and a director of the Upi or Lehigh C> al Com pan *. Henry Oouiliard, proprietor of the Gree :- Held (Mass, i House, filed a voluntary pe i tiou in insolvency. Liabilities #20,003; u : encumbered assets, #l,OOO. Having concluded that part of its work which could be done at Newport News, Y-t., the Board of Inspection on the gunboat* Wilmington and Helena lefc forWashii gtoa. A member of the board said that it was t!i unanimous opinion of the board that ta boats were ail right in every respect. The Sovereign Camp of Wodtin o i of fin World, ia session in St. Louis, donated #.,)0 for the. relief of flood sulTe.ro s at Memphis, the same to be expended by the Memphis ri- I li f committee. The St. Paul (Minn.) Globe Company 1 ns been reorganized by the transfer ot (ho sto A and assets of the company lo new own, ra and the payment of all obligations of ey> ry description. J. G. Pyle, Crawford Livinp*- ton and William O. Jones arc members of the new board of diiectejs, aid Mr. Pyle was elected president of the compact, CABLE SPARKS. United states Minister to Turkey. Alexan der Terrell had a private audience with the Sultan. Gen. Carlos ltoloff, who forfeited his L ail i in Baltimore, is reported to have landed sa '©- 1 ly in Cuba. The Marquis of Salisbury, prime minister of England, is eon lined to Lis home by a mild attack of influenza. Violent storms, by ln.il, caused the loss of several lives aad damage to property in Germany. 1 A special cablegram from Kip de Janeiro says Brazil and France have agreed to settle the Amapa boundary question by arbit,'a tioxs. Kenr-Adininil Thomas O. Selfridge, co.a muuding th-D United States European squad r >n, was received in afidience by the Pope at Home. The report that the government tro *ps were defeated by the insurgents in the Prov ince of Paysaudu, Uruguay, is officially c >n tirmed. The Congress of Venezuela will take up the Guiana question at once, the oft; iul co’_ i-s of the treaty with Great Britain hav ing arrived at Caracas. 2? A special dispatch from Manilla, in ‘he 1 Philippine Islands, says that, the native* I there have attacked the Spanish quar-er, killed four men and set flro to the Span *h camp. Imports have )xen received at Constai fcl* nople or very serious disorders atTokar. ia the old province of Armenia. It is said ti.&c i many Armenians and Turks have bee& lulled,