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Death the Most Fa mous of Russian Detec tives Frustrates Plot to Take Nicholas' Life Blood—Monarch Sees Only Quietude of Crowd as Evidence of Vicious Plans Being Nipped How Chief Did It. A A (Gen. Trepoff, one time chief of the St. Petersburg police, ranks with the most famous detectives in the Russian empire. He was in control of the secret service department of the police of St. Peters burg during the lawless period extending from 1875 to 1880. He seems to have been successful In this difficult position be cause he won the warm" commendation of the czar, and at the same time, the hearty detestation of the people. His immediate predecessor was assassinated and his own life was in danger on more than one occasion. Vera Zassolic, a young nihilist, shot at him while he was seated in his office in the early part of 1880. Trepoff was seriously injured but re covered and soon after that was honored by the czar who made him a councilor of state.) |N the early part of March, 1887, the czar of all the Russians determined, as a mark of confidence in the loyalty of his subjects, that he would drive in state, in full view of the populace, from the Cathedral of St. Sophia to the Winter pal ace at St. Petersburg. The importance of this statement may be under stood when the reader is reminded that for a period of years the nihilists of that unhappy country had been making determined efforts to take the life of the emperor. Only three months before it was an nounced that the czar, while out hunt ing, met with an accident in which he was seriously injured. It is signifi cant that several persons who were near the scene of the "accident" were immediately arrestedrOne was hanged and the other transported to Siberia. Again there had been an "accidental" explosion in the Winter palace while the czar was attending a state din ner. Nothing ever came of this inci dent although it was proven .later that nihilists had entered the palace dis guised as plumbers. Now, however, it was believed in high official circles that the country was to enter upon an era of internal peace. The emperor issued a mani festo of conciliation. Arrears of taxes were remitted certain criminals were released from prison exiles to Si beria had their life sentence com muted to 20 years of prison servitude. The nihilists, on hearing this, were passive but unsatisfied. They had clamored for certain constitutional rights which were denied them. Nevertheless, it was determined by officialdom that the czar should cele brate the return of "the era of good feeling" by a public appearance in the capitol of the nation. The time agreed upon was Sunday, March 13, 1887. Five days before that date a cadet in one of the military schools—a young man with royal blood in his veins, and a prince of a reigning house of Europe—killed himself. The tragic act nfras attributed to melancholia due to a hopeless love affair. It would be supposed that a small romance of this sort would be left to the district police. Not so. At this stage of the narra tive there enters upon the scene M. Trepoff, a general in the army, the chief, of the secret police of St. Peters burg, and! ope of the favorites of the czar. He was a burly man, brusque, in manner .and not over nice in his methods. Hated by the people, he treated their attitude with supreme in difference. Whatever his disposition, 'he possessed the unerring instincts of the real detective^ His investigation of the little cadet's suicide was charac teristically prompt. It developed a startling fact. It can be stated in a single sentence. The nihilists of St. Petersburg had determined to assassinate the czar on Sunday, March 13, 1887. One of cttye functionaries attached to the palace heard rumors of the plot and rushed to Gen. Trepoff. "It is unsafe for his majesty to ven ture out. Shall we countermand the order for the procession?" The chief of the secret service an swered with an expression of annoy ance: "The program 1? to beMcarried out as SrVaWjged—down, to, the smallest de tail." .Treppff iatertuftted -.the speaker by hanging his heayy fist on the desk beforfe Irim: 1 "I take all of th£ Responsibility. If It is necessary to make any change I sh&fl inform the Czar in person." The Former the Northern, the Latter the Southern Spelling. ti "It! never occurred to me that there could be any two ways of spelling the word 'bunk,'" said the schdlarly ap pearing person who was studying the sporting section of the newspaper. "But I happened to pick up a Mem phis newspaper the other day and as By Saturday March 12, the gener al had a regiment of men at work. The mildest mannered person in St. Petersburg was considered fit subject for suspicion. Innumerable arrests were made and some of these were upon such flimsy basis that even the rigor of Russian policedom could not justify their detention. Hourly reports were handed in to Gen. Trepoff. He de voured these with eager interest, purs ing up his shaggy eyebrows—and thinking all the while. Presently one of his officers brought in a printed cir cular—a sort of proclamation—and this bit of paper was given more at tention than any of the regular re ports. After that he sent out other squads of police and they, in return, brought in other reports. There was great activity at the secret service quarters but, it must be confessed, not much positive evidence of the alleged conspiracy. It was the eve of Sunday, March 13. One of the personal attendants of the czar called on Gen. Trepoff. "Don't you ilrni: it would be wise Trepoff raised those eloquent eye brows in surprise. "What," he cried, "and confess to the world that the emperor of Russia fears to appear in the streets of his capital?" "Yes," protested the other, "but the danger—" "The danger is for me to consider," he said, each word carefully meas ured. The messenger bit his lips in per plexity. The chief of the secret serv ice looked up suddenly. "Does the czar know of the plot?" "No" riot a word but he is timid." "Reassure him. Tell him that Tre poff says there is no danger—that he will guarantee the safety of his maj esty." "All right," replied the attache, bow ing himself from the room. Late, on the night preceding the pro cession an inoffensive-looking young woman was arrested and lodged in jailv Early on the morning, of the his toric day several compositors and editors—apparently innocent of any wrong—were taken into custody. Still those who surrounded th6 czar were apprehensive. An hour before the time they appealed to Trepoff. He gave them a curt but comprehensive answer: SHALL IT BE "BUNK" OR "BUNG" a head to a speech made by Commis siuner Loomis in Tokyo recently I read: 'Loomis Hands Out the Bunc.' "Now, without endeavoring to go into the m,erits of the case so put I want to day only that the headline meant that Mr. Loomis was accused of softsoaping the Japanese he ad dressed. The only other authority for the spelling of the word comes from %DV2lZVCE'A 72£ MZOTT OC/T yOtZQ to postpone the procession tomor row By GECTRGE "BAHTOfl Gen. TrepofPs Great "March IS" Goup—Its Accomplishment "Let the procession proceed." The route over which the czar trav eled was lined with police. They stood alone, in pairs, and in squads. They were conspicuous and yet not unduly so, for hundreds of them in plain clothes mingled freely with the peo ple. Just before the parade started Trepoff arrested four students. They were young men waiting to see the royal show. The people protested against the arrest as an outrage, but the grizzled head of the St. Petersburg police grinned—and said nothing. In deed the calm demeanor of the pris oners seemed to justify the protest of the people. One of the men carried a book under his arm, evidently, from the gilt lettering on the outside, a de votional volume another had a green bag containing legal documents the third, apparently with a desire to get a good look at the czar, carried a pair of opera glasses, while the fourth had nothing unusual about his person, un less a roll of music be so regarded. They were hustled off to the nearest police station and in a minute the curious multitude, accustomed to constant police interference, forgot all about the incident. Simultaneous ly six persons were being arrested at Paulvonia on the Finnish railroad. Tens of thousands of the people stood on the sidewalks on that chill, gray, M&rch morning awaiting the gor geous procession. It came presently, with the czar in an open barouche, seated with one of the ministers of state. His majesty was attired in semi military dress, and if he felt any ap prehension, did not betray it The of ficial who accompanied him glanced furtively about as if constantly expect ing the unexpected. The czar bowed to the right and the left and received in return cold, curious stares from the people. If they felt any enthusiasm they did not show it. Was their silence Intended as a mark of respect for their sovereign? An onlooker from another country would not have so regarded it. The procession moved quickly and safely to the Winter palace. It had been accomplished without a single mishap of any kind. The telegraph car ried the news to all quarters of the world—the czar had appeared in pub lic and received the homage of his people. The day of assassination was past, and the delusion of a contented people was hugged by the autocratic ruler. the sporting cartoonists, whose work I study carefully. They are unani mous in spelling it 'bunk/ "It appears to me that the southern version is based on a belief that the word is a diminutive of 'buncombe.' The northern spelling may be due to the belief that a person who may be bunked is a person of sleepy or dopy nature, who might as well be lying in a bunk, wrapped in slumber. There fore when a person is bunked he is rendered sleepy. That is merely con jecture." But things were different in the famous "Third Section," as the secret police are called. Gen. Trepoff was there arranging in consecutive form ths result of five days of hard work. Here is the story of what had been going on behind the scenes, the knowl edge of which had been so carefully kept from the czar. The first clue came in a most casu al manner. One night a couple of men in a restaurant on the Nevsky had at tracted attention by their earnest whispered conversation. During part of the talk the name of the czar and the date, the 13th of March, had been overheard. That was enough. Detec tives placed on their tracks followed them like bloodhounds. On the eve of the fateful thirteenth one of the men met a woman in the streets of St. Petersburg and had a hurried conversation with her. Mve minutes after they separated the woman was placed under arrest. A search of her person revealed a large quantity of nihilistic proclamations all calling for the death of the czar. She was literally loaded down with the documents which were being dis tributed to those in the conspiracy. She admitted that the youag cadet who had committed suicide had been selected to assassinate the emperor. But when he realized the meaning of his assignment he killed himself. She stopped at this stage of her confes sion. Neither persuasion nor torture nor threats of death would induce her to give the names of the others con cerned in the plot. But Trepoff had a foundation on which to build his case. Here was a bit of paper. It would have to be traced to its origin. It was evident that an illicit printing press had been set up somewhere in the city. All this time the two men who had talked incau tiously in the restaurant were being followed. They were seen to enter a house in the Jewish section. The rec ords of the police showed that the house was occupied by Aaron Zonde levic, who, at one time, had been a printer. That was sufficient. In less than an hour afterward the bouse was raided. An officer with a squad of police broke into the place without notice. What they found did not seem very dam aging. Four persons were at home a* the time—two men and two women. Mme. Kriloff, the head of the house, was a woman of about 45 and of un The Credit Mobilier. In the campaign of 1872 it was charged that the vice-president, the vice-president-elect, the secretary of the treasury, several senators, the speaker of the house and a large number of representatives had been bribed during the years 1867 and 1868 by presents of stock in a corpora tion known as the Credit Mobilier (organized to contract for building the Union Pacific railroad) to vote and act for the benefit of the Union Pacific usual intelligence. The other" female was her servant. One of the men was rather aristocratic in appearance. He said he occupied a minor ministerial office and color was given to his state ment by the portfolio which he had in his hand. The other man, named Lubkin, was a consumptive, about 23 years of age. "Where is your printing press?" de manded the officer. Madame shrugged her delicate shoulders and outstretched her hands in a manner which said plainly enough that the police were welcome to any printing presses they might find in that place. A printing press is a bulky thing. It should not be hard to find. But the officers searched the house from cellar to garret without result. All the while the quartet sat in the large dining room, prisoners. On the return of the police, the two men and the two women were put through the "sweat ing" process, but they revealed noth ing. The aristocratic-looking young man laid his portfolio aside for a mo ment. One of the policemen picked it up and opened it. Astonishment made him speechless. He silently handed the portfolio to his chiefj It was filled with manuscripts and proofs of a pro hibited nihilist paper called "Land and Liberty." The aristocratic-looking per son with the portfolio merely smiled at the consternation of the officials. He realized the gravity of his offense. He knew the penalty. But he never quailed for an instant. "Come," shouted the chief, "you're convicted already. You might as well confess. Where is the press?" The quartet remained silent. They were not offensive. It was the silence of submission—but not of fear. Sud denly the chief gave a shout of sur prise and pointed to the cupboard. The other policemen followed the course in dicated by his accusing finger. They saw nothing and their blank coun tenances said as much. "Don't you see?" almost shrieked the official. "No," replied his chief lieutenant. "What is it?" "A daub of ink on the door of that closet." "A daub of ink?" repeated the other, parrot-like and with no indica tion of intelligence. "Yes! Yes!" he retorted, "a daub of printer's ink." Slowly a consciousness of the mean ing of his words penetrated their dull heads. At the same moment they made a simultaneous dash for the cupboard. To their amazement they met with resistance. Mme. Kriloff, her servant, the aristocratic man of the portfolio, and the consumptive com positor were lined up in front of the cupboard. All were armed and Mme. Kriloff, pointing her pistol at the head of the chief officer, said with great de liberation: "Advance a single step and I'll blow out your brains. We're desperate. Life means little to us now. Save yours." Here was a dilemma. The chief knew if he made a move to reach for his pistol this frenzied woman would carry out her threat. Only two other policemen were in the room with him and they were covered by the aristo crat and the consumptive compositor. The remainder of his men were in oth fcr parts of the house. He backed out by degrees. It was humiliating, but he felt that it was politic. He must have time to think and plan. His two com panions retreated with him. As they reached the outer sill of the floor the sonsumptive compositor slammed the door violently and one of his asso ciates bolted it. The racket brought the other policemen to the aid of their chief. There on the landing they held a council of war. The besieged nihil ists, on their part, were sparring for time—they had something to conceal or destroy. The house was already strongly guarded on the outside and the siege held out for less than a minute. The door was broken in and after a fierce resistance the four nihilists sur rendered. The aristocrat fought like a demon and at the last asked quarter only for the women. While the police were completing their work the con sumptive compositor had a violent paroxysm of coughing and asked per mission to lie on a cot in an adjoin ing room. The cupboard proved to be a veri table magic closet. It contained a com plete printing outfit. Needless to say the paraphernalia was extraordinarily simple and adapted peculiarly to the purposes of the conspirators. There was a large cylinder covered with cloth which answered the require ments of a press a roller of a sort of gummy substance several fonts of type, display and otherwise a few jars of printing ink, benzine brushes, and sponges. This was all packed to be taken to police headquarters. Just as the prisoners were being rounded up a sharp pistol shot was heard from the adjoining room. The chief hurried Railroad Company. An investigation committee appointed by congress re ported February 18, 1873, recommend ing the expulsion of Oakes Ames of Massachusetts for "selling to members ot congress shares of the stock of the Credit Mobilier below their real val ue, with intent thereby to influence the votes of such members," and of James Brooks of New York for re ceiving such stock. The house modi fied the proposed expulsion into an "absolute condemnation" of the con duct of both members. LIFE in and found Lubkin, the consumptive compositor, in the death agonies. He had shot himself. In half an hour's time the remaining prisoners and all of the facts in the case were in the possession of Gen. Trepoff. He rubbed his clumsy hands with satisfaction. "Move the second in the game of life and death," he muttered. "We shall postpone our third move until morning. Not because we like to, but because we must." In the morning, as already stated, the arrest of the four students oc curred. Their innocent-looking posses sions were taken from them at the police headquarters. The book, the green bag, the opera glass, and the roll of music each contained bombs which were to have been thrown at the emperor. They were stripped. On each student was found a small vial suspended with a string from his neck and resting against his breast. These frail bottles each contained a most active poison. The purpose was evident. Failure or refusal to do their frightful work on the part of either of the students would have brought forth secret agents of the nihilists, whose duty it was to strike the unsuc cessful or delinquent conspirator on the chest, thus smashing the bottle and p6mitting the poison to enter the wounds caused by the broken glass. Little wonder that the unsuccessful students took their arrest stoically. They were merely exchanging one fate for another. Gen. Trepoff had made other ar rests of those who were directly con cerned in the attempted assassination. He counted them over. "Nine fish in the net we need more." His chief of staff and a squad of his trustiest men had already started off for Paulvonia on the Finnish rail way. He wired them to act immedi ately. They found what he had sus pected—a bomb manufactory. It was there that the deadly missiles of the four students had been devised. Six more arrests were made in connection with this private arsenal. On the day following March 13, Gen. Trepoff had 15 prisoners in all on his hands. Each one represented a stage in the conspiracy the compositors and pressman who published the proc lamations the girl who distributed them the students who were to throw the bombs, and the men who manu factured the deadly missiles. The 15 were condemned to death, but, on the recommendation of the court, eight escaped hanging and were sentenced to penal servitude for life in Siberia. The czar learned all of these de tails later. On the evening of the 13th of March, as he entered the Winter palace, he was credited with say ing: "The people were very polite and re spectful. The details were nicely planned—and by the way, tell Trepoff I was pleased with the police arrange ments." (Copyright, 1908, by W. G. Chapman.) Home-Loving Montenegrins. Nowhere Is love of country more in tense than among the Montenegrins, to whom exile is the greatest of pun ishments. When W. J. Stillman was there in the seventies all the men were away fighting, and he observed that when a messenger was wanted the official took a man out of the prison and sent him off, with no fear that he would not return. One such messenger was sent to Cattaro, in Austrian territory, with a large sum of money for the bank, and he duly cam back. Another asked a Russian at Cattaro to intercede with Prince Nicholas for his release from prison. "But you are not in prison!" said the Russian. "Oh," said the man, "I have only come down for a load of skins for So-and-So, but I must go into prison again when I get back to Cettinje." One prison guard watched all the prisoners when they sunned them selves out of doors, and if he wias called away a prisoner would take his rifle and act as sentry for the time. American Teacher's Life in Japan. An American teacher, M!«s Helen Hyde, is now living in Japan and using the life there as material for her prints. Miss Hyde has her house and studio at Akasaka, where she lives in Japanese style, but still retains "all the comforts of home." Into the little Japanese house, with its bamboo frame, and walls of sliding screens, Miss Hyde has introduced the Ameri can push-button bell, American chairs (the Japanese prefer to sit upon floor mats), and even the unheard of luxury of an open grate fire. By designing most of her furniture herself, along Japanese lines, and having it made by Japanese workingmen out of their native material, Miss Hyde has made a house and studio equally compatible with American ideas of comfortable living and the Japanese standard of art. Gasoline Baths Win Divorce. Los Angeles, Cal.—Because gaso line was the only fluid she would use to wash their two children Cyrus San ford was granted a divorce from Min nie T. Sanford. "My wife," he says, "drenched a rag with the gasoline and in two minutes had given each of the children a bath. 'It takes too much time and is too much trouble to scrub those young ones with water,' she said. 'Gasoline is the quickest way to clean than with and the least trouble.'" TO APPEAL TO VARIOUS RACES. Missionaries Provide "Holy Families^ of Different Aspects. A colporteur, delivering a New Tfat address before a Sunday school, dis played a number of pictures and Images of the Holy Family. "Here is a Holy Family for export to China," he said. The children laughed, for the Mary of the group was a China woman, with dwarfed feet and slanting eyes Jo seph was sn old Chinaman with long, thin mustache and a queue the sacred infant had the flat nose and oblique eyes of China. "Here," said the colporteur, "is a Holy Family for the Congo people." The children laughed again. Mary was now fat and black, with woolly hair Joseph was a stalwart black war rior, a spear in his hand, a girdle ol feathers about his waist the infant, too, was black. "Our Holy Families for missionary use," the colporteur explained, "are always made in the likeness of the people they are to go among. Those simple and childlike people would be estranged by a white Holy Family. Only this sort shows them the Deity's real kinship with them selves." 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